Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Tea Petrović

15 An Approach to Noise Variance Estimation in Very Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio Stochastic Signals

Authors: Miljan B. Petrović, Dušan B. Petrović, Goran S. Nikolić


This paper describes a method for AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) variance estimation in noisy stochastic signals, referred to as Multiplicative-Noising Variance Estimation (MNVE). The aim was to develop an estimation algorithm with minimal number of assumptions on the original signal structure. The provided MATLAB simulation and results analysis of the method applied on speech signals showed more accuracy than standardized AR (autoregressive) modeling noise estimation technique. In addition, great performance was observed on very low signal-to-noise ratios, which in general represents the worst case scenario for signal denoising methods. High execution time appears to be the only disadvantage of MNVE. After close examination of all the observed features of the proposed algorithm, it was concluded it is worth of exploring and that with some further adjustments and improvements can be enviably powerful.

Keywords: noise, signal-to-noise ratio, stochastic signals, variance estimation

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14 Cardiac Pacemaker in a Patient Undergoing Breast Radiotherapy-Multidisciplinary Approach

Authors: B. Petrović, M. Petrović, L. Rutonjski, I. Djan, V. Ivanović


Objective: Cardiac pacemakers are very sensitive to radiotherapy treatment from two sources: electromagnetic influence from the medical linear accelerator producing ionizing radiation- influencing electronics within the pacemaker, and the absorption of dose to the device. On the other hand, patients with cardiac pacemakers at the place of a tumor are rather rare, and single clinic hardly has experience with the management of such patients. The widely accepted international guidelines for management of radiation oncology patients recommend that these patients should be closely monitored and examined before, during and after radiotherapy treatment by cardiologist, and their device and condition followed up. The number of patients having both cancer and pacemaker, is growing every year, as both cancer incidence, as well as cardiac diseases incidence, are inevitably growing figures. Materials and methods: Female patient, age 69, was diagnozed with valvular cardiomyopathy and got implanted a pacemaker in 2005 and prosthetic mitral valve in 1993 (cancer was diagnosed in 2012). She was stable cardiologically and came to radiation therapy department with the diagnosis of right breast cancer, with the tumor in upper lateral quadrant of the right breast. Since she had all lymph nodes positive (28 in total), she had to have irradiated the supraclavicular region, as well as the breast with the tumor bed. She previously received chemotherapy, approved by the cardiologist. The patient was estimated to be with the high risk as device was within the field of irradiation, and the patient had high dependence on her pacemaker. The radiation therapy plan was conducted as 3D conformal therapy. The delineated target was breast with supraclavicular region, where the pacemaker was actually placed, with the addition of a pacemaker as organ at risk, to estimate the dose to the device and its components as recommended, and the breast. The targets received both 50 Gy in 25 fractions (where 20% of a pacemaker received 50 Gy, and 60% of a device received 40 Gy). The electrode to the heart received between 1 Gy and 50 Gy. Verification of dose planned and delivered was performed. Results: Evaluation of the patient status according to the guidelines and especially evaluation of all associated risks to the patient during treatment was done. Patient was irradiated by prescribed dose and followed up for the whole year, with no symptoms of failure of the pacemaker device during, or after treatment in follow up period. The functionality of a device was estimated to be unchanged, according to the parameters (electrode impedance and battery energy). Conclusion: Patient was closely monitored according to published guidelines during irradiation and afterwards. Pacemaker irradiated with the full dose did not show any signs of failure despite recommendations data, but in correlation with other published data.

Keywords: cardiac pacemaker, breast cancer, radiotherapy treatment planning, complications of treatment

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13 Immunoglobulin G Glycosylation Profile in Influenza and COVID-19 Infected Patients

Authors: Marina Kljaković-Gašpić Batinjan, Tea Petrović, Frano Vučković, Irzal Hadžibegović, Barbara Radovani, Ivana Jurin, Lovorka Đerek, Eva Huljev, Alemka Markotić, Ivica Lukšić, Irena Trbojević-Akmačić, Gordan Lauc, Ivan Gudelj, Rok Čivljak


Immunoglobulin G has essential role in defense against infectious diseases, but its role cannot be fully recognized without understanding of changes in its N-glycans attached to the Fc domain. We analyzed and compared total IgG glycome in plasma samples of patients with influenza, patients with COVID-19 and healthy controls. We found similarities in IgG glycosylation changes in COVID-19 survivors and influenza patients that could be the consequence of adequate immune response to enveloped viruses, while observed changes in deceased COVID-19 patients may indicate its deviation.

Keywords: COVID-19, glycosylation, immunoglobulin G, influenza, pneumonia, viral infection

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12 Proteolysis in Serbian Traditional Dry Fermented Sausage Petrovská Klobása as Influenced by Different Ripening Processes

Authors: P. M. Ikonić, T. A. Tasić, L. S. Petrović, S. B. Škaljac, M. R. Jokanović, V. M. Tomović, B. V. Šojić, N. R. Džinić, A. M. Torbica, B. B. Ikonić


The aim of the study was to determine how different ripening processes (traditional vs. industrial) influenced the proteolysis in traditional Serbian dry-fermented sausage Petrovská klobása. The obtained results indicated more intensive pH decline (0.7 units after 9 days) in industrially ripened products (I), what had a positive impact on drying process and proteolytic changes in these samples. Thus, moisture content in I sausages was lower at each sampling time, amounting 24.7% at the end of production period (90 days). Likewise, the process of proteolysis was more pronounced in I samples, resulting in higher contents of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and free amino acids nitrogen (FAAN), as well as in faster and more intensive degradation of myosin (≈220 kDa), actin (≈45 kDa) and other polypeptides during processing. Consequently, the appearance and accumulation of several protein fragments were registered.

Keywords: dry-fermented sausage, Petrovská klobása, proteolysis, ripening process

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11 Physical Characteristics of Cookies Enriched with Microencapsulated Cherry Pomace Extract

Authors: Jovana Petrović, Ivana Lončarević, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Biljana Pajin, Danica Zarić


Pomace, a by-product from fruit processing industry is the potential source of valuable bioactive. Cookies are popular, ready to eat and low price foods; therefore, enrichment of these products is of great importance. In this work, bioactive compounds extracted from cherry pomace, encapsulated in soy and whey proteins, have been incorporated in cookies, replacing 10 (SP10 and WP10) and 15% of wheat flour (SP15 and WP15). Cookie geometry (diameter (D), thickness (T) and spread ratio (D/T)), cookie weight, cookie hardness and cookie surface colour were measured. Sensory characteristics are also examined. The results show that encapsulated cherry pomace bioactives have positively influenced the cookie mass. Diameter, redness (a* value) and cookie hardness increased. Sensory evaluation of cookies, revealed that up to 15% substitution of wheat flour with WP encapsulate produced acceptable cookies similar to the control (100% wheat flour) cookies.

Keywords: cherry pomace, polyphenols, microencapsulation, cookies, physical characteristics

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10 Effect of Packaging Methods and Storage Time on Oxidative Stability of Traditional Fermented Sausage

Authors: Vladimir M. Tomović, Branislav V. Šojić, Predrag M. Ikonić, Ljiljana S. Petrović, Anamarija I. Mandić, Natalija R. Džinić, Snežana B. Škaljac, Tatjana A. Tasić, Marija R. Jokanović


In this paper influence of packaging method (vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging) on lipid oxidative stability and sensory properties of odor and taste of the traditional sausage Petrovská klobása were examined. These parameters were examined during storage period (7 months). In the end of storage period, vacuum packed sausage showed better oxidative stability. Propanal content was significantly lower (P<0.05) in vacuum packed sausage compared to these values in unpacked and modified atmosphere packaging sausage. Hexanal content in vacuum packed sausage was 1.85 µg/g, in MAP sausage 2.98 µg/g and in unpacked sausage 4.94 µg/g. After 2 and 7 months of storage, sausages packed in vacuum had the highest grades for sensory properties of odor and taste.

Keywords: lipid oxidation, MAP, sensory properties, traditional sausage, vacuum

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9 Static Headspace GC Method for Aldehydes Determination in Different Food Matrices

Authors: A. Mandić, M. Sakač, A. Mišan, B. Šojić, L. Petrović, I. Lončarević, B. Pajin, I. Sedej


Aldehydes as secondary lipid oxidation products are highly specific to the oxidative degradation of particular polyunsaturated fatty acids present in foods. Gas chromatographic analysis of those volatile compounds has been widely used for monitoring of the deterioration of food products. Developed static headspace gas chromatography method using flame ionization detector (SHS GC FID) was applied to monitor the aldehydes present in processed foods such as bakery, meat and confectionary products. Five selected aldehydes were determined in samples without any sample preparation, except grinding for bakery and meat products. SHS–GC analysis allows the separation of propanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal and octanal, within 15min. Aldehydes were quantified in fresh and stored samples, and the obtained range of aldehydes in crackers was 1.62±0.05-9.95±0.05mg/kg, in sausages 6.62±0.46-39.16±0.39mg/kg; and in cocoa spread cream 0.48±0.01-1.13±0.02mg/kg. Referring to the obtained results, the following can be concluded, proposed method is suitable for different types of samples, content of aldehydes varies depending on the type of a sample, and differs in fresh and stored samples of the same type.

Keywords: lipid oxidation, aldehydes, crackers, sausage, cocoa cream spread

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8 The Emancipatory Methodological Approach to the Organizational Problems Management

Authors: Slavica P. Petrovic


One of the key dimensions of management problems in organizations refers to the relations between stakeholders. The management problems that are characterized by conflict and coercion, in which participants do not agree on the ends and means, in which different groups, i.e., individuals, strive to – using the power they have – impose on others their favoured strategy and decisions represent the relevant research subject. Creatively managing the coercive problems in organizations, in which the sources of power can be identified, implies the emancipatory paradigm and the use of corresponding systems methodology. The main research aim is to critically reassess the theoretical foundations and methodological and methodical development of Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) – as a valid representative of the emancipatory paradigm – in order to determine the conditions, ways, and achievements of its application in managing the coercive problems in organizations. The basic hypothesis is that CSH, as the emancipatory methodology, given its own theoretical foundations and methodological-methodical development, can be employed in a scientifically based and practically useful manner in creative addressing the coercive problems. The scientific instrumentarium corresponding to this research aim is critical systems thinking with its three key commitments to: a) Critical awareness of the strengths and weaknesses of each research instrument (theory, methodology, method, technique, model) for structuring the problem situations in organizations, b) Improvement of managing the coercive problems in organizations, and c) Pluralism – respect the different perceptions and interpretations of problem situations, and enable the combined use of research instruments. The relevant research result is that CSH – considering its theoretical foundations, methodological and methodical development – enables to reveal the normative content of the proposed or existing designs of organizational systems. Accordingly, it can be concluded that through the use of critically heuristic categories and dialectical debate between those involved and those affected by the designs, but who are not included in designing organizational systems, CSH endeavours to – in the application – support the process of improving position of all stakeholders.

Keywords: coercion and conflict in organizations, creative management, critical systems heuristics, the emancipatory systems methodology

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7 The Influence of Apple Pomace on Colour and Chemical Composition of Extruded Corn Snack Product

Authors: Jovana Petrovic, Biljana Pajin, Ivana Loncarevic, Aleksandar Fistes, Antun Jozinivic, Durdica Ackar, Drago Subaric


Recovery of food wastes and their conversion to economically viable products will play a vital role for the management strategies in the years to come. Apple pomace may be considered as wastes, but they contain considerable amounts of high value reusable materials. Apple pomace, the by-product of apple juice and cider production, is a good source of fibre, particularly insoluble one. The remaining apple pulp contains 12% dry residue, which is half dietary fibre. Another remarkable aspect is its richness in polyphenols, components with antioxidant activity. Apple pomace could be an interesting alternative source for fibre and polyphenols in extruded corn meals. The extruded corn meals with the addition of finely ground apple pomace were prepared (the ratio of corn meal: apple pomace was 85:15 and 70:30). Characterization of the extrudates in terms of determining the chemical composition and colour was performed. The color of samples was measured by MINOLTA Chroma Meter CR-400 (Minolta Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) using D 65 lighting, a 2º standard observer angle and an 8-mm aperture in the measuring head. The following CIELab color coordinates were determined: L* – lightness, a* – redness to greenness and b* – yellowness to blueness. Protein content decreased significantly from 7.91% to 5.19% with increase in pomace from 0% to 30%, while total fibre content increase from 3.39% to 16.62%. The apple pomace addition produced extrudates with a significantly lower L* value and significantly higher a* value. This study has been fully supported by the Provincial Secretariat for High Education and Scientific Research of the Government of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia, project 142-451-2483/2017 and the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Project no. 31014).

Keywords: apple pomace, chemical composition, colour, extruded corn snack products, food waste recovery

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6 Computation of Radiotherapy Treatment Plans Based on CT to ED Conversion Curves

Authors: B. Petrović, L. Rutonjski, M. Baucal, M. Teodorović, O. Čudić, B. Basarić


Radiotherapy treatment planning computers use CT data of the patient. For the computation of a treatment plan, treatment planning system must have an information on electron densities of tissues scanned by CT. This information is given by the conversion curve CT (CT number) to ED (electron density), or simply calibration curve. Every treatment planning system (TPS) has built in default CT to ED conversion curves, for the CTs of different manufacturers. However, it is always recommended to verify the CT to ED conversion curve before actual clinical use. Objective of this study was to check how the default curve already provided matches the curve actually measured on a specific CT, and how much it influences the calculation of a treatment planning computer. The examined CT scanners were from the same manufacturer, but four different scanners from three generations. The measurements of all calibration curves were done with the dedicated phantom CIRS 062M Electron Density Phantom. The phantom was scanned, and according to real HU values read at the CT console computer, CT to ED conversion curves were generated for different materials, for same tube voltage 140 kV. Another phantom, CIRS Thorax 002 LFC which represents an average human torso in proportion, density and two-dimensional structure, was used for verification. The treatment planning was done on CT slices of scanned CIRS LFC 002 phantom, for selected cases. Interest points were set in the lungs, and in the spinal cord, and doses recorded in TPS. The overall calculated treatment times for four scanners and default scanner did not differ more than 0.8%. Overall interest point dose in bone differed max 0.6% while for single fields was maximum 2.7% (lateral field). Overall interest point dose in lungs differed max 1.1% while for single fields was maximum 2.6% (lateral field). It is known that user should verify the CT to ED conversion curve, but often, developing countries are facing lack of QA equipment, and often use default data provided. We have concluded that the CT to ED curves obtained differ in certain points of a curve, generally in the region of higher densities. This influences the treatment planning result which is not significant, but definitely does make difference in the calculated dose.

Keywords: Computation of treatment plan, conversion curve, radiotherapy, electron density

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5 Structure-Reactivity Relationship of Some Rhᴵᴵᴵ and Osᴵᴵᴵ Complexes with N-Inert Ligands in Ionic Liquids

Authors: Jovana Bogojeski, Dusan Cocic, Nenad Jankovic, Angelina Petrovic


Kinetically-inert transition metal complexes, such as Rh(III) and Os(III) complexes, attract increasing attention as leading scaffolds for the development of potential pharmacological agents due to their inertness and stability. Therefore, we have designed and fully characterized a few novel rhodium(III) and osmium(III) complexes with a tridentate nitrogen−donor chelate system. For some complexes, the crystal X-ray structure analysis was performed. Reactivity of the newly synthesized complexes towards small biomolecules, such as L-methionine (L-Met), guanosine-5’-monophosphate (5’-GMP), and glutathione (GSH) has been examined. Also, the reactivity of these complexes towards the DNA/RNA (Ribonucleic acid) duplexes was investigated. Obtained results show that the newly synthesized complexes exhibit good affinity towards the studied ligands. Results also show that the complexes react faster with the RNA duplex than with the DNA and that in the DNA duplex reaction is faster with 15mer GG than with the 22mer GG. The UV-Vis (Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy) is absorption spectroscopy, and the EB (Ethidium bromide) displacement studies were used to examine the interaction of these complexes with CT-DNA and BSA (Bovine serum albumin). All studied complex showed good interaction ability with both the DNA and BSA. Furthermore, the DFT (Density-functional theory) calculation and docking studies were performed. The impact of the metal complex on the cytotoxicity was tested by MTT assay (a colorimetric assay for assessing cell metabolic activity) on HCT-116 lines (human colon cancer cell line). In addition, all these tests were repeated in the presence of several water-soluble biologically active ionic liquids. Attained results indicate that the ionic liquids increase the activity of the investigated complexes. All obtained results in this study imply that the introduction of different spectator ligand can be used to improve the reactivity of rhodium(III) and osmium(III) complexes. Finally, these results indicate that the examined complexes show reactivity characteristics needed for potential anti-tumor agents, with possible targets being both the DNA and proteins. Every new contribution in this field is highly warranted due to the current lack of clinically used Metallo-based alternatives to cisplatin.

Keywords: biomolecules, ionic liquids, osmium(III), rhodium(III)

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4 Sensory Characteristics of White Chocolate Enriched with Encapsulated Raspberry Juice

Authors: Ivana Loncarevic, Biljana Pajin, Jovana Petrovic, Danica Zaric, Vesna Tumbas Saponjac, Aleksandar Fistes


Chocolate is a food that activates pleasure centers in the human brain. In comparison to black and milk chocolate, white chocolate does not contain fat-free cocoa solids and thus lacks bioactive components. The aim of this study was to examine the sensory characteristics of enriched white chocolate with the addition of 10% of raspberry juice encapsulated in maltodextrins (denoted as encapsulate). Chocolate is primarily intended for enjoyment, and therefore, the sensory expectation is a critical factor for consumers when selecting a new type of chocolate. Consumer acceptance of chocolate depends primarily on the appearance and taste, but also very much on the mouthfeel, which mainly depends on the particle size of chocolate. Chocolate samples were evaluated by a panel of 8 trained panelists, food technologists, trained according to ISO 8586 (2012). Panelists developed the list of attributes to be used in this study: intensity of red color (light to dark); glow on the surface (mat to shiny); texture on snap (appearance of cavities or holes on the snap surface that are seen - even to gritty); hardness (hardness felt during the first bite of chocolate sample in half by incisors - soft to hard); melting (the time needed to convert solid chocolate into a liquid state – slowly to quickly); smoothness (perception of evenness of chocolate during melting - very even to very granular); fruitiness (impression of fruity taste - light fruity notes to distinct fruity notes); sweetness (organoleptic characteristic of pure substance or mixture giving sweet taste - lightly sweet to very sweet). The chocolate evaluation was carried out 24 h after sample preparation in the sensory laboratory, in partitioned booths, which were illuminated with fluorescent lights (ISO 8589, 2007). Samples were served in white plastic plates labeled with three-digit codes from a random number table. Panelist scored the perceived intensity of each attribute using a 7-point scale (1 = the least intensity and 7 = the most intensity) (ISO 4121, 2002). The addition of 10% of encapsulate had a big influence on chocolate color, where enriched chocolate got a nice reddish color. At the same time, the enriched chocolate sample had less intensity of gloss on the surface. The panelists noticed that addition of encapsulate reduced the time needed to convert solid chocolate into a liquid state, increasing its hardness. The addition of encapsulate had a significant impact on chocolate flavor. It reduced the sweetness of white chocolate and contributed to the fruity raspberry flavor.

Keywords: white chocolate, encapsulated raspberry juice, color, sensory characteristics

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3 The Impact of Encapsulated Raspberry Juice on the Surface Colour of Enriched White Chocolate

Authors: Ivana Loncarevic, Biljana Pajin, Jovana Petrovic, Aleksandar Fistes, Vesna Tumbas Saponjac, Danica Zaric


Chocolate is a complex rheological system usually defined as a suspension consisting of non-fat particles dispersed in cocoa butter as a continuous fat phase. Dark chocolate possesses polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated with beneficial effects. Milk chocolate is formulated with a lower percentage of cocoa bean liquor than dark chocolate and it often contains lower amounts of polyphenols, while in white chocolate the fat-free cocoa solids are left out completely. Following the current trend of development of functional foods, there is an idea to create enriched white chocolate with the addition of encapsulated bioactive compounds from berry fruits. The aim of this study was to examine the surface colour of enriched white chocolate with the addition of 6, 8, and 10% of raspberry juice encapsulated in maltodextrins, in order to preserve the stability, bioactivity, and bioavailability of the active ingredients. The surface color of samples was measured by MINOLTA Chroma Meter CR-400 (Minolta Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) using D 65 lighting, a 2º standard observer angle and an 8-mm aperture in the measuring head. The following CIELab color coordinates were determined: L* – lightness, a* – redness to greenness and b* – yellowness to blueness. The addition of raspberry encapsulates led to the creation of new type of enriched chocolate. Raspberry encapsulate changed the values of the lightness (L*), a* (red tone) and b* (yellow tone) measured on the surface of enriched chocolate in accordance with applied concentrations. White chocolate has significantly (p < 0.05) highest L* (74.6) and b* (20.31) values of all samples indicating the bright surface of the white chocolate, as well as a high share of a yellow tone. At the same time, white chocolate has the negative a* value (-1.00) on its surface which includes green tones. Raspberry juice encapsulate has the darkest surface with significantly (p < 0.05) lowest value of L* (42.75), where increasing of its concentration in enriched chocolates decreases their L* values. Chocolate with 6% of encapsulate has significantly (p < 0.05) highest value of L* (60.56) in relation to enriched chocolate with 8% of encapsulate (53.57), and 10% of encapsulate (51.01). a* value measured on the surface of white chocolate is negative (-1.00) tending towards green tones. Raspberry juice encapsulates increases red tone in enriched chocolates in accordance with the added amounts (23.22, 30.85, and 33.32 in enriched chocolates with 6, 8, and 10% encapsulated raspberry juice, respectively). The presence of yellow tones in enriched chocolates significantly (p < 0.05) decreases with the addition of E (with b* value 5.21), from 10.01 in enriched chocolate with a minimal amount of raspberry juice encapsulates to 8.91 in chocolate with a maximum concentration of raspberry juice encapsulate. The addition of encapsulated raspberry juice to white chocolate led to the creation of new type of enriched chocolate with attractive color. The research in this paper was conducted within the project titled ‘Development of innovative chocolate products fortified with bioactive compounds’ (Innovation Fund Project ID 50051).

Keywords: color, encapsulated raspberry juice, polyphenols, white chocolate

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2 Determinants of Quality of Life in Patients with Atypical Prarkinsonian Syndromes: 1-Year Follow-Up Study

Authors: Tatjana Pekmezovic, Milica Jecmenica-Lukic, Igor Petrovic, Vladimir Kostic


Background: A group of atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS) includes a variety of rare neurodegenerative disorders characterized by reduced life expectancy, increasing disability, and considerable impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Aim: In this study we wanted to answer two questions: a) which demographic and clinical factors are main contributors of HRQoL in our cohort of patients with APS, and b) how does quality of life of these patients change over 1-year follow-up period. Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study in hospital settings. The initial study comprised all consecutive patients who were referred to the Department of Movement Disorders, Clinic of Neurology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade (Serbia), from January 31, 2000 to July 31, 2013, with the initial diagnoses of ‘Parkinson’s disease’, ‘parkinsonism’, ‘atypical parkinsonism’ and ‘parkinsonism plus’ during the first 8 months from the appearance of first symptom(s). The patients were afterwards regularly followed in 4-6 month intervals and eventually the diagnoses were established for 46 patients fulfilling the criteria for clinically probable progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and 36 patients for probable multiple system atrophy (MSA). The health-related quality of life was assessed by using the SF-36 questionnaire (Serbian translation). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of composite scores of SF-36. The importance of changes in quality of life scores of patients with APS between baseline and follow-up time-point were quantified using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. The magnitude of any differences for the quality of life changes was calculated as an effect size (ES). Results: The final models of hierarchical regression analysis showed that apathy measured by the Apathy evaluation scale (AES) score accounted for 59% of the variance in the Physical Health Composite Score of SF-36 and 14% of the variance in the Mental Health Composite Score of SF-36 (p<0.01). The changes in HRQoL were assessed in 52 patients with APS who completed 1-year follow-up period. The analysis of magnitude for changes in HRQoL during one-year follow-up period have shown sustained medium ES (0.50-0.79) for both Physical and Mental health composite scores, total quality of life as well as for the Physical Health, Vitality, Role Emotional and Social Functioning. Conclusion: This study provides insight into new potential predictors of HRQoL and its changes over time in patients with APS. Additionally, identification of both prognostic markers of a poor HRQoL and magnitude of its changes should be considered when developing comprehensive treatment-related strategies and health care programs aimed at improving HRQoL and well-being in patients with APS.

Keywords: atypical parkinsonian syndromes, follow-up study, quality of life, APS

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1 [Keynote] Implementation of Quality Control Procedures in Radiotherapy CT Simulator

Authors: B. Petrović, L. Rutonjski, M. Baucal, M. Teodorović, O. Čudić, B. Basarić


Purpose/Objective: Radiotherapy treatment planning requires use of CT simulator, in order to acquire CT images. The overall performance of CT simulator determines the quality of radiotherapy treatment plan, and at the end, the outcome of treatment for every single patient. Therefore, it is strongly advised by international recommendations, to set up a quality control procedures for every machine involved in radiotherapy treatment planning process, including the CT scanner/ simulator. The overall process requires number of tests, which are used on daily, weekly, monthly or yearly basis, depending on the feature tested. Materials/Methods: Two phantoms were used: a dedicated phantom CIRS 062QA, and a QA phantom obtained with the CT simulator. The examined CT simulator was Siemens Somatom Definition as Open, dedicated for radiation therapy treatment planning. The CT simulator has a built in software, which enables fast and simple evaluation of CT QA parameters, using the phantom provided with the CT simulator. On the other hand, recommendations contain additional test, which were done with the CIRS phantom. Also, legislation on ionizing radiation protection requires CT testing in defined periods of time. Taking into account the requirements of law, built in tests of a CT simulator, and international recommendations, the intitutional QC programme for CT imulator is defined, and implemented. Results: The CT simulator parameters evaluated through the study were following: CT number accuracy, field uniformity, complete CT to ED conversion curve, spatial and contrast resolution, image noise, slice thickness, and patient table stability.The following limits are established and implemented: CT number accuracy limits are +/- 5 HU of the value at the comissioning. Field uniformity: +/- 10 HU in selected ROIs. Complete CT to ED curve for each tube voltage must comply with the curve obtained at comissioning, with deviations of not more than 5%. Spatial and contrast resultion tests must comply with the tests obtained at comissioning, otherwise machine requires service. Result of image noise test must fall within the limit of 20% difference of the base value. Slice thickness must meet manufacturer specifications, and patient stability with longitudinal transfer of loaded table must not differ of more than 2mm vertical deviation. Conclusion: The implemented QA tests gave overall basic understanding of CT simulator functionality and its clinical effectiveness in radiation treatment planning. The legal requirement to the clinic is to set up it’s own QA programme, with minimum testing, but it remains user’s decision whether additional testing, as recommended by international organizations, will be implemented, so to improve the overall quality of radiation treatment planning procedure, as the CT image quality used for radiation treatment planning, influences the delineation of a tumor and calculation accuracy of treatment planning system, and finally delivery of radiation treatment to a patient.

Keywords: CT simulator, radiotherapy, quality control, QA programme

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