Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Search results for: terminology

81 An Investigation on the Perception and Adoption of Terminology Management Applications by the Iranian English Language Translators

Authors: Abdul Amir Hazbavi


In recent years, there have been increasing requests in the field of translation studies to develop software facilitating the analysis of corpora. One of the specialized tools in that regard are Terminology Management Tools. Briefly explaining, Terminology Management Tools are applications developed to help create and store terminological data in the form which allows for a controlled use of the data. While it has a long history and an established ground in translation market in most parts of the globe, the Iranian translators and translation market still seem to be unaware or unfamiliar with Terminology Management Tools. In order to provide a preview on the perception and adoption of Terminology Management Tools by the Iranian translators, the present survey was carried out among 224 last-year undergraduate Iranian students of English translation at 10 different universities across the country. The study revealed a very low level of adoption and a very high level of willingness to get familiar with and learn about Terminology Management Tools by the Iranian translators.

Keywords: translation, translation technology, terminology management tools, terminology management survey

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80 Methodological Resolutions for Definition Problems in Turkish Navigation Terminology

Authors: Ayşe Yurdakul, Eckehard Schnieder


Nowadays, there are multilingual and multidisciplinary communication problems because of the increasing technical progress. Each technical field has its own specific terminology and in each particular language, there are differences in relation to definitions of terms. Besides, there could be several translations in the certain target language for one term of the source language. First of all, these problems of semantic relations between terms include the synonymy, antonymy, hypernymy/hyponymy, ambiguity, risk of confusion and translation problems. Therefore, the iglos terminology management system of the Institute for Traffic Safety and Automation Engineering of the Technische Universität Braunschweig has the goal to avoid these problems by a methodological standardisation of term definitions on the basis of the iglos sign model and iglos relation types. The focus of this paper should be on standardisation of navigation terminology as an example.

Keywords: iglos, localisation, methodological approaches, navigation, positioning, definition problems, terminology

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79 Solving Definition and Relation Problems in English Navigation Terminology

Authors: Ayşe Yurdakul, Eckehard Schnieder


Because of the growing multidisciplinarity and multilinguality, communication problems in different technical fields grows more and more. Therefore, each technical field has its own specific language, terminology which is characterised by the different definition of terms. In addition to definition problems, there are also relation problems between terms. Among these problems of relation, there are the synonymy, antonymy, hypernymy/hyponymy, ambiguity, risk of confusion, and translation problems etc. Thus, the terminology management system iglos of the Institute for Traffic Safety and Automation Engineering of the Technische Universität Braunschweig has the target to solve these problems by a methodological standardisation of term definitions with the aid of the iglos sign model and iglos relation types. The focus of this paper should be on solving definition and relation problems between terms in English navigation terminology.

Keywords: iglos, iglos sign model, methodological resolutions, navigation terminology, common language, technical language, positioning, definition problems, relation problems

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78 Quantification of the Variables of the Information Model for the Use of School Terminology from 1884 to 2014 in Dalmatia

Authors: Vinko Vidučić, Tanja Brešan Ančić, Marijana Tomelić Ćurlin


Prior to quantifying the variables of the information model for using school terminology in Croatia's region of Dalmatia from 1884 to 2014, the most relevant model variables had to be determined: historical circumstances, standard of living, education system, linguistic situation, and media. The research findings show that there was no significant transfer of the 1884 school terms into 1949 usage; likewise, the 1949 school terms were not widely used in 2014. On the other hand, the research revealed that the meaning of school terms changed over the decades. The quantification of the variables will serve as the groundwork for creating an information model for using school terminology in Dalmatia from 1884 to 2014 and for defining direct growth rates in further research.

Keywords: education system, historical circumstances, linguistic situation, media, school terminology, standard of living

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77 The Impact of Different Extra-Linguistic and Intro–Linguistic Factors of Contemporary Albanian Technical Terminology

Authors: Gani Pllana, Sadete Pllana, Albulena Pllana Breznica


The history of appearance and development of technical fields in our country sheds light on the relationships they have entered into with social factors indicating what kinds of factors have prevailed in their appearance and development. Thus, for instance, at the end of the 19th century, a number of knowledge fields were stipulated by political factors, cultural and linguistic factors that are inextricably linked to our nation's efforts to arouse national consciousness through the growth of educational and cultural level of the people. Some sciences, through their fundamental special fields probably would be one of those factors that would accomplish this objective. Other factors were the opening of schools and the drafting of relevant textbooks thereby their accomplishment is to be achieved by means of written language. Therefore the first fundamental knowledge fields were embodied with them, such as mathematics, linguistics, geography.

Keywords: Albanian language, development of terminology, standardization of terminology, technical fields

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76 Specialized Building Terminology of the 19th Century

Authors: Klara Kroftova, Martin Ebel


Human history is characterized by continuous evolution. As mankind developed, so did crafts, doctrine, and, of course, language. Each field of human activity, science, and art or architecture has its own vocabulary, terms with its specific, well-defined meaning. These are words or phrases that may have a general meaning in a certain context, but which, when used in specific contexts, are characterized by their expertise. The development of architecture in this area is, therefore, closely related to the development of architecture. People discovered new building materials, building constructions, decorating, furnishings, etc. and with each new knowledge came a new name. Architecture and construction were specific to individual nations, but throughout human history, they were also copied differently from other nations. Thus, the terminology of the Czech language was established, but also adopted from foreign languages. In this paper, we will focus on the linguistic analysis of terms that we most often encounter in the study of 19th-century architecture in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. The article is supplemented by a small picture dictionary.

Keywords: tenement houses, 19th century, terminology, Austro-Hungarian monarchy

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75 Objectives of the Standardization of Technical Terminology Nowadays in Albanian

Authors: Gani Pllana


In the conditions of the rapid development of technics and technology in recent years, the cooperation of the scientific-technical language with the standard Albanian language is continuing with a higher intensity than before. We notice a vigor of enrichment in the vocabulary of technical terminology, due to the birth and formation of new fields and subfields of technics, technology, as computing, mechatronics, telemetry, a multitude of concepts many of which, on the one hand, are marked with names of the languages they come from, mainly from English, but on the other hand, they meet their needs with the lexical mother tongue composition (by common words being raised to terms) and with the activation of other layers, such as compound word terms. Thus, for example, in the field of computing, we notice in it the inclusion of the ordinary vocabulary for reproductive reasons, like mi, dritare, flamur, adresë, skedar (Engl: mouse, window, flag, address, file), and along with them, the compound word terms, serving to differentiate relevant concepts, like, adresë e hiperlidhjes, adresë e uebit, adresë relative, adresë virtuale (Engl. address hyperlink, web address, relative address, virtual address) etc.

Keywords: common words, Albanian language, technical terminology, standardization

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74 Translation and Legal Terminology: Techniques for Coping with the Untranslatability of Legal Terms between Arabic and English

Authors: Rafat Alwazna


Technical lexicon is witnessing a large upsurge in the use of new terminologies whose emergence is an inevitable result of the spread of high-quality technology, the existence of scientific paradigms and the fast growth of research in different disciplines. One important subfield of terminology is legal terminology, which forms a crucial part of legal studies, and whose translation from one legal system into another is deemed a formidable and arduous task that needs to be properly performed by legal translators. Indeed, the issue of untranslatability of legal terms, particularly between originally unrelated languages, like legal Arabic and legal English, has long been a real challenge in legal translation. It stems from the conceptual incongruency between legal terms of different legal languages, which are derived from different legal cultures and legal systems. Such conceptual asymmetry is owing to the fact that law has no universal reference and that legal language is what determines the degree of difference in conceptual correspondence. The present paper argues that although conceptual asymmetry, which is the main reason for the issue of untranslatability of legal terms, cannot be denied in legal translation, there exist certain translation techniques which, if properly adopted, would resolve the issue of untranslatability of legal terms and therefore achieve acceptable legal translation. Hence, the question of untranslatability of legal terms should no longer exist within the context of legal translation.

Keywords: conceptual incongruency, Legal terms, translation techniques, untranslatability

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73 Exploring the Effect of Nursing Students’ Self-Directed Learning and Technology Acceptance through the Use of Digital Game-Based Learning in Medical Terminology Course

Authors: Hsin-Yu Lee, Ming-Zhong Li, Wen-Hsi Chiu, Su-Fen Cheng, Shwu-Wen Lin


Background: The use of medical terminology is essential to professional nurses on clinical practice. However, most nursing students consider traditional lecture-based teaching of medical terminology as boring and overly conceptual and lack motivation to learn. It is thus an issue to be discussed on how to enhance nursing students’ self-directed learning and improve learning outcomes of medical terminology. Digital game-based learning is a learner-centered way of learning. Past literature showed that the most common game-based learning for language education has been immersive games and teaching games. Thus, this study selected role-playing games (RPG) and digital puzzle games for observation and comparison. It is interesting to explore whether digital game-based learning has positive impact on nursing students’ learning of medical terminology and whether students can adapt well on this type of learning. Results can be used to provide references for institutes and teachers on teaching medical terminology. These instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for the conference. Use this document as a template if you are using Microsoft Word. Otherwise, use this document as an instruction set. The electronic file of your paper will be formatted further at WASET. Define all symbols used in the abstract. Do not cite references in the abstract. Do not delete the blank line immediately above the abstract; it sets the footnote at the bottom of this column. Page margins are 1,78 cm top and down; 1,65 cm left and right. Each column width is 8,89 cm and the separation between the columns is 0,51 cm. Objective: The purpose of this research is to explore respectively the impact of RPG and puzzle game on nursing students’ self-directed learning and technology acceptance. The study further discusses whether different game types bring about different influences on students’ self-directed learning and technology acceptance. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was adopted in this study so that repeated measures between two groups could be conveniently conducted. 103 nursing students from a nursing college in Northern Taiwan participated in the study. For three weeks of experiment, the experiment group (n=52) received “traditional teaching + RPG” while the control group (n=51) received “traditional teaching + puzzle games”. Results: 1. On self-directed learning: For each game type, there were significant differences for the delayed tests of both groups as compared to the pre and post-tests of each group. However, there were no significant differences between the two game types. 2. On technology acceptance: For the experiment group, after the intervention of RPG, there were no significant differences concerning technology acceptance. For the control group, after the intervention of puzzle games, there were significant differences regarding technology acceptance. Pearson-correlation coefficient and path analysis conducted on the results of the two groups revealed that the dimension were highly correlated and reached statistical significance. Yet, the comparison of technology acceptance between the two game types did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion and Recommend: This study found that through using different digital games on learning, nursing students have effectively improved their self-directed learning. Students’ technology acceptances were also high for the two different digital game types and each dimension was significantly correlated. The results of the experimental group showed that through the scenarios of RPG, students had a deeper understanding of medical terminology, which reached the ‘Understand’ dimension of Bloom’s taxonomy. The results of the control group indicated that digital puzzle games could help students memorize and review medical terminology, which reached the ‘Remember’ dimension of Bloom’s taxonomy. The findings suggest that teachers of medical terminology could use digital games to assist their teaching according to their goals on cognitive learning. Adequate use of those games could help improve students’ self-directed learning and further enhance their learning outcome on medical terminology.

Keywords: digital game-based learning, medical terminology, nursing education, self-directed learning, technology acceptance model

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72 The Efficiency of the Use of Medical Bilingual Dictionary in English Language Teaching in Vocational College

Authors: Zorana Jurinjak, Christos Alexopoulos


The aim of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of using a medical bilingual dictionary in teaching English in a vocational college. More precisely, to what extent the use of bilingual medical dictionary in relation to the use of Standard English bilingual dictionaries influences the results on tests, and thus the acquisition of better competence of students mastering the subject terminology. Secondary interest in this paper would be to raise awareness among students and teachers about the advantages of dictionary use. The experiment was conducted at College of Applied Health Sciences in Ćuprija on a sample of 90 students. The respondents translated three medical texts with 42 target terms. Statistical analyses of the data obtained show that the differences in average time and correct answers favor the students who used medical dictionary.

Keywords: bilingual medical dictionary, standard english bilingual dictionary, medical terminology, EOS, ESP

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71 Nurse's Use of Power to Standardize Nursing Terminology in Electronic Health Record

Authors: Samira Ali


Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe nurses’ potential use of power levels to influence the standardization of nursing terminology (SNT) in electronic health records. Also, to examine the relationship between nurses’ use of power levels and variables such as position, communication and the potential goal of achieving SNT in electronic health records. Background: In an era of evidence-based nursing care, with an emphasis on nursing’s ability to measure the care rendered and improve outcomes of care, little is known about the nurse’s potential use of their power to SNT in electronic health records and lack of use of an SNT in electronic health records. Method: This descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional study was conducted using survey methodology to assess the nurse’s use of power to influence the SNT in electronic health records. The Theory of Group Power within Organizations (TGPO) provided the conceptual framework for this study. A total of (n=232) nurses responded to the survey, posted on three nursing organizations’ websites. Results revealed the mean Cronbach’s alpha of the subscales was .94, suggesting high internal consistency. The mean power capability score was moderately high, at 134.22 (SD = 18.49). Power Capacity was significantly correlated with Power Capability (r = .96, p < .001). Power Capacity subscales were significantly correlated with Power Capacity and Power Capability. Conclusion: The mean Cronbach’s alpha of the subscales was .94 suggestive of reliability of the instrument. Nurses could potentially use power to achieve their goals, such as the implementation of SNT in electronic health records.

Keywords: nurses, power, actualized power, nursing terminology, electronic health records

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70 Arabicization and Terminology with Reference to Social Media Terms

Authors: Ahmed Al-Awthan


This study addresses the prevalence of English terminology in published Arabic documentation on social media. Although the problem of using English terms in translation instead of existing native ones has been addressed in general by researchers around the world, to the best of the author’s knowledge the attitude of the translators as professionals to this phenomenon in Qatar and Yemen has not received a detailed study. This study examines the impact of the use of English, social media terms in the Arab world on aspiring and professional translators; it explores the benefits and drawbacks of linguistic borrowing as identified by the translators and investigates whether translators consider any means of resisting linguistic borrowing and prioritizing Arabic. It also aims to answer the following questions: i. Is there any prevalence of English, social media terms in Arabic translation? Why or why not? ii. Do Arabic translators prefer using English, social media terms to their equivalents in Arabic? If so, why? iii. Which measures could be adopted to help reduce the frequently observed borrowing of English terms? In particular, how do translators see the role of the Arabic Language Academies in preserving Arabic? iv. This research is descriptive, comparative and analytical in nature. It is both qualitative and quantitative. To validate the problem, the researcher will analyze articles published by Al-Jazeera in 2016-2018 that refer to the use of social media in diplomacy. It will be examined whether the increased international discussion of political events in social media increased the amount of transliterated English terminology referring to this mode of communication.To investigate whether the translators recognize the phenomenon of borrowing, the researcher proposes to use a survey. This survey will use multiple choice questions. It will target 20 aspiring translators from Yemen and 20 participants from Qatar. It will offer 15 English, social media terms used in discourse in 15 sentences. For each sentence, the researcher will provide three different translations and will ask the translators to rate them and offer their rendition. After collecting all the answers online, the researcher will analyze the data. The results are expected to confirm whether there is a prevalence of English terms in translating into Arabic. It is also expected to show what measures the translators used to render the English, social media terms, and it raises awareness of borrowing English terms. It will guide the translator toward using Arabicization methods in order to contribute to preserving Arabic.

Keywords: Arabicization, trans lingual borrowing, social media terms, terminology

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69 The Second Smallest Eigenvalue of Complete Tripartite Hypergraph

Authors: Alfi Y. Zakiyyah, Hanni Garminia, M. Salman, A. N. Irawati


In the terminology of the hypergraph, there is a relation with the terminology graph. In the theory of graph, the edges connected two vertices. In otherwise, in hypergraph, the edges can connect more than two vertices. There is representation matrix of a graph such as adjacency matrix, Laplacian matrix, and incidence matrix. The adjacency matrix is symmetry matrix so that all eigenvalues is real. This matrix is a nonnegative matrix. The all diagonal entry from adjacency matrix is zero so that the trace is zero. Another representation matrix of the graph is the Laplacian matrix. Laplacian matrix is symmetry matrix and semidefinite positive so that all eigenvalues are real and non-negative. According to the spectral study in the graph, some that result is generalized to hypergraph. A hypergraph can be represented by a matrix such as adjacency, incidence, and Laplacian matrix. Throughout for this term, we use Laplacian matrix to represent a complete tripartite hypergraph. The aim from this research is to determine second smallest eigenvalues from this matrix and find a relation this eigenvalue with the connectivity of that hypergraph.

Keywords: connectivity, graph, hypergraph, Laplacian matrix

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68 Overview of Resources and Tools to Bridge Language Barriers Provided by the European Union

Authors: Barbara Heinisch, Mikael Snaprud


A common, well understood language is crucial in critical situations like landing a plane. For e-Government solutions, a clear and common language is needed to allow users to successfully complete transactions online. Misunderstandings here may not risk a safe landing but can cause delays, resubmissions and drive costs. This holds also true for higher education, where misunderstandings can also arise due to inconsistent use of terminology. Thus, language barriers are a societal challenge that needs to be tackled. The major means to bridge language barriers is translation. However, achieving high-quality translation and making texts understandable and accessible require certain framework conditions. Therefore, the EU and individual projects take (strategic) actions. These actions include the identification, collection, processing, re-use and development of language resources. These language resources may be used for the development of machine translation systems and the provision of (public) services including higher education. This paper outlines some of the existing resources and indicate directions for further development to increase the quality and usage of these resources.

Keywords: language resources, machine translation, terminology, translation

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67 Term Creation in Specialized Fields: An Evaluation of Shona Phonetics and Phonology Terminology at Great Zimbabwe University

Authors: Peniah Mabaso-Shamano


The paper evaluates Shona terms that were created to teach Phonetics and Phonology courses at Great Zimbabwe University (GZU). The phonetics and phonology terms to be discussed in this paper were created using different processes and strategies such as translation, borrowing, neologising, compounding, transliteration, circumlocution among many others. Most phonetics and phonology terms are alien to Shona and as a result, there are no suitable Shona equivalents. The lecturers and students for these courses have a mammoth task of creating terminology for the different modules offered in Shona and other Zimbabwean indigenous languages. Most linguistic reference books are written in English. As such, lecturers and students translate information from English to Shona, a measure which is proving to be too difficult for them. A term creation workshop was held at GZU to try to address the problem of lack of terminology in indigenous languages. Different indigenous language practitioners from different tertiary institutions convened for a two-day workshop at GZU. Due to the 'specialized' nature of phonetics and phonology, it was too difficult to come up with 'proper' indigenous terms. The researcher will consult tertiary institutions lecturers who teach linguistics courses and linguistics students to get their views on the created terms. The people consulted will not be the ones who took part in the term creation workshop held at GZU. The selected participants will be asked to evaluate and back-translate some of the terms. In instances where they feel the terms created are not suitable or user-friendly, they will be asked to suggest other terms. Since the researcher is also a linguistics lecturer, her observation and views will be important. From her experience in using some of the terms in teaching phonetics and phonology courses to undergraduate students, the researcher noted that most of the terms created have shortcomings since they are not user-friendly. These shortcomings include terms longer than the English terms as some terms are translated to Shona through a whole statement. Most of these terms are neologisms, compound neologisms, transliterations, circumlocutions, and blends. The paper will show that there is overuse of transliterated terms due to the lack of Shona equivalents for English terms. Most single English words were translated into compound neologisms or phrases after attempts to reduce them to one word terms failed. In other instances, circumlocution led to the problem of creating longer terms than the original and as a result, the terms are not user-friendly. The paper will discuss and evaluate the different phonetics and phonology terms created and the different strategies and processes used in creating them.

Keywords: blending, circumlocution, term creation, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
66 Gender Stereotypes in Reproductive Medicine with Regard to Parental Age

Authors: Monika Michałowska, Anna Alichniewicz


Detrimental outcomes of advanced maternal age on the chances of fertilization, pregnancy as well as mother and fetus health have been recognized for several decades. It seemed interesting to investigate whether there is a comparable awareness of the detrimental influence on the reproductive outcomes of late fatherhood, given that it has been already ten years since an intense and growing interest concerning later-age fatherhood commenced in medical research. To address that issue a two-step research was done. First, we performed a review of the subject literature to answer the following questions: 1) What age is defined as advanced?; 2) Is the same age defined as advanced in both genders?; 3) What terminology concerning age issues is used?; 4) Is the same age terminology used regarding both genders? The second part of our studies was devoted to the views of medical students. This part of our research comprised both quantitative and qualitative studies. Opinions of medical students in one of the Polish medical universities on several issues connected with assisted reproduction technology (ART) were gathered: 1) students’ attitude to in vitro fertilization (IVF) for women over 40 and for postmenopausal women; 2) students’ attitude to late fatherhood; 3) students’ reasoning given against acceptability of IVF procedure for all of these group of patients involved in an IVF procedure. Our analyses revealed that: First, there is no universal definition of the term ‘advanced age’; secondly, there is a general tendency to adopt different age limits depending on whether they refer to maternal or paternal age, but no justification is provided by the researchers explaining why they set different age limits for women and men; thirdly, the image of postponed fatherhood stands in stark contrast to postponed motherhood - while postponed fatherhood is frequently portrayed as a reasonable and conscious decision enabling a stable family environment for a child, the reasonableness of postponed motherhood is often questioned; finally, the bias regarding maternal versus paternal age is deeply embedded in medical students’ attitude to IVF for women over 40 and for postmenopausal women.

Keywords: gender stereotypes, reproductive medicine, maternal age, paternal age

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65 Methodological Issues of Teaching Vocabulary in a Technical University

Authors: Elza Salakhova


The purpose of this article is to consider some common difficulties encountered in teaching vocabulary in technical higher educational institutions. It deals with the problem of teaching special vocabulary in the process of teaching a foreign language. There have been analyzed some problems in teaching a foreign language to learners of a technical higher establishment. There are some recommendations for teachers to motivate their students to learn and master a foreign language through learning terminology.

Keywords: professionally-oriented study, motivation, technical university, foreign language

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
64 Unravelling the Knot: Towards a Definition of ‘Digital Labor’

Authors: Marta D'Onofrio


The debate on the digitalization of the economy has raised questions about how both labor and the regulation of work processes are changing due to the introduction of digital technologies in the productive system. Within the literature, the term ‘digital labor’ is commonly used to identify the impact of digitalization on labor. Despite the wide use of this term, it is still not available an unambiguous definition of it, and this could create confusion in the use of terminology and in the attempts of classification. As a consequence, the purpose of this paper is to provide for a definition and to propose a classification of ‘digital labor’, resorting to the theoretical approach of organizational studies.

Keywords: digital labor, digitalization, data-driven algorithms, big data, organizational studies

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
63 Home Education in the Australian Context

Authors: Abeer Karaali


This paper will seek to clarify important key terms such as home schooling and home education as well as the legalities attached to such terms. It will reflect on the recent proposed changes to terminology in NSW, Australia. The various pedagogical approaches to home education will be explored including their prominence in the Australian context. There is a strong focus on literature from Australia. The historical background of home education in Australia will be explained as well as the difference between distance education and home education. The statistics related to home education in Australia will be explored in the scope and compared to the US. The future of home education in Australia will be discussed.

Keywords: alternative education, e-learning, home education, home schooling, online resources, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
62 Motion Effects of Arabic Typography on Screen-Based Media

Authors: Ibrahim Hassan


Motion typography is one of the most important types of visual communication based on display. Through the digital display media, we can control the text properties (size, direction, thickness, color, etc.). The use of motion typography in visual communication made it have several images. We need to adjust the terminology and clarify the different differences between them, so relying on the word motion typography -considered a general term- is not enough to separate the different communicative functions of the moving text. In this paper, we discuss the different effects of motion typography on Arabic writing and how we can achieve harmony between the movement and the letterform, and we will, during our experiments, present a new type of text movement.

Keywords: Arabic typography, motion typography, kinetic typography, fluid typography, temporal typography

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61 Principles and Guidance for the Last Days of Life: Te Ara Whakapiri

Authors: Tania Chalton


In June 2013, an independent review of the Liverpool Care Pathway (LCP) identified a number of problems with the implementation of the LCP in the UK and recommended that it be replaced by individual care plans for each patient. As a result of the UK findings, in November 2013 the Ministry of Health (MOH) commissioned the Palliative Care Council to initiate a programme of work to investigate an appropriate approach for the care of people in their last days of life in New Zealand (NZ). The Last Days of Life Working Group commenced a process to develop national consensus on the care of people in their last days of life in April 2014. In order to develop its advice for the future provision of care to people in their last days of life, the Working Group (WG) established a comprehensive work programme and as a result has developed a series of working papers. Specific areas of focus included: An analysis of the UK Independent Review findings and an assessment of these findings to the NZ context. A stocktake of services providing care to people in their last days of life, including aged residential care (ARC); hospices; hospitals; and primary care. International and NZ literature reviews of evidence and best practice. Survey of family to understand the consumer perspective on the care of people in their last days of life. Key aspects of care that required further considerations for NZ were: Terminology: clarify terminology used in the last days of life and in relation to death and dying. Evidenced based: including specific review of evidence regarding, spiritual, culturally appropriate care as well as dementia care. Diagnosis of dying: need for both guidance around the diagnosis of dying and communication with family. Workforce issues: access to an appropriate workforce after hours. Nutrition and hydration: guidance around appropriate approaches to nutrition and hydration. Symptom and pain management: guidance around symptom management. Documentation: documentation of the person’s care which is robust enough for data collection and auditing requirements, not ‘tick box’ approach to care. Education and training: improved consistency and access to appropriate education and training. Leadership: A dedicated team or person to support and coordinate the introduction and implementation of any last days of life model of care. Quality indicators and data collection: model of care to enable auditing and regular reviews to ensure on-going quality improvement. Cultural and spiritual: address and incorporate any cultural and spiritual aspects. A final document was developed incorporating all the evidence which provides guidance to the health sector on best practice for people at end of life: “Principles and guidance for the last days of life: Te Ara Whakapiri”.

Keywords: end of life, guidelines, New Zealand, palliative care

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60 Fabric Drapemeter Development towards the Analysis of Its Behavior in 3-D Design

Authors: Aida Sheeta, M. Nashat Fors, Sherwet El Gholmy, Marwa Issa


Globalization has raised the customer preferences not only towards the high-quality garments but also the right fitting, comfort and aesthetic apparels. This only can be accomplished by the good interaction between fabric mechanical and physical properties as well as the required style. Consequently, this paper provides an integrated review of the fabric drape terminology because it is considered as an essential feature in which the fabric can form folds with the help of the gravity. Moreover, an instrument has been fabricated in order to analyze the static and dynamic drape behaviors using different fabric types. In addition, the obtained results find out the parameters affecting the drape coefficient using digital image processing for various kind of commercial fabrics. This was found to be an essential first step in order to analyze the behavior of this fabric when it is fabricated in a certain 3-D garment design.

Keywords: cloth fitting, fabric drape nodes, garment silhouette, image processing

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59 An Unusual Fracture Pattern: Fracture of the Distal Radius (Colles') along with Fracture of the Ipsilateral Scaphoid & Capitate Bones

Authors: Srikanta Tagore Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar Mandal, Dibakar Roy


The association of a capitate fracture with a scaphoid fracture has been termed as the naviculocapitate syndrome. The existence of some nondisplaced fractures of scaphoid and capitate with or without the fracture of lunate or radius suggests that there is a spectrum of these injuries, and this confuses the terminology. With our case; we report an unusual variety of this naviculocapitate syndrome with distal radial Colles fracture in addition to the nondisplaced fractures of the scaphoid, capitate and the dorsal lip of radial fracture. When we looked at the literature there is no another Colles fracture reported together with undisplaced scapho-capitate syndrome. The coronal and sagittal images that obtained from the MDCT (Multidetector computed tomography) is useful and effective imaging modality to diagnose complex wrist fractures with more details that are not detected in X-rays.

Keywords: scaphoid, capitate, Colles’ fracture, syndrome, MDCT, unusual

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
58 Value from Environmental and Cultural Perspectives or Two Sides of the Same Coin

Authors: Vilem Paril, Dominika Tothova


This paper discusses the value theory in cultural heritage and the value theory in environmental economics. Two economic views of the value theory are compared within the field of cultural heritage maintenance and within the field of the environment. The main aims are to find common features in these two differently structured theories under the layer of differently defined terms as well as really differing features of these two approaches, to clear the confusion which stems from different terminology as in fact these terms capture the same aspects of reality and to show possible inspiration these two perspectives can offer one another. Another aim is to present these two value systems in one value framework. First, important moments of the value theory from the economic perspective are presented, leading to the marginal revolution of (not only) the Austrian School. Then the theory of value within cultural heritage and environmental economics are explored. Finally, individual approaches are compared and their potential mutual inspiration searched for.

Keywords: cultural heritage, environmental economics, existence value, value theory

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57 The Tense Dichotomy Between Shari'ah Compliance and the Goals of an Economic Bank

Authors: Camille Paldi


The tense dichotomy between Shari’ah compliance and the economic goals of an Islamic Bank produces a proliferation of reverse engineered products, which are barely in compliance with Islamic law. The result is basically a hybrid conventional banking system with conventional products in Islamic disguise using Arabic and Islamic terminology. Many Islamic financial professionals and academics advocate for the use of conventional products and devices despite their non-Shari’ah compliance based on commercial necessity and the need to compete. However, this dangerous trend will lead to the demise of the Islamic finance industry. Rather than thoughtlessly following conventional products and practice, Islamic finance professionals should delve into the Shari’ah to find the answers to the current Islamic banking conundrum and lead the industry on the right path of developing Shari’ah based products and using Shari’ah devices to hedge risk.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Shari'ah, finance, investment

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56 The Play Translator’s Score Developing: Methodology for Intercultural Communication

Authors: Akhmylovskaia Larisa, Barysh Andriana


The present paper is introducing the translation score developing methodology and methods in the cross-cultural communication. The ideas and examples presented by the authors illustrate the universal character of translation score developing methods under analysis. Personal experience in the international theatre-making projects, opera laboratories, cross-cultural master-classes, movie and theatre festivals give more opportunities to single out the conditions, forms, means and principles of translation score developing as well as the translator/interpreter’s functions as cultural liaison for multiethnic collaboration.

Keywords: methodology of translation score developing, pre-production, analysis, production, post-production, ethnic scene theory, theatre anthropology, laboratory, master-class, educational project, academic project, Stanislavski terminology meta-language, super-objective, participant observation

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55 A POX Controller Module to Prepare a List of Flow Header Information Extracted from SDN Traffic

Authors: Wisam H. Muragaa, Kamaruzzaman Seman, Mohd Fadzli Marhusin


Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a paradigm designed to facilitate the way of controlling the network dynamically and with more agility. Network traffic is a set of flows, each of which contains a set of packets. In SDN, a matching process is performed on every packet coming to the network in the SDN switch. Only the headers of the new packets will be forwarded to the SDN controller. In terminology, the flow header fields are called tuples. Basically, these tuples are 5-tuple: the source and destination IP addresses, source and destination ports, and protocol number. This flow information is used to provide an overview of the network traffic. Our module is meant to extract this 5-tuple with the packets and flows numbers and show them as a list. Therefore, this list can be used as a first step in the way of detecting the DDoS attack. Thus, this module can be considered as the beginning stage of any flow-based DDoS detection method.

Keywords: matching, OpenFlow tables, POX controller, SDN, table-miss

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54 Mathematical Modeling of Human Cardiovascular System: A Lumped Parameter Approach and Simulation

Authors: Ketan Naik, P. H. Bhathawala


The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical model of Human Cardiovascular System using lumped parameter method. The model is divided in three parts: Systemic Circulation, Pulmonary Circulation and the Heart. The established mathematical model has been simulated by MATLAB software. The innovation of this study is in describing the system based on the vessel diameters and simulating mathematical equations with active electrical elements. Terminology of human physical body and required physical data like vessel’s radius, thickness etc., which are required to calculate circuit parameters like resistance, inductance and capacitance, are proceeds from well-known medical books. The developed model is useful to understand the anatomic of human cardiovascular system and related syndromes. The model is deal with vessel’s pressure and blood flow at certain time.

Keywords: cardiovascular system, lumped parameter method, mathematical modeling, simulation

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53 The Early Stages of the Standardisation of Finnish Building Sector

Authors: Anu Soikkeli


Early 20th century functionalism aimed at generalising living and rationalising construction, thus laying the foundation for the standardisation of construction components and products. From the 1930s onwards, all measurement and quality instructions for building products, different types of building components, descriptions of working methods complying with advisable building practises, planning, measurement and calculation guidelines, terminology, etc. were called standards. Standardisation was regarded as a necessary prerequisite for the mass production of housing. This article examines the early stages of standardisation in Finland in the 1940s and 1950s, as reflected on the working history of an individual architect, Erkki Koiso-Kanttila (1914-2006). In 1950 Koiso-Kanttila was appointed the Head of Design of the Finnish Association of Architects’ Building Standards Committee, a position which he held until 1958. His main responsibilities were the development of the RT Building Information File and compiling of the files.

Keywords: architecture, post WWII period, reconstruction, standardisation

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52 From Modern to Contemporary Art: Transformations of Art Market in Istanbul

Authors: Cem Ozatalay, Senem Ornek


The Artprice Contemporary Art Market Annual Report 2014 notices that Istanbul, with its art market volume of $3.6 million has become the first city of the Middle East and North Africa region and the 14th city of the World. Indeed, the period 2004–2014 has been significant in terms of the growth of the art market, during which the majority of contemporary art galleries and museums in Istanbul was inaugurated. This boom means that with the joining of new agents, the structure of the art market has dramatically changed. To use Nathalie Heinich’s terminology, in the current art field, three art genres – namely classical art, modern art and contemporary art – coexist, but in the case of Istanbul, such as many art cities in the world, the latter genre has become increasingly dominant. This presentation aims to show how the power shifts away from the classical art agents to contemporary art agents, and the effects produced by the conflicts between the old and new agents of current art field. Based on the data obtained from an ongoing field research in Istanbul among the art market agents such as art dealers, curators, art critics and artists, it will be shown that even if the agents of different art genres are in conflict with each other, there is, at the same time, a continuum between the three art worlds.

Keywords: contemporary art market, economic sociology of art, Istanbul art market, structure of the art field in Istanbul

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