Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: intimacy

40 The Role of Attachment and Dyadic Coping in Shaping Relational Intimacy

Authors: Anna Wendolowska, Dorota Czyzowska

Abstract:

An intimate relationship is a significant factor that influences romantic partners’ well-being. In the face of stress, avoidant partners often employ a defense-against-intimacy strategy, leading to reduced relationship satisfaction, intimacy, interdependence, and longevity. Dyadic coping can buffer the negative effects of stress on relational satisfaction. Emotional competence mediates the relationship between insecure attachment and intimacy. In the current study, the link between attachment, different forms of dyadic coping, and various aspects of relationship satisfaction was examined. Both partners completed the attachment style questionnaire, the well matching couple questionnaire, and the dyadic coping inventory. The data was analyzed using the actor–partner interdependence model. The results highlighted a negative association between insecure-avoidant attachment style and intimacy. The actor effects of avoidant attachment on relational intimacy for women and for men were significant, whilst the partner effects for both spouses were not significant. The emotion-focused common dyadic coping moderated the relationship between avoidance of attachment and the partner's sense of intimacy. After controlling for the emotion-focused common dyadic coping, the actor effect of attachment on intimacy for men was slightly weaker, and the actor effect for women turned out to be insignificant. The emotion-focused common dyadic coping weakened the negative association between insecure attachment and relational intimacy. The impact of adult attachment and dyadic coping significantly contributes to subjective relational well-being.

Keywords: adult attachment, dyadic coping, relational intimacy, relationship satisfaction

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39 Relationships between the Components of Love by Stenberg and Personality Disorder Traits

Authors: Barbara Gawda

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The study attempts to show the relationship between the structure of love by Sternberg and personality disorder traits. People with personality disorders experience dysfunctional emotionality. They manifest difficulties in experiencing love and closeness. Their relationships are marked by ambivalence and conflicts, e.g., as in borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. Considering love as a crucial human feeling, the study was planned to describe the associations between intimacy, passion, commitment, and personality disorder traits in a community sample. A sample of 194 participants was investigated (men and women in similar age and education levels). The following techniques were used: the SCID-II to assess personality disorders’ traits and the Triangular Love Scale by Sternberg to assess the components of love. Results show there are significant negative correlations between intimacy, commitment and personality disorders traits. Many personality disorders are associated with decreasing of intimacy and commitment, whereas passion was not associated with personality disorders’ traits. Results confirm that emotional impairments in personality disorders elicit conflicts and problems in relationships based on love and closeness.

Keywords: intimacy, commitment, love, passion, personality disorders

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
38 The Role of Smartphones on Iranian Couples' Relationship: An Analysis

Authors: Niloofar Hooman

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The present study aims at investigating the positive and negative effects of using Smartphones on couples committed relationships. Despite the fact that many couples may benefit from the positive aspects of Smartphones, it is not clear how their feeling of trust, intimacy and connection in their relationships get affected by Smartphones. This is important as it highlights the ambivalent influences of Smartphones on couple’s relationships. On the one hand, Smartphones can enhance their social and emotional interactions and on the other hand, they can cause mistrust and isolation between them. Trust, intimacy and honesty are of important factors through which a stable relationship can be constructed. Nevertheless, some characteristics of Smartphones such as being fluid and personalized can harm the relationship and consequently destroy it. Thus, it is necessary to investigate how Iranian couples in committed relationships use Smartphone to manage their relationship and how couples feel Smartphone have enhanced or detracted a sense of trust, intimacy and connection with their partner? In the first phase of the study, in-depth-interview will be conducted with 30 couples and data will be analyzed using NVIVO software. In the next phase of the study, 1500 participants aged 20 and above will be selected based on cluster sampling. Data will be analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Keywords: couple, family, internet, intimacy, Smartphone, trust

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37 Identifying the Sacred in International Relations: A Religion-Based Analysis on Intimacy between Indonesia and Palestine

Authors: Andi Triswoyo

Abstract:

The sacred has been a dominant influence in the human lives. International relations, as the mirror of the human relations in a whole, reflected such cases. Inter-state relations has been predominantly how the sacred played the main roles of. The relations between Indonesia and Palestine could be shot as the sacred-analyzed case of inter-state relations. The intimacy of them could be analyzed comfortably in IR normal perspective, such as realism, liberalism, and Marxism. Hopefully, Religion perspective would make better explanation how Indonesia-Palestine relations had so worth. This paper will use some narrative-explanatory stage to elaborate that cases. Moreover, the sacred can give such alternative analyses to interpret how international relations occurred in this time regard of the rise a new theory of International Relations.

Keywords: the sacred, international relations, Indonesia, Palestine

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36 Mobile Communication Technologies, Romantic Attachment and Relationship Quality: An Exploration of Partner Attunement

Authors: Jodie Bradnam, Mark Edwards, Bruce Watt

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Mobile technologies have emerged as tools to create and sustain social and romantic relationships. The integration of technologies in close relationships has been of particular research interest with findings supporting the positive role of mobile phones in nurturing feelings of closeness and connection. More recently, the use of text messaging to manage conflict has become a focus of research attention. Four hundred and eleven adults in committed romantic relationships completed a series of questionnaires measuring attachment orientation, relationship quality, texting frequencies, attitudes, and response expectations. Attachment orientation, relationship length, texting for connection and disconnection were significant predictors of relationship quality, specifically relationship intimacy. Text frequency varied as a function of attachment orientation, with high attachment anxiety associated with high texting frequencies and with low relationship quality. Sending text messages of love and support was related to higher intimacy and relationship satisfaction scores, while sending critical or impersonal texts was associated with significantly lower intimacy and relationship satisfaction scores. The use of texting to manage relational conflict was a stronger negative predictor of relationship satisfaction than was the use of texting to express love and affection. Consistent with research on face-to-face communication in couples, the expression of negative sentiments via text were related to lower relationship quality, and these negative sentiments had a stronger and more enduring impact on relationship quality than did the expression of positive sentiments. Attachment orientation, relationship length and relationship status emerged as variables of interest in understanding the use of mobile technologies in romantic relationships.

Keywords: attachment, destructive conflict, intimacy, mobile communication, relationship quality, relationship satisfaction, texting

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35 Experiences of Marital Relationship of Middle-Aged Couples in Hong Kong: Implications for Services Interventions

Authors: Wai M. Shum

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There was evidence that the change of marital quality satisfaction was related to the different stages of the family life cycle. Research studies have been largely based on western contexts, which found a curvilinear U-shaped trend in changes of marital satisfaction over the course of a marriage, but little is known about the marital experiences of Hong Kong couples. Through in-depth interviews, this qualitative study explored the marital relationship of middle-aged couples in a satisfying marriage and to identify how couples maintain a satisfying relationship in the local context. Findings from this study suggested twelve themes with some showing consistency with previous literature, such as communication, companionship, trust, and fidelity. The affective aspects of empathetic understanding and perceived empathy were found to have an enormous effect on couples’ bondedness. The high level of differentiation and security served as a basis for unconditional contribution, acceptance, and adjustment to unsolvable issues such that negative emotion would not be escalated. The manifestations of intimacy and commitment in the triangular theory of love were more frequently addressed than passion in striving for marital longevity in the local context. This study challenged the curvilinear trend of marital satisfaction throughout marriage, with couples showing different pathways of marital satisfaction. The study gave insights on martial enrichment, such as facilitating couples to disclose their vulnerabilities, desire for physical intimacy, and passion in the pursuit of enduring marriage instead of an emphasis on skills training on communication and conflict resolution.

Keywords: intimacy, marital relationship, marital satisfaction, middle-aged

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
34 The Effects of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing and Other Related Interventions on the Psychological Recovery of Earthquake Survivors

Authors: Joyce Fernandez

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This study examined the effects of critical incident stress debriefing and other related interventions on the psychological recovery of earthquake survivors. It is a mixed experimental and qualitative study using post-test only control group design and focus group discussion. After the conduct of critical incident stress debriefing activities and other related interventions in the form of counseling and psychiatric treatment to the survivors of a 6.9 magnitude earthquake, a post-test measuring the level of psychological recovery was given to randomized participants categorized as intervention and control groups. Using the traumatic assessment and belief scale as instrument for the quantitative aspect in order to gauge recovery in the psychological need areas of safety, trust, esteem, intimacy and control, the findings are the following: Intervention group participants have relatively better adjustment along the five psychological need areas compared to the control group participants; there is no significant difference in the psychological recovery among female and male participants of the invention and control groups and; there are significant differences between intervention and control groups in the psychological need areas of self-safety, self-trust, other-trust, self-esteem, and self-intimacy. Using a guided interview for the qualitative data, the themes derived are the following. Safety: The world is an unsafe place to live because of the calamities. Trust: Trust and dependence are anchored on the family. Esteem: Participants are having confused self-worth. Intimacy: Participants are thriving on attachment with their family. Control: Participants have unaltered desire to help but feeling restricted because of personal and logistical concerns.As an outcome of the study a Psychosocial Care Program for Individuals, Families and Communities Affected by Disaster and Trauma was proposed.

Keywords: critical incident stress debriefing, earthquake survivors, psychological recovery, related interventions

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33 Uncertainty Reduction and Dyadic Interaction through Social Media

Authors: Masrur Alam Khan

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The purpose of this study was to examine the dyadic interaction techniques that social media users utilize to reduce uncertainty in their day to day business engagements in the absence of their physical interaction. The study empirically tested assumptions of uncertainty reduction theory while addressing self-disclosure, seeking questions to develop consensus, and subsequently to achieve intimacy in very conducive environment. Moreover, this study examined the effect of dyadic interaction through social media among business community while identifying the strength of their reciprocity in relationships and compares it with those having no dyadic relations due to absence of social media. Using socio-metric survey, the study revealed a better understanding of their partners for upholding their professional relations more credible. A sample of unacquainted, both male and female, was randomly asked questions regarding their nature of dyadic interaction within their office while using social media (face-to-face, visual CMC (webcam) or text-only). Primary results explored that the social media users develop their better know-how about their professional obligations to reduce ambiguity and align with one to one interact.

Keywords: dyadic-interaction, social media, uncertainty reduction, socio-metric survey, self-disclosure, intimacy, reciprocity in relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
32 Exploring the Facets of Sexuality among Older Adults

Authors: Vivienne Cloude C. Bersabe, Nuelle Anne Castro, Christy P. Gonzales, Nathalie Ann D. Ocbo, Araceli Chuwaley C. Padcayan, Michelle Gaile Lianne S. Peralta, Cecile A. Perez, Eiden Mae A. Roque, Frances Bea S. Sabaten, Korina Louise A. Saculles, Jada Kristen O. Taska, Jose Reinhard C. Laoingco, Don Leonardo N. Dacumos

Abstract:

The rationale of the study: Since discussion about sexuality is considered taboo in the Filipino culture, provision of quality holistic care often lacks sexuality aspect. This research was conducted to highlight the need for nurses to incorporate sexuality in their care of older adults. Research Objectives: To measure the levels of older adults’ sexual desire, sexual behavior, and sexual intimacy and relate them to sex, living arrangement, educational level, and presence of chronic illness, whether with or without treatment. Methods: This study is of quantitative descriptive design that utilized purposive sampling. 400 older adults of Baguio City participated. The study used a 30 point researcher-made questionnaire, one-on-one interview and focused group discussion to gather data. Data were treated using weighted mean, t-test, F-test, and Scheffe's test. Results and Conclusions: The overall findings revealed that Filipino older adults have a low level of sexuality expressed by the participants’ sexual desire, behavior, and intimacy. Males have significantly higher level of sexual desire, behavior, and intimacy. Living arrangement does not seem to influence the level of sexuality in all its 3 facets. Sexual desire was significantly higher among those with tertiary education and without chronic illness. Recommendation: It is recommended that nurses carry out their assessment of clients to include the exploration of their sexuality especially the older adults. A similar study may be done to explore other variables like demographic location, i.e., rural or urban setting; socio-cultural factors; and functional performance status. It is also recommended that a similar study may be done exploring the different facets of sexuality among homosexual older persons.

Keywords: geriatrics, older adults, Philippines, sexuality

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
31 Out of the Closet: Transgressive Representations of Queer Intimacy in Filipino Mainstream Media

Authors: Darel Magramo

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This study argues that media representations of queer intimacies can be transgressive. Representations of queerness in local and international media can be a reflection of the culture where the media product belongs to and these representations can be peculiar and intolerable to different communities. Since these representations of queerness in any media product are rare and unacceptable it can be seen as transgressive in a way that it goes beyond the norms of a particular community and violates the common perceptions about gender and sexuality. Examining media representations of the queer community in a predominantly Catholic country means breaking the religious belief, principles, and stereotypes about homosexuality and same-sex relationship. Using a mainstream media and gender theory this study examined whether and how one particular Filipino mainstream media representation of queer intimacies can enact such transgression. Over the past years Original Pinoy Music (Original Filipino Music) or OPM has produced chart-topping and controversial hit songs which includes: This guy is in love with you pare (pare refers to a guy or men) released in 2002: Nagmahal ako ng bakla (I fell in love with a gay) released in 2009: and lastly Pare mahal mo raw ako (Man, you love me?) released in 2014. By examining these songs, this study outlines tropes on how OPM songs present transgression in queer intimacy including the image of love for money only to gaiety and satisfaction which presents how an openly gay man makes a cisgender man falls in love for him by satisfying him through his humorous antics, this is one way of showing transgression in queer relationship in Philippine context by going beyond the common stereotype of a cisgender man falling in love to a gay man for his wealth to falling in love genuinely because of gaiety and satisfaction in the relationship. This study also identifies how media created a new way of presenting gay and homosexual relationship - from the stereotypes of gays having illnesses and mental health problems, mainstream media continues to present that queer relationship is not all about love and sexual desire but also it promotes acceptance and love towards people in the community. A queer relationship does not only revolve in the idea of having a same-sex relationship but the idea that queer relationship is also between friends and other people of the community by manifesting acceptance and love. Amidst the conservative culture of the Philippines, mainstream media continues to progress and develop ways on how to present gender and sexuality in different media products. These representations create a transgressive way of showing acceptance and understanding towards identities particularly homosexuality and queer relationships.

Keywords: gender studies, homosexuality, media representations, queer intimacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
30 Identifying Self-Disclosure in Indonesian Reality Show: A Comprehensive Study

Authors: Dwi Ashari

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This study attempts to disclose people’s privacy in Indonesian media. Many television (henceforth: TV) programs have shown the exposure of people’s privacy. People, not only celebrities, who appear in TV program often, share their life to the participants to get very intimate self-disclosure with them. Indonesia, as one of the countries with highest population, has many people who watch television everyday. This can be the major factor for some TV stations to create a program to get people’s attention to gain more profit. This study examines some factors of Indonesia TV programs that share the people’s privacy. The relation of privacy in Indonesia TV programs will be related to the concept of self-disclosure and intimacy between the people who share and watch the programs.

Keywords: Indonesia, media, privacy, self-disclosure

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29 Intellectual Women: The Continuing Struggle between Marriage and Personal Dreams in Margaret Drabble's a Summer Bird-Cage and The Millstone

Authors: Ashwag Abdul-Hakeem Al-Thubaiti

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This study aims at analysing women's hesitant attitudes towards marriage in Margaret Drabble's novels, A Summer-Bird-Cage (1964) and The Millstone (1965), to prove that these ambivalent feelings are due to their search for autonomy. The heroines' radical outlook on independence is only meant to hide their conflict regarding sex-experience and fear of intimacy, a fear that has been enhanced by their rejection of the expression of faith that considers marriage a sacred bond and instead focus on their own identity and dissolve any bond that may affect their independence. To achieve their autonomy, they have to depend on themselves financially and focus on their aspirational goals. This sharp division between the two worlds, the family life and the personal success attributes negatively to their lives and leads to a self-identity crisis. Drabble tends to solve this struggle by awakening their maternal instinct. Once they respect their physical needs and appreciate their role as it is assigned to them by nature and society, they reach a balanced identity.

Keywords: autonomy, marriage, maternity, women

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28 Barred from Each Other: Why Normative Husbands Remain Married to Incarcerated Wives

Authors: Tomer Einat, Sharon Rabinovitz, Inbal Harel-Aviram

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This study explores men’s motivation and justification to remain married to their criminal, imprisoned wives. Using semi-structured interviews and content-analysis, data were collected and analyzed from eight men who maintain stable marriage relationships with their incarcerated wives. Participants are normative men who describe incarceration as a challenge that enhances mutual responsibility and commitment. They exaggerate the extent to which their partners resemble archetypal romantic ideals. They use motivational accounts to explain the woman’s criminal conduct, which is perceived as non-relevant to her real identity. Physical separation and lack of physical intimacy are perceived as the major difficulties in maintaining their marriage relations. Length of imprisonment and marriage was found to be related to the decision whether to continue or terminate the relationships. Women-inmates’ partners experience difficulties and use coping strategies very similar to those cited by other normative spouses facing lengthy separation.

Keywords: female inmates, marriage, normative spouses, romantic accounts

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27 An Integrative Review of Changes of Family Relationship and Mental Health that Chinese Men Experience during Transition to Fatherhood

Authors: Mo Zhou, Samantha Ashby, Lyn Ebert

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In China, the changes that men experience in the perinatal period are not well researched. Men are also at risk of maladaptation to parenthood. The aim of this research is to review current studies regarding changes that Chinese men experience during transitioning to parenthood. 5 databases were employed to search relevant papers. The search found 128 articles. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 35 articles were included in this integrative review. Results showed the changes that Chinese fathers experienced during the transition to parenthood can be divided into two aspects: family relationships and mental problems. During transition to parenthood, fathers usually experienced an increase in their disappointment with marital conflict resolution and decreased sexual intimacy with their partner. Mental health declined, with fathers often feeling depressed and/or anxious during this time. Some men were diagnosed with clinical depression. The predictors of these changes included three domains: personal background (age and income), family background (gender of infant, relationship status and unplanned child) and cultural background (‘doing the month’, Confucianism, policy, social support).

Keywords: China, men, fatherhood, life change, postpartum

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26 The Rocketing Raise of Bride Price in the Rural China: Intimacy and Family Changes Brought by Rural Urban Migration

Authors: Lei Liu

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This paper concerns on a special phenomenon of rocketing of bride’s price in rural China after the rural-urban labor migration nowadays. It provides a brief overview of three major prospective on marriage exchange, especially impose the local marriage market due to the post-migration economic environments. Then the author highlights on several factors that influence the rocketing raise of rural marriage gifts using both the primary data from census 2010 and the interviews from the field study, such as one-child policy and the unbalanced sex ratio with the familiar context parents used different strategies in raising their sons and daughters so as to best hold their own interests, causing inequality between females and males. Then this was broken by the independence of rural women and the phenomenon of cross-regional marriage after the free mobility of labor resource between rural areas and urban areas which gives women equal rights to choose their spouses together with some publicly policies that accelerate the decline of patriarchy. In the end, the author spells out a framework of migration influence on rural marriage for some theoretical and policy implications of the findings.

Keywords: rural-urban migration, gender stratification, rural China, bride price, marriage

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25 Transcending the Boundary of Traumas: Spatial Trauma in Richard Powers' 'The Echo Maker'

Authors: Nodi Islam

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This paper critically reads Richard Powers’ novel The Echo Maker to read and understand the personal traumas of the characters in the novel depending on the various situations they face throughout the story. Also, the paper attempts to read different traumas and disorders due to their different situations. With a focus on the individual experiences, this paper addresses the core issues of trauma, which triggers their reactions and reads the novel through theories of Freud, Caruth, and other critics in this field. While transcending the boundary of personal and collective trauma, this paper suggests that traumas not only arise from the core mental issues, from both past or present memories; it also depends on places too which can be called, according to Yi-Fu Tuan, topophobia. Intimate places such as home provoke not only attachment and expectation but also produce fear in a person. Failure in identifying with such places means losing a central piece of identity of the individual. In order to analyse the traumas in the novel, the characters’ association with homes and places has been provided. This paper attempts to suggest that people are not traumatised because of what Freud explained as unpleasant memories of the past but also intimacy and lost identities related to a place can trigger trauma.

Keywords: spatial trauma, traumatic stress disorder, identity and place, core mental issues

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24 Internet Pornography Consumption and Relationship Commitment of Filipino Married Individuals

Authors: Racidon P. Bernarte, Vincent Jude G. Estella, Dominador Jr. M. Nucon, Jin Danniel O. Villatema

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Purpose: Internet pornography has many negative effects, but one of the disturbing phases of pornography usage is; users are insentient on how pornography influences and affects them. The acceptance of Internet pornography use in a relationship has been found to be higher among men than among women. The use of pornography directly correlates to a decrease in sexual intimacy. Hence, this might lead to the weakening of the relationship of the married individuals to their partner. To find out the relevance of the claim, the researchers aimed to explore the relationship of Internet pornography consumption to the relationship commitment of married individuals in the Philippines. Different factors such as level of satisfaction, the size of the investment, quality of alternatives, relationship stability, and viewing habits of the Filipino married individuals were also considered in determining the relationship of watching pornography online and the relationship commitment of the Filipino married individuals. Design/ Methodology/ Approach –The study used the quantitative research approach, specifically descriptive method and correlation in order to further analyze the gathered data. A self-administered survey was distributed to 400 selected Filipino married individuals who were married individuals that are watching pornography on the Internet who are living in Quezon City. Findings –It is revealed that Internet pornography consumption has a negative effect on the relationship commitment of married individuals. Furthermore, watching pornography online weakened the relationship commitment of the Filipino married individuals that leads to an unstable relationship.

Keywords: internet pornography consumption, relationship commitment, married individuals, polytechnic university of the Philippines

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23 Association Between Friendship Quality and Subjective Wellbeing Among Adolescents: A Systematic Review

Authors: Abdullah Alsarrani, Leandro Garcia, Ruth Hunter, Laura Dunne

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Social integration with friends has an important role in shaping adolescents’ behavior and determining their well-being. Friendship features such as companionship, trust, closeness, intimacy, and conflicts all form the concept of friendship quality. The quality of friendship relationships can either enhance or impede mental development during adolescence. Therefore, this systematic review was conducted to understand the association between friendship quality and adolescents’ mental wellbeing. The evidence was synthesized from a search of five databases (Medline, Embase, ProQuest, Scopus, and PsycINFO). Thirty-two articles out of 18801 records were included in the review. The relationship between friendship quality and depression has been investigated extensively in the literature and negative (beneficial) associations were found in twelve studies out of sixteen. Poor peer relationship was linked to loneliness in eight studies out of nine. All five studies on life satisfaction and quality of peer connection found a positive association. In five studies, optimal peer relationship was found to be associated with happiness. A positive association between friendship quality and self-esteem in four out of five applicable studies. Friendship quality was found to be correlated with subjective well-being in all of three included studies focused on this area. The review demonstrates the paramount value of promoting healthy friendship to adolescents’ subjective well-being constructs. Interventions that aim to promote subjective wellbeing among adolescents should consider the development and maintenance of healthy friendships.

Keywords: adolescents, friendship quality, peer, wellbeing

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22 A Case Study on Parent-Child Relationship, Attachment Styles, and Romantic Relationship Quality of Illegitimate Emerging Adults

Authors: Pierre Nicole Patriarca

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This study examined the attachment styles, parent-child relationship, and romantic relationship quality of five illegitimate emerging adults aged 18 to 23 years old. The researcher used self-report measures, inventory of parent and peer attachment, attachment style questionnaire, and network of relationship – relationship quality version in obtaining data. A semi-structured interview was also used to acquire qualitative data about the detailed perception and experiences on the attachment styles and parent-child relationship. Common themes of each variable were identified through thematic analysis. Results showed that four out of five participants depicted positive relationship to their fathers, while all of them reported to have positive relationship to their mothers. It was also found that four participants have preoccupied attachment style, while the other one has fearful attachment style. Common themes in describing their relationship with their mother include being close, influential to participants’ life, unbounded communication, favorable reason of trusting, and sometimes being inattentive. On the other hand, having distant relationship, limited communication about romantic relationship, uninfluential to participant’s life, and favorable reason of trusting were the common themes in describing relationship with father. Lastly, less trusting, being dependent, and emphasis on valuing intimacy were the common themes in describing their style of attachment.

Keywords: illegitimate, emerging adult, attachment, parent-child relationship, relationship quality

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21 Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders in South Korea

Authors: Kim Eunha

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This study examined a group-based intervention for alcohol use disorders based on the principles of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in patients (N=22; 63.7% female; M = 38.2 years old; 100% South Korean) in a residential alcohol addiction treatment program. Patients were randomly assigned to either ACT group (receiving the ACT intervention) or control group (receiving treatment as usual). The ACT intervention consisted of four 2-hr group sessions scheduled during two weeks. The first session focused on the negative effects of suppression and avoidance, and a rationale for defusion and acceptance using several of the well-known ACT metaphors (e.g., Two Scales Metaphor, Man in the Hole). The second session taught defusion and acceptance skills through such exercises as mindfulness, cutting a sour fruit, naming one’s thoughts, and physicalizing. The third session included another mindfulness exercise and encouraged the participants to identify their values and set up life goals. The last session included more discussion on values and life goals, especially related to family and intimacy. The effects of the interventions were assessed using intent-to-treat analyses. The ACT interventions resulted in smaller immediate gains in motivation to stay sober and reductions in depression, anxiety, and experiential avoidance. In addition, at a 2-month follow up, those who attended the ACT group reported a lower average level of alcohol consumption and higher treatment attendance compared to the control group. These preliminary findings suggest that additional treatment and testing of ACT for alcohol use disorders will be crucial.

Keywords: acceptance and commitment therapy, alcohol use disorders, defusion, values

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20 Combining the Noble Values of Traditional Architecture on Modern Architecture

Authors: Dwi Retno Sri Ambarwati

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Recently, the traditional architecture were getting lost, replaced by modern architecture. The existence of many traditional houses often changing the function and change the values in an effort to adjust to the modern lifestyle, whereas the spiritual background of traditional architectural design is very specific and be the basis for consideration in the construction of the building, both in terms of determining the location of the building, the direction toward building, the spatial pattern and organization of space, zoning, hierarchical space, building form, ornamentation, the selection of building materials, and so on. The changes in function and form will transformed the spiritual values contained in it, because the architecture affects human behavior and reflects the culture. The traditional architecture views the architecture as a concept that has different tendencies in terms of orientation, shape, and attitude toward nature that tends to harmony with the social environment and local culture. The concept of the spirit of place made the architecture looks familiar, not arrogant and give a positive value to the surrounding environment. Every culture has a traditional architecture that full of spiritual values, although in the simplest form. Humans can learn about human values and local wisdom through the positive values that contained in traditional architecture, the desire to balance themselves with nature and the environment, not overbearing, strict adherence to the prevailing norms, openness in public life and intimacy family life that form a harmonious in life. The great and the wise value of traditional architecture should be revived in modern architecture that tends to ignore the spiritual values and more concerned with the functional and aesthetic pleasure, by combining the noble values of traditional architecture into modern architecture.

Keywords: architecture, combining noble values, local wisdom, traditional architecture

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19 Fashion Performing/Fashioning Performances: Catwalks as Communication Tools between Market, Branding and Performing Art

Authors: V. Linfante

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Catwalks are one of the key moments in fashion: the first and most relevant display where brands stage their collections, products, ideas, and style. The garment is 'the star' of the catwalk and must show itself not just as a product but as a result of a design process endured for several months. All contents developed within this process become ingredients for connecting scenography, music, lights, and direction into a unique fashion narrative. According to the spirit of different ages, fashion shows have been transformed and shaped into peculiar formats: from Pandoras to presentations organized by Parisian couturiers, across the 'marathons' typical of the beginning of modern fashion system, coming up to the present structure of fashion weeks, with their complex organization and related creative and technical businesses. The paper intends to introduce the evolution of the fashion system through its unique process of seasonally staging and showing its production. The paper intends to analyse the evolution of the fashion shows from the intimacy of ballrooms at the beginning of the 20th century, passing through the enthusiasm attitude typical from the '70s and the '80s, to finally depict our present. In this last scenario, catwalks are not anymore a standard collections presentation but become one of the most exciting expression of contemporary culture (and sub-cultures), going from sophisticated performances (as Karl Lagerfeld's Chanel shows) to real artistic happenings (as the events of Victor&Rolf, Alexander McQueen, OFF_WHITE, Vetements, and Martin Margiela), often involving contemporary architecture, digital world, technology, social media, performing art and artists.

Keywords: branding, communication, fashion, new media, performing art

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18 Friendship Love Orientation as Predictor of Attachment Style: A Gender Perspective

Authors: Maria Sana Amin, Anum Atiq, Haya Fatimah

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Secure attachment in childhood creates a healthy love attitude in the adulthood. Child secure attachment develops a positive relation attitude in their adulthood, similarly, anxiety-avoidant attachment develops negative attitude toward relations. The aim of this paper is twofold: 1) We investigate the relationship between Friendship Attitude and Attachment Styles; and 2) explore the impact of gender on Love Attitudes and Attachment styles. Data was collected by convincing sampling among the students of University of Management and Technology age group 18- 25. The sample consists 60 young adults (Male=36, Female =54). The Love Attitudes Scales subscale Storage was used to measure attitudes towards friendship love and The Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised questionnaire was used to measure Adult Attachment Style. The result of Independent T-Test analysis shows that there was no significant difference in anxiety for female and male conditions; t (58) =-.768, p=.446 and avoidance for female and male conditions; t (58) =1.63, p=.108. Moreover, also there was no significant difference in friendship love for female (M=27.37, SD=6.371) and male (M=26.08, SD=5.709) conditions; t (58) =-.820, p=.416. Pearson correlation analysis shows significantly negative correlation between love attitude-friendship and attachment style- avoidance, (r=-.433, p=.008) among male and love attitude-friendship and attachment style- avoidance (r=-.438, p=.032) among female. There are no gender differences in attachment styles i.e. anxiety, avoidance and their relationship with friendship love attitude. People have avoidant attachment find it hard to fall in love and develop intimacy, and they tend to search for independence.

Keywords: avoidance attachment style, anxiety attachment style, friendship love attitude, gender difference/similarity

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17 American Slang: Perception and Connotations – Issues of Translation

Authors: Lison Carlier

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The English language that is taught in school or used in media nowadays is defined as 'standard English,' although unstandardized Englishes, or 'parallel' Englishes, are practiced throughout the world. The existence of these 'parallel' Englishes has challenged standardization by imposing its own specific vocabulary or grammar. These non-standard languages tend to be regarded as inferior and, therefore, pose a problem regarding their translation. In the USA, 'slanguage', or slang, is a good example of a 'parallel' language. It consists of a particular set of vocabulary, used mostly in speech, and rarely in writing. Qualified as vulgar, often reduced to an urban language spoken by young people from lower classes, slanguage – or the language that is often first spoken between youths – is still the most common language used in the English-speaking world. Moreover, it appears that the prime meaning of 'informal' (as in an informal language) – a language that is spoken with persons the speaker knows – has been put aside and replaced in the general mind by the idea of vulgarity and non-appropriateness, when in fact informality is a sign of intimacy, not of vulgarity. When it comes to translating American slang, the main problem a translator encounters is the image and the cultural background usually associated with this 'parallel' language. Indeed, one will have, unwillingly, a predisposition to categorize a speaker of a 'parallel' language as being part of a particular group of people. The way one sees a speaker using it is paramount, and needs to be transposed into the target language. This paper will conduct an analysis of American slang – its use, perception and the image it gives of its speakers – and its translation into French, using the novel Is Everyone Hanging Out Without Me? (and other concerns) by way of example. In her autobiography/personal essay book, comedy writer, actress and author Mindy Kaling speaks with a very familiar English, including slang, which participates in the construction of her own voice and style, and enables a deeper connection with her readers.

Keywords: translation, English, slang, French

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16 Queer Lesbian Experience within Chinese Girl's Love Manga Fandom: An Qualitative Study of Sexuality among Chinese Yuri Fans

Authors: Ka Yi Yeung

Abstract:

Yuri is a manga culture which refers to the works (manga, literature, TV shows) that depict the intimacy between two girls. It is originally a Japanese culture which then implanted in Chinese fandom after the airing of Maria-sama ga Miteru. There has been a growing fanbase of Yuri culture and most of them are attracted by the subtle and sentimental relationship between girls. The culture is characterized by the spiritual bonding and interactions within girls. A high proportion of female fans in Chinese Yuri community was recorded, and Yamibo forum is their major site for socializing and discussion on Yuri’s work. There is a high tendency that female Yuri fans engaged in a homosexual relationship. However, they seldom directly address themselves as lesbian but non-heterosexual. It is due to the fact that Yuri fans community largely disagrees with the butch-femme role in the mainstream lesbianism. Within Chinese Yuri community, femininity is highly being appreciated. Members with high degree of feminine characteristics are popular among fans community. Besides, since the fans community-based at the online forum, there has been a high tendency that members developed the long-distance relationship. From the in-depth interviews of the research, Yuri fans are mostly pessimistic towards their relationship due to the social and geographical barriers, yet at the same time, they do not lose hope in searching for their true love. This research explored how Chinese Yuri fans challenge the homonormativity in mainstream lesbianism and how they construct their sexual identity through varies discourses on sexuality and homosexual experience.

Keywords: Chinese fandom, femininity, gender, homonormativity, Japanese manga, lesbianism, sexuality, queer culture

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15 Case Study of the Impact of Sport Tourism Event on Local Residents in Cameroon: The African Cup of Nations

Authors: Zita Fomukong Andam

Abstract:

The decision on where to host sport events does not depend on the national politicians or specific international sport event bodies but also involves the residents of the hosting country. Sport tourism is one of the fast growing industries in the world. Cameroonians consider sport as a point of unity and growth within the country. It has a huge variety of sporting activities like swimming, canoe racing, tug of war and most especially soccer well known as football. The football national team made an impact in 1990 at the FIFA world cup. They also won the African Nations Cup five times. Being the winner of the 2017 African Cup of Nations, they are to host the 2019 African cup of Nations. The purpose of this research is to analyse the impacts of sport tourism event in Cameroon and specifically examine how this event influences the residents. A deep research discourse conducted with randomly selected 300 inbound residents and 200 Cameroonian residents living abroad. Survey questionnaires, interviews and direct observations were carried out as a method of collecting data. The results showed that sport events brings a lot of prestige and honor to the country; generate revenues to the country’s economy and particularly to the local businesses. On the other hand, the results showed that the local residents lose their intimacy, privacy, and their daily life routine is affected. In addition to this, they face negative social inequalities and environmental impacts. Understanding these results the national government and international bodies might be able to contribute to future studies and propose efficient measures to maximize the positive benefits and minimize the negative benefits.

Keywords: sport Tourism, economic impact, resident altitude, african Cup of nations

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14 Parents-Children Communication in College

Authors: Yin-Chen Liu, Chih-Chun Wu, Mei-He Shih

Abstract:

In this technology society, using ICT(Information and communications technology) to contact each other is very common. Interpersonal ICT communication maintains social support. Therefore, the study investigated the ICT communication between undergraduates and their parents, and gender differences were also detected. The sample size was 1,209 undergraduates, including 624(51.6%) males, 584(48.3%) females, and 1 gender unidentified. In the sample, 91.8% of the sample used phones to contact their fathers and 93.8% of them use phones to contact their mothers. 78.5% and 87.6% of the sample utilized LINE to contact their fathers and mothers respectively. As for Facebook, only 13.4% and 16.5% of the sample would use to contact their fathers and mothers respectively. Aforementioned results implied that the undergraduates nowadays use phone and LINE to contact their parents more common than Facebook. According to results from Pearson correlations, the more undergraduates refused to add their fathers as their Facebook friends, the more they refused to add their mothers as Facebook friends. The possible reasons for it could be that to distinguish different social network such as family and friends. Another possible reason could be avoiding parents’ controlling. It could be why the kids prefer to use phone and LINE to Facebook when contacting their parents. Result from Pearson correlations showed that the more undergraduates actively contact their fathers, the more they actively contact their mothers. On the other hand, the more their fathers actively contact them, the more their mothers actively contact them. Based on the results, this study encourages both parents and undergraduates to contact each other, for any contact between any two family members is associated with contact between other two family members. Obviously, the contact between family members is bidirectional. Future research might want to investigate if this bidirectional contact is associated with the family relation. For gender differences, results from the independent t-tests showed that compared to sons, daughters actively contacted their parents more. Maybe it is because parents keep saying that it is dangerous out there for their daughters, so they build up the habit for their daughters to contact them more. Results from paired sample t-tests showed that the undergraduates agreed that talking to mother on the phone had more satisfaction, felt more intimacy and supported than fathers.

Keywords: family ICT communication, parent-child ICT communication, FACEBOOK and LINE, gender differences

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13 The Lasting Impact of Parental Conflict on Self-Differentiation of Young Adult OffspringThe Lasting Impact of Parental Conflict on Self-Differentiation of Young Adult Offspring

Authors: A. Benedetto, P. Wong, N. Papouchis, L. W. Samstag

Abstract:

Bowen’s concept of self-differentiation describes a healthy balance of autonomy and intimacy in close relationships, and it has been widely researched in the context of family dynamics. The current study aimed to clarify the impact of family dysfunction on self-differentiation by specifically examining conflict between parents, and by including young adults, an underexamined age group in this domain (N = 300; ages 18 to 30). It also identified a protective factor for offspring from conflictual homes. The 300 young adults (recruited online through Mechanical Turk) completed the Differentiation of Self Inventory (DSI), the Children’s Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC), the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Analyses revealed that interparental conflict significantly impairs self-differentiation among young adult offspring. Specifically, exposure to parental conflict showed a negative impact on young adults’ sense of self, emotional reactivity, and interpersonal cutoff in the context of close relationships. Parental conflict was also related to increased psychological distress among offspring. Surprisingly, the study found that parental divorce does not impair self-differentiation in offspring, demonstrating the distinctly harmful impact of conflict. These results clarify a unique type of family dysfunction that impairs self-differentiation, specifically in distinguishing it from parental divorce; it examines young adults, a critical age group not previously examined in this domain; and it identifies a moderating protective factor (a strong parent-child bond) for offspring exposed to conflict. Overall, results suggest the need for modifications in parental behavior in order to protect offspring at risk of lasting emotional and interpersonal damage.

Keywords: divorce, family dysfunction, parental conflict, parent-child bond, relationships, self-differentiation, young adults

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12 Recovery through Shattered Life: The Life World of Illness after Being Diagnosed with Breast Cancer in Taiwan

Authors: Min-Tao Hsu

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This study aims to explore the lived experiences of women with breast cancer, including their life world of illness and their adaptation to breast cancer. Breast cancer is not only a potentially lethal disease, but also a disease that may lead to many irreversible changes for female patients. Especially, in a culture where the wholeness is pursuit as an essential value, the sickness and/or broken body bring great challenge of life. Based on holism and symbolic interactionism, this study used interpretive ethnography including in-depth interviews and participant observations to collect the narrative of women with breast cancer concerning their illness experience. In addition, this study used Agar’s hermeneutic cycle to analyze data. The average age of 35 participants was 54.2. A total of 15 patients were within 2 years of onset, 5 patients were within 2-5 years of the treatment observation period, and 15 patients suffered from breast cancer for more than 5 years. The average age of onset was 50.4. Result: The main storyline of the life world of illness is ‘breast cancer is a turning point of life.’ Loss of breast was in terms of ‘no more a woman’ in Taiwanese culture. Two young women, one in her newly wedded and another right before marry, were divorced and cancelled wedding right after being diagnosed. All of them addressed that they have a ‘broken body.’ Single women accounted that they won’t marry for not being humiliated and most of married women said they never show female body in front of her husband or partner even in intimacy encounter. Three common themes were discovered: 1) new self and new identity; 2) new social relationships and new me; 3) new body and new life. The intertwining bodies, illness, selves, suffering, and medical treatments of female patients were observed. More, the recovery, of cause, was happened when new self, relationship, and new body were generated. Their identity to be a woman and a wife is shattered and their life is urged into another facet. For helping them to recovery from such situation, building a new identity and new social fabric on the new body need to be included in nursing care plan.

Keywords: breast cancer, illness narrative, world of illness, self-healing, interpretive ethnography

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11 Gender-Based Differences in the Social Judgment of Hungarian Politicians' Sex Scandals

Authors: Sara Dalma Galgoczi, Judith Gabriella Kengyel

Abstract:

Sex scandals are quite an engaging topic to work with, especially with their judgment in society. Most people are interested in other people's lives, specifically in public figures' such as celebrities or politicians, because ordinary people feel like they have the right to know more things about the famous and notorious ones than they would probably willing to share. Intimacy and sexual acts aren't exceptions; moreover, sexuality is one of the central interests of humans ever since. Besides, knowing and having an opinion about any kind of scandal can change even whole social groups or classes estimation of anyone. This study aims to research the social judgment of some Hungarian politicians' sex scandals and asks important questions like diverse public opinions in the light of gender or delegates’ abuse of power. Considering that this study is about collecting and evaluating opinions from the public, and no one before researched and published this exact topic and cases, an online survey was created. In the survey were different sections. We collected data about party-preference, conservativism-liberalism scale; then we used the following questionnaires: from Zero-sum perspective with regard to gender equality (Ruthig, Kehn, Gamblin, Vanderzanden & Jones, 2017), Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996), Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory (AMI; Glick & Fiske, 1999). Finally, 5 short summaries were presented about five Hungarian politicians' sex scandal cases (3 males, 2 females) from the recent past. These stories were followed by questions about their opinion of the party and attitudes towards the parties' reactions to the cases. We came to the conclusion that people are more permissive with the scandals of men, and benevolent sexism and ambivalence towards men mediate this relation. Men tend to see these cases as part of politicians' private lives more than women. Party preference had a significant effect - people tend to pass a sentence the delegates of the opposing parties, and they rather release the delegates of their preferred party.

Keywords: sex scandal, sexism, social judgement, politician

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