Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: cryptocurrency

33 Sentiment Analysis of Social Media on the Cryptocurrency Price

Authors: Tarek Sadraoui, Ahlem Nasr Othman


Our research deal with studying and testing the effects of social media on the cryptocurrency price during the period 2020-2023. The rise of the phenomena of cryptocurrency in the world raises questions about the importance of sentiment analysis of social media on the price of the cryptocurrency. Using panel data, we show that the positive and negative twits have a positive and statistically significant impact on the price of the cryptocurrency, and neutral twits have exerted a negative and significant effect on the cryptocurrency price. Specifically, we determine the causal relationship, short-term and long-term relationship with ARDL approach between the cryptocurrency price and social media using the Granger causality test.

Keywords: social media, Twitter, Google trend, panel, cryptocurrency

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
32 Accounting for Cryptocurrency: Urgent Need for an Accounting Standard

Authors: Fatima Ali Abbass, Hassan Ibrahim Rkein


The number of entities worldwide that currently accept digital currency as payment is increasing; however, digital currency still is not widely accepted as a medium of exchange, nor they represent legal tender. At the same time, this makes accounting for cryptocurrency, as cash (Currency) is not possible under IAS 7 and IAS 32, Cryptocurrency also cannot be accounted for as Financial Assets at fair value through profit or loss under IFRS 9. Therefore, this paper studies the possible means to account for Cryptocurrency, since, as of today, there is not yet an accounting standard that deals with cryptocurrency. The request to have a specific accounting standard is increasing from top accounting firms and from professional accounting bodies. This study uses a mixture of qualitative and quantitative analysis in its quest to explore the best possible way to account for cryptocurrency. Interviews and surveys were conducted targeting accounting professionals. This study highlighted the deficiencies in the current way of accounting for Cryptocurrency as intangible Assets with an indefinite life. The deficiency becomes well highlighted, as the asset will then be subject to impairment, where under GAAP, only depreciation in the value of the intangible asset is recognized. On the other hand, appreciation in the value of the asset is ignored, and this prohibits the reporting entity from showing the true value of the cryptocurrency asset. This research highlights the gap that arises due to using accounting standards that are not specific for Cryptocurrency and this study confirmed that there is an urgent need to call upon the accounting standards setters (IASB and FASB) to issue accounting standards specifically for Cryptocurrency.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, accounting, IFRS, GAAP, classification, measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
31 A Context-Centric Chatbot for Cryptocurrency Using the Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers Neural Networks

Authors: Qitao Xie, Qingquan Zhang, Xiaofei Zhang, Di Tian, Ruixuan Wen, Ting Zhu, Ping Yi, Xin Li


Inspired by the recent movement of digital currency, we are building a question answering system concerning the subject of cryptocurrency using Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT). The motivation behind this work is to properly assist digital currency investors by directing them to the corresponding knowledge bases that can offer them help and increase the querying speed. BERT, one of newest language models in natural language processing, was investigated to improve the quality of generated responses. We studied different combinations of hyperparameters of the BERT model to obtain the best fit responses. Further, we created an intelligent chatbot for cryptocurrency using BERT. A chatbot using BERT shows great potential for the further advancement of a cryptocurrency market tool. We show that the BERT neural networks generalize well to other tasks by applying it successfully to cryptocurrency.

Keywords: bidirectional encoder representations from transformers, BERT, chatbot, cryptocurrency, deep learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
30 Cryptocurrency-Based Mobile Payments with Near-Field Communication-Enabled Devices

Authors: Marko Niinimaki


Cryptocurrencies are getting increasingly popular, but very few of them can be conveniently used in daily mobile phone purchases. To solve this problem, we demonstrate how to build a functional prototype of a mobile cryptocurrency-based e-commerce application the communicates with Near-Field Communication (NFC) tags. Using the system, users are able to purchase physical items with an NFC tag that contains an e-commerce URL. The payment is done simply by touching the tag with a mobile device and accepting the payment. Our method is constructive: we describe the design and technologies used in the implementation and evaluate the security and performance of the solution. Our main finding is that the analysis and measurements show that our solution is feasible for e-commerce.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, e-commerce, NFC, mobile devices

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
29 Cryptocurrency as a Payment Method in the Tourism Industry: A Comparison of Volatility, Correlation and Portfolio Performance

Authors: Shu-Han Hsu, Jiho Yoon, Chwen Sheu


With the rapidly growing of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency, various industries which include tourism has added in cryptocurrency as the payment method of their transaction. More and more tourism companies accept payments in digital currency for flights, hotel reservations, transportation, and more. For travellers and tourists, using cryptocurrency as a payment method has become a way to circumvent costs and prevent risks. Understanding volatility dynamics and interdependencies between standard currency and cryptocurrency is important for appropriate financial risk management to assist policy-makers and investors in marking more informed decisions. The purpose of this paper has been to understand and explain the risk spillover effects between six major cryptocurrencies and the top ten most traded standard currencies. Using data for the daily closing price of cryptocurrencies and currency exchange rates from 7 August 2015 to 10 December 2019, with 1,133 observations. The diagonal BEKK model was used to analyze the co-volatility spillover effects between cryptocurrency returns and exchange rate returns, which are measures of how the shocks to returns in different assets affect each other’s subsequent volatility. The empirical results show there are co-volatility spillover effects between the cryptocurrency returns and GBP/USD, CNY/USD and MXN/USD exchange rate returns. Therefore, currencies (British Pound, Chinese Yuan and Mexican Peso) and cryptocurrencies (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Tether, Litecoin and Stellar) are suitable for constructing a financial portfolio from an optimal risk management perspective and also for dynamic hedging purposes.

Keywords: blockchain, co-volatility effects, cryptocurrencies, diagonal BEKK model, exchange rates, risk spillovers

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
28 Hawkes Process-Based Reflexivity Analysis in the Cryptocurrency Market

Authors: Alev Atak


We study the endogeneity in the cryptocurrency market over the branching ratio of the Hawkes process and evaluate the movement of self-excitability in the financial markets. We consider a semi-parametric self-exciting point process regression model where the excitation function is assumed to be smooth and decreasing but otherwise unspecified, and the baseline intensity is assumed to be a linear function of the regressors. We apply the empirical analysis to the three largest crypto assets, i.e. Bitcoin - Ethereum - Ripple, and provide a comparison with other financial assets such as SP500, Gold, and the volatility index VIX observed from January 2015 to December 2020. The results depict variable and high levels of endogeneity in the basket of cryptocurrencies under investigation, underlining the evidence of a significant role of endogenous feedback mechanisms in the price formation process.

Keywords: hawkes process, cryptocurrency, endogeneity, reflexivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
27 Cryptocurrency Forensics: Analysis on Bitcoin E-Wallet from Computer Source Evidence

Authors: Muhammad Nooraiman bin Noorashid, Mohd Sharizuan bin Mohd Omar, Mohd Zabri Adil bin Talib, Aswami Fadillah bin Mohd Ariffin


Nowadays cryptocurrency has become a global phenomenon known to most people. People using this alternative digital money to do a transaction in many ways (e.g. Used for online shopping, wealth management, and fundraising). However, this digital asset also widely used in criminal activities since its use decentralized control as opposed to centralized electronic money and central banking systems and this makes a user, who used this currency invisible. The high-value exchange of these digital currencies also has been a target to criminal activities. The cryptocurrency crimes have become a challenge for the law enforcement to analyze and to proof the evidence as criminal devices. In this paper, our focus is more on bitcoin cryptocurrency and the possible artifacts that can be obtained from the different type of digital wallet, which is software and browser-based application. The process memory and physical hard disk are examined with the aims of identifying and recovering potential digital evidence. The stage of data acquisition divided by three states which are the initial creation of the wallet, transaction that consists transfer and receiving a coin and the last state is after the wallet is being deleted. Findings from this study suggest that both data from software and browser type of wallet process memory is a valuable source of evidence, and many of the artifacts found in process memory are also available from the application and wallet files on the client computer storage.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, bitcoin, digital wallet, digital forensics

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
26 The Impact of Cryptocurrency Classification on Money Laundering: Analyzing the Preferences of Criminals for Stable Coins, Utility Coins, and Privacy Tokens

Authors: Mohamed Saad, Huda Ismail


The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of cryptocurrency classification on money laundering crimes and to analyze how the preferences of criminals differ according to the type of digital currency used. Specifically, we aim to explore the roles of stablecoins, utility coins, and privacy tokens in facilitating or hindering money laundering activities and to identify the key factors that influence the choices of criminals in using these cryptocurrencies. To achieve our research objectives, we used a dataset for the most highly traded cryptocurrencies (32 currencies) that were published on the coin market cap for 2022. In addition to conducting a comprehensive review of the existing literature on cryptocurrency and money laundering, with a focus on stablecoins, utility coins, and privacy tokens, Furthermore, we conducted several Multivariate analyses. Our study reveals that the classification of cryptocurrency plays a significant role in money laundering activities, as criminals tend to prefer certain types of digital currencies over others, depending on their specific needs and goals. Specifically, we found that stablecoins are more commonly used in money laundering due to their relatively stable value and low volatility, which makes them less risky to hold and transfer. Utility coins, on the other hand, are less frequently used in money laundering due to their lack of anonymity and limited liquidity. Finally, privacy tokens, such as Monero and Zcash, are increasingly becoming a preferred choice among criminals due to their high degree of privacy and untraceability. In summary, our study highlights the importance of understanding the nuances of cryptocurrency classification in the context of money laundering and provides insights into the preferences of criminals in using digital currencies for illegal activities. Based on our findings, our recommendation to the policymakers is to address the potential misuse of cryptocurrencies for money laundering. By implementing measures to regulate stable coins, strengthening cross-border cooperation, fostering public-private partnerships, and increasing cooperation, policymakers can help prevent and detect money laundering activities involving digital currencies.

Keywords: crime, cryptocurrency, money laundering, tokens.

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
25 A Regulatory Analysis on Legal Problems of BitCoin

Authors: Fady Tawakol


BitCoin is a decentralized cryptocurrency that can be used without the need of traditional central banks to accomplish any e-commerce trade. The use of such currency could facilitate new economic interactions and linkages. However, without effective and efficient regulations, cryptocurrency transactions are mostly used by criminals to commit crimes such as money laundering, theft, and blackmailing. And because law is one step behind technological developments, this paper discusses the importance of regulations and supervision for the BitCoin-system, to provide unified regulatory solutions for our digital future in the Middle East. It will provide a detailed analysis of the legal nature of BitCoin along with, its regulation with respect to criminal and civil law.

Keywords: BitCoin, financial protection, crypto currency, money laundering

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
24 High-Frequency Cryptocurrency Portfolio Management Using Multi-Agent System Based on Federated Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Sirapop Nuannimnoi, Hojjat Baghban, Ching-Yao Huang


Over the past decade, with the fast development of blockchain technology since the birth of Bitcoin, there has been a massive increase in the usage of Cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies are not seen as an investment opportunity due to the market’s erratic behavior and high price volatility. With the recent success of deep reinforcement learning (DRL), portfolio management can be modeled and automated. In this paper, we propose a novel DRL-based multi-agent system to automatically make proper trading decisions on multiple cryptocurrencies and gain profits in the highly volatile cryptocurrency market. We also extend this multi-agent system with horizontal federated transfer learning for better adapting to the inclusion of new cryptocurrencies in our portfolio; therefore, we can, through the concept of diversification, maximize our profits and minimize the trading risks. Experimental results through multiple simulation scenarios reveal that this proposed algorithmic trading system can offer three promising key advantages over other systems, including maximized profits, minimized risks, and adaptability.

Keywords: cryptocurrency portfolio management, algorithmic trading, federated learning, multi-agent reinforcement learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
23 Bayesian Value at Risk Forecast Using Realized Conditional Autoregressive Expectiel Mdodel with an Application of Cryptocurrency

Authors: Niya Chen, Jennifer Chan


In the financial market, risk management helps to minimize potential loss and maximize profit. There are two ways to assess risks; the first way is to calculate the risk directly based on the volatility. The most common risk measurements are Value at Risk (VaR), sharp ratio, and beta. Alternatively, we could look at the quantile of the return to assess the risk. Popular return models such as GARCH and stochastic volatility (SV) focus on modeling the mean of the return distribution via capturing the volatility dynamics; however, the quantile/expectile method will give us an idea of the distribution with the extreme return value. It will allow us to forecast VaR using return which is direct information. The advantage of using these non-parametric methods is that it is not bounded by the distribution assumptions from the parametric method. But the difference between them is that expectile uses a second-order loss function while quantile regression uses a first-order loss function. We consider several quantile functions, different volatility measures, and estimates from some volatility models. To estimate the expectile of the model, we use Realized Conditional Autoregressive Expectile (CARE) model with the bayesian method to achieve this. We would like to see if our proposed models outperform existing models in cryptocurrency, and we will test it by using Bitcoin mainly as well as Ethereum.

Keywords: expectile, CARE Model, CARR Model, quantile, cryptocurrency, Value at Risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
22 Cryptocurrency Crime: Behaviors of Malicious Smart Contracts in Blockchain

Authors: Malaw Ndiaye, Karim Konate


Blockchain and smart contracts can be used to facilitate almost any financial transaction. Thanks to these smart contracts, the settlement of dividends and coupons could be automated. The blockchain would allow all these transactions to be saved in a single ledger rather than in many databases through many organizations as is currently the case. Smart contracts have become lucrative and profitable targets for attackers because they can hold a large amount of money. This paper takes stock of cryptocurrency crime by assessing attacks due to smart contracts and the cost of losses. These losses are often the result of two types of malicious contracts: vulnerable contracts and criminal smart contracts. Studying the behavior of malicious contracts allows us to understand the root causes and consequences of attacks and the defense capabilities that exist although they do not definitively solve the crime problem. It makes it possible to approach new defense perspectives which will be concretized in future work.

Keywords: blockchain, malicious smart contracts, crypto-currency, crimes, attacks

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
21 From Al Capone to Silk Road: Money Laundering Regulation for Cryptocurrency on the Horizon

Authors: Chinelle van der Westhuizen


The introduction of cryptocurrencies as an alternative payment system have placed governments in a challenging position in relation to the regulatory status of cryptocurrencies and the money laundering activities associated with it. In April 2018, the Australian government amended its Anti-Money Laundering laws to regulate digital currency exchanges in an attempt to regulate money laundering activities and the introduction of ‘know-your-customer’ policies within the digital currency sector. Part one of this paper explores the use of cryptocurrencies for money laundering purposes and its significance to money launderers. Part two studies the efficacy of the current Australian Anti-Money Laundering laws and whether more can be done on a regulatory level. This paper will, therefore, highlight recent court decisions and legislation in terms of money laundering activities within these alternative payment systems in Australia and the United Kingdom. Part three of the paper will further analyze recent case studies by the Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre and the Office for Professional Body Anti-Money Laundering Supervision in the United Kingdom as the regulatory bodies for money laundering activities. The case studies and research will explore the legal disputes and future regulation concerning the use of cryptocurrencies and money laundering on a national as well as international level. This paper intends to highlight that although cryptocurrency is viewed as an innovative global phenomenon and an alternative method of payment, there are a number of legal issues associated with its use that indicate the need for regulatory reform. It is recommended in this paper that the Financial Action Task Force, International Monetary Fund as well as concerned governments have ongoing discussions on these regulatory issues and how to address it appropriately, whether through legislation or universal guidelines. Therefore, the conclusion of this paper will emphasize the benefits of a regulatory regime for money laundering activities within the cryptocurrency space and that the lack of such a regime may be detrimental to countries.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, know-your-customer policy, money laundering, regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
20 Money Laundering and Governance in Cryptocurrencies: The Double-Edged Sword of Blockchain Technology

Authors: Jiaqi Yan, Yani Shi


With the growing popularity of bitcoin transactions, criminals have exploited the bitcoin like cryptocurrencies, and cybercriminals such as money laundering have thrived. Unlike traditional currencies, the Internet-based virtual currencies can be used anonymously via the blockchain technology underpinning. In this paper, we analyze the double-edged sword features of blockchain technology in the context of money laundering. In particular, the traceability feature of blockchain-based system facilitates a level of governance, while the decentralization feature of blockchain-based system may bring governing difficulties. Based on the analysis, we propose guidelines for policy makers in governing blockchain-based cryptocurrency systems.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, money laundering, blockchain, decentralization, traceability

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
19 Asymmetric Linkages Between Global Sustainable Index (Green Bond) and Cryptocurrency Markets with Portfolio Implications

Authors: Faheem Ur Rehman, Muhammad Khalil Khan, Miao Qing


This study investigated the asymmetric links and portfolio strategies between green bonds and the markets of three different cryptocurrencies, i.e., green, Islamic, and conventional, using data from January 1, 2018, to April 8, 2022, and employing asymmetric TVP-VAR model to quantify risk spillovers in the network analysis. In addition, we use the minimum variance, minimum correlation, and minimum connectedness methodologies to assess the portfolio implications. The results of the asymmetric dynamic connectedness index (TCI) model show that by adopting cryptocurrencies for digital finance, risk spillovers are found to be reduced. The findings of net directional connectedness demonstrate that during the study period, green bonds consistently get return spillovers from all other network variables. Positive return spillovers are bigger in magnitude than negative ones. These results imply that the influence of the green bond market on the cryptocurrency markets is decreasing. Positive return spillovers generate higher connectedness values for (HG, BNB, and TRX) coins and persistent net recipients in the specific network. On the other hand, Cardano and ADA coins are persistent net transmitters in the system. XLM and MIOTA's responsibilities shift over time, and there is evidence of asymmetry when both positive and negative returns are considered. According to the pairwise portfolio weights, BNB vs. BTC has the largest portfolio weights in the system, followed by BNB vs. Ethereum, suggesting the best investment strategies in the network.

Keywords: asymmetric TVP-VAR, global sustainable index, cryptocurrency, portfolios

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
18 Appropriation of Cryptocurrencies as a Payment Method by South African Retailers

Authors: Neliswa Dyosi


Purpose - Using an integrated Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework and the model of technology appropriation (MTA) as a theoretical lens, this interpretive qualitative study seeks to understand and explain the factors that influence the appropriation, non-appropriation, and disappropriation of bitcoin as a payment method by South African retailers. Design/methodology/approach –The study adopts the interpretivist philosophical paradigm. Multiple case studies will be adopted as a research strategy. For data collection, the study follows a qualitative approach. Qualitative data will be collected from the six retailers in various industries. Semi-structured interviews and documents will be used as the data collection techniques. Purposive and snowballing sampling techniques will be used to identify participants within the organizations. Data will be analyzed using thematic analysis. Originality/value - Using the deduction approach, the study seeks to provide a descriptive and explanatory contribution to theory. The study contributes to theory development by integrating the MTA and TOE frameworks as a means to understand technology adoption behaviors of organizations, in this case, retailers. This is also the first study that looks at an integrated approach of the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework and the MTA framework to understand the adoption and use of a payment method. South Africa is ranked amongst the top ten countries in the world on cryptocurrency adoption. There is, however, still a dearth of literature on the current state of adoption and usage of bitcoin as a payment method in South Africa. The study will contribute to the existing literature as bitcoin cryptocurrency is gaining popularity as an alternative payment method across the globe.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, bitcoin, payment methods, blockchain, appropriation, online retailers, TOE framework, disappropriation, non-appropriation

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
17 Tourist Behavior Towards Blockchain-Based Payments

Authors: A. Šapkauskienė, A. Mačerinskienė, R. Andrulienė, R. Bruzgė, S. Masteika, K. Driaunys


The COVID-19 pandemic has affected not only world markets and economies but also the daily lives of customers and their payment habits. The pandemic has accelerated the digital transformation, so the role of technology will become even more important post-COVID. Although the popularity of cryptocurrencies has reached unprecedented heights, there are still obstacles, such as a lack of consumer experience and distrust of these technologies, so exploring the role of cryptocurrency and blockchain in the context of international travel becomes extremely important. Research on tourists’ intentions to use cryptocurrencies for payment purposes is limited due to the small number of research studies. To fill this research gap, an exploratory study based on the analysis of survey data was conducted. The purpose of the research is to explore how the behavior of tourists has changed making their financial transactions when paying for the tourism services in order to determine the intention to pay in cryptocurrencies. Behavioral intention can be examined as a dependent variable that is useful for the study of the acceptance of blockchain as cutting-edge technology. Therefore, this study examines the intention of travelers to use cryptocurrencies in electronic payments for tourism services. Several studies have shown that the intention to accept payments in a cryptocurrency is affected by the perceived usefulness of these payments and the perceived ease of use. The findings deepen our understanding of the readiness of service users to apply for blockchain-based payment in the tourism sector. The tourism industry has to focus not only on the technology but on consumers who can use cryptocurrencies, creating new possibilities and increasing business competitiveness. Based on research results, suggestions are made to guide future research on the use of cryptocurrencies by tourists in the tourism industry. Therefore, in line with the rapid expansion of virtual currency users, market capitalization, and payment in cryptographic currencies, it is necessary to explore the possibilities of implementing a blockchain-based system aiming to promote the use of services in the tourism sector as the most affected by the pandemic.

Keywords: behavioral intention, blockchain-based payment, cryptocurrency, tourism

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
16 Early Prediction of Disposable Addresses in Ethereum Blockchain

Authors: Ahmad Saleem


Ethereum is the second largest crypto currency in blockchain ecosystem. Along with standard transactions, it supports smart contracts and NFT’s. Current research trends are focused on analyzing the overall structure of the network its growth and behavior. Ethereum addresses are anonymous and can be created on fly. The nature of Ethereum network and addresses make it hard to predict their behavior. The activity period of an ethereum address is not much analyzed. Using machine learning we can make early prediction about the disposability of the address. In this paper we analyzed the lifetime of the addresses. We also identified and predicted the disposable addresses using machine learning models and compared the results.

Keywords: blockchain, Ethereum, cryptocurrency, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
15 Together - A Decentralized Application Connects Ideas and Investors

Authors: Chandragiri Nagadeep, M. V. V. S. Durga, Sadu Mahikshith


Future generation is depended on new ideas and innovations that develops the country economical growth and technology standards so, Startups plays an important role in satisfying above goals. Startups includes support which is given by investing into it by investors but, single digit investors can’t keep supporting one startup and lot of security problems occurs while transferring large funds to startup’s bank account. Targeting security and most supportive funding, TogEther solves these issues by providing a platform where “Crowd Funding” is available in a decentralized way such that funding is done with digital currency called cryptocurrency where transactions are done in a secured way using “Block Chain Technology”. Not only Funding but also Ideas along with their documents can be presented and hosted with help of IPFS (Inter Planetary File System).

Keywords: blockchain, ethereum, web3, reactjs, interplanetary file system, funding

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
14 The Analysis of the Blockchain Technology and Challenges Hampering Its Adoption

Authors: Sthembile Mthethwa


With the rise in the usage of internet in the past decades, this presented an opportunity for users to transact with each other over the use of internet. Cryptocurrencies have been introduced, which allows users to transact with each other without the involvement of a third party i.e. the bank. These systems are widely known as cryptocurrencies or digital currencies and the first system to be introduced was Bitcoin which has been receiving a lot of attention. Bitcoin introduced a new technology known as the blockchain technology. In the past years, blockchain has been getting attention; whereby new applications are introduced that utilize blockchain. Yet, most people are still hesitant about the adoption of blockchain and the adoption of cryptocurrencies at large. Some people still do not understand the technology. Thus, it leads to the slow adoption of this technology. In this paper, a review of the blockchain is provided, whereby the different types of blockchain are discussed in details. Details of the things that contribute to the hindrance of the process of adoption are discussed.

Keywords: bitcoin, blockchain, cryptocurrency, payment system

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
13 Evotrader: Bitcoin Trading Using Evolutionary Algorithms on Technical Analysis and Social Sentiment Data

Authors: Martin Pellon Consunji


Due to the rise in popularity of Bitcoin and other crypto assets as a store of wealth and speculative investment, there is an ever-growing demand for automated trading tools, such as bots, in order to gain an advantage over the market. Traditionally, trading in the stock market was done by professionals with years of training who understood patterns and exploited market opportunities in order to gain a profit. However, nowadays a larger portion of market participants are at minimum aided by market-data processing bots, which can generally generate more stable signals than the average human trader. The rise in trading bot usage can be accredited to the inherent advantages that bots have over humans in terms of processing large amounts of data, lack of emotions of fear or greed, and predicting market prices using past data and artificial intelligence, hence a growing number of approaches have been brought forward to tackle this task. However, the general limitation of these approaches can still be broken down to the fact that limited historical data doesn’t always determine the future, and that a lot of market participants are still human emotion-driven traders. Moreover, developing markets such as those of the cryptocurrency space have even less historical data to interpret than most other well-established markets. Due to this, some human traders have gone back to the tried-and-tested traditional technical analysis tools for exploiting market patterns and simplifying the broader spectrum of data that is involved in making market predictions. This paper proposes a method which uses neuro evolution techniques on both sentimental data and, the more traditionally human-consumed, technical analysis data in order to gain a more accurate forecast of future market behavior and account for the way both automated bots and human traders affect the market prices of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. This study’s approach uses evolutionary algorithms to automatically develop increasingly improved populations of bots which, by using the latest inflows of market analysis and sentimental data, evolve to efficiently predict future market price movements. The effectiveness of the approach is validated by testing the system in a simulated historical trading scenario, a real Bitcoin market live trading scenario, and testing its robustness in other cryptocurrency and stock market scenarios. Experimental results during a 30-day period show that this method outperformed the buy and hold strategy by over 260% in terms of net profits, even when taking into consideration standard trading fees.

Keywords: neuro-evolution, Bitcoin, trading bots, artificial neural networks, technical analysis, evolutionary algorithms

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
12 Formal Verification for Ethereum Smart Contract Using Coq

Authors: Xia Yang, Zheng Yang, Haiyong Sun, Yan Fang, Jingyu Liu, Jia Song


The smart contract in Ethereum is a unique program deployed on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) to help manage cryptocurrency. The security of this smart contract is critical to Ethereum’s operation and highly sensitive. In this paper, we present a formal model for smart contract, using the separated term-obligation (STO) strategy to formalize and verify the smart contract. We use the IBM smart sponsor contract (SSC) as an example to elaborate the detail of the formalizing process. We also propose a formal smart sponsor contract model (FSSCM) and verify SSC’s security properties with an interactive theorem prover Coq. We found the 'Unchecked-Send' vulnerability in the SSC, using our formal model and verification method. Finally, we demonstrate how we can formalize and verify other smart contracts with this approach, and our work indicates that this formal verification can effectively verify the correctness and security of smart contracts.

Keywords: smart contract, formal verification, Ethereum, Coq

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
11 Islamic Equity Markets Response to Volatility of Bitcoin

Authors: Zakaria S. G. Hegazy, Walid M. A. Ahmed


This paper examines the dependence structure of Islamic stock markets on Bitcoin’s realized volatility components in bear, normal, and bull market periods. A quantile regression approach is employed, after adjusting raw returns with respect to a broad set of relevant global factors and accounting for structural breaks in the data. The results reveal that upside volatility tends to exert negative influences on Islamic developed-market returns more in bear than in bull market conditions, while downside volatility positively affects returns during bear and bull conditions. For emerging markets, we find that the upside (downside) component exerts lagged negative (positive) effects on returns in bear (all) market regimes. By and large, the dependence structures turn out to be asymmetric. Our evidence provides essential implications for investors.

Keywords: cryptocurrency markets, bitcoin, realized volatility measures, asymmetry, quantile regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
10 A Framework for Blockchain Vulnerability Detection and Cybersecurity Education

Authors: Hongmei Chi


The Blockchain has become a necessity for many different societal industries and ordinary lives including cryptocurrency technology, supply chain, health care, public safety, education, etc. Therefore, training our future blockchain developers to know blockchain programming vulnerability and I.T. students' cyber security is in high demand. In this work, we propose a framework including learning modules and hands-on labs to guide future I.T. professionals towards developing secure blockchain programming habits and mitigating source code vulnerabilities at the early stages of the software development lifecycle following the concept of Secure Software Development Life Cycle (SSDLC). In this research, our goal is to make blockchain programmers and I.T. students aware of the vulnerabilities of blockchains. In summary, we develop a framework that will (1) improve students' skills and awareness of blockchain source code vulnerabilities, detection tools, and mitigation techniques (2) integrate concepts of blockchain vulnerabilities for IT students, (3) improve future IT workers’ ability to master the concepts of blockchain attacks.

Keywords: software vulnerability detection, hands-on lab, static analysis tools, vulnerabilities, blockchain, active learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
9 Blockchain for IoT Security and Privacy in Healthcare Sector

Authors: Umair Shafique, Hafiz Usman Zia, Fiaz Majeed, Samina Naz, Javeria Ahmed, Maleeha Zainab


The Internet of Things (IoT) has become a hot topic for the last couple of years. This innovative technology has shown promising progress in various areas, and the world has witnessed exponential growth in multiple application domains. Researchers are working to investigate its aptitudes to get the best from it by harnessing its true potential. But at the same time, IoT networks open up a new aspect of vulnerability and physical threats to data integrity, privacy, and confidentiality. It's is due to centralized control, data silos approach for handling information, and a lack of standardization in the IoT networks. As we know, blockchain is a new technology that involves creating secure distributed ledgers to store and communicate data. Some of the benefits include resiliency, integrity, anonymity, decentralization, and autonomous control. The potential for blockchain technology to provide the key to managing and controlling IoT has created a new wave of excitement around the idea of putting that data back into the hands of the end-users. In this manuscript, we have proposed a model that combines blockchain and IoT networks to address potential security and privacy issues in the healthcare domain. Then we try to describe various application areas, challenges, and future directions in the healthcare sector where blockchain platforms merge with IoT networks.

Keywords: IoT, blockchain, cryptocurrency, healthcare, consensus, data

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
8 Thai Perception on Bitcoin Value

Authors: Toby Gibbs, Suwaree Yordchim


This research analyzes factors affecting the success of Litecoin Value within Thailand and develops a guideline for self-reliance for effective business implementation. Samples in this study included 119 people through surveys. The results revealed four main factors affecting the success as follows: 1) Future Career training should be pursued in applied Litecoin development. 2) Didn't grasp the concept of a digital currency or see the benefit of a digital currency. 3) There is a great need to educate the next generation of learners on the benefits of Litecoin within the community. 4) A great majority didn't know what Litecoin was. The guideline for self-reliance planning consisted of 4 aspects: 1) Development planning: by arranging meet up groups to conduct further education on Litecoin and share solutions on adoption into every day usage. Local communities need to develop awareness of the usefulness of Litecoin and share the value of Litecoin among friends and family. 2) Computer Science and Business Management staff should develop skills to expand on the benefits of Litecoin within their departments. 3) Further research should be pursued on how Litecoin Value can improve business and tourism within Thailand. 4) Local communities should focus on developing Litecoin awareness by encouraging street vendors to accept Litecoin as another form of payment for services rendered.

Keywords: bitcoin, cryptocurrency, decentralized, business implementation

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
7 Bitcoin, Blockchain and Smart Contract: Attacks and Mitigations

Authors: Mohamed Rasslan, Doaa Abdelrahman, Mahmoud M. Nasreldin, Ghada Farouk, Heba K. Aslan


Blockchain is a distributed database that endorses transparency while bitcoin is a decentralized cryptocurrency (electronic cash) that endorses anonymity and is powered by blockchain technology. Smart contracts are programs that are stored on a blockchain. Smart contracts are executed when predetermined conditions are fulfilled. Smart contracts automate the agreement execution in order to make sure that all participants immediate-synchronism of the outcome-certainty, without any intermediary's involvement or time loss. Currently, the Bitcoin market worth billions of dollars. Bitcoin could be transferred from one purchaser to another without the need for an intermediary bank. Network nodes through cryptography verify bitcoin transactions, which are registered in a public-book called “blockchain”. Bitcoin could be replaced by other coins, merchandise, and services. Rapid growing of the bitcoin market-value, encourages its counterparts to make use of its weaknesses and exploit vulnerabilities for profit. Moreover, it motivates scientists to define known vulnerabilities, offer countermeasures, and predict future threats. In his paper, we study blockchain technology and bitcoin from the attacker’s point of view. Furthermore, mitigations for the attacks are suggested, and contemporary security solutions are discussed. Finally, research methods that achieve strict security and privacy protocol are elaborated.

Keywords: Cryptocurrencies, Blockchain, Bitcoin, Smart Contracts, Peer-to-Peer Network, Security Issues, Privacy Techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
6 SISSLE in Consensus-Based Ripple: Some Improvements in Speed, Security, Last Mile Connectivity and Ease of Use

Authors: Mayank Mundhra, Chester Rebeiro


Cryptocurrencies are rapidly finding wide application in areas such as Real Time Gross Settlements and Payments Systems. Ripple is a cryptocurrency that has gained prominence with banks and payment providers. It solves the Byzantine General’s Problem with its Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm (RPCA), where each server maintains a list of servers, called Unique Node List (UNL) that represents the network for the server, and will not collectively defraud it. The server believes that the network has come to a consensus when members of the UNL come to a consensus on a transaction. In this paper we improve Ripple to achieve better speed, security, last mile connectivity and ease of use. We implement guidelines and automated systems for building and maintaining UNLs for resilience, robustness, improved security, and efficient information propagation. We enhance the system so as to ensure that each server receives information from across the whole network rather than just from the UNL members. We also introduce the paradigm of UNL overlap as a function of information propagation and the trust a server assigns to its own UNL. Our design not only reduces vulnerabilities such as eclipse attacks, but also makes it easier to identify malicious behaviour and entities attempting to fraudulently Double Spend or stall the system. We provide experimental evidence of the benefits of our approach over the current Ripple scheme. We observe ≥ 4.97x and 98.22x in speedup and success rate for information propagation respectively, and ≥ 3.16x and 51.70x in speedup and success rate in consensus.

Keywords: Ripple, Kelips, unique node list, consensus, information propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
5 Blockchain: Institutional and Technological Disruptions in the Public Sector

Authors: Maria Florencia Ferrer, Saulo Fabiano Amancio-Vieira


The use of the blockchain in the public sector is present today and no longer the future of disruptive institutional and technological models. There are still some cultural barriers and resistance to the proper use of its potential. This research aims to present the strengths and weaknesses of using a public-permitted and distributed network in the context of the public sector. Therefore, bibliographical/documentary research was conducted to raise the main aspects of the studied platform, focused on the use of the main demands of the public sector. The platform analyzed was LACChain, which is a global alliance composed of different actors in the blockchain environment, led by the Innovation Laboratory of the Inter-American Development Bank Group (IDB Lab) for the development of the blockchain ecosystem in Latin America and the Caribbean. LACChain provides blockchain infrastructure, which is a distributed ratio technology (DLT). The platform focuses on two main pillars: community and infrastructure. It is organized as a consortium for the management and administration of an infrastructure classified as public, following the ISO typologies (ISO / TC 307). It is, therefore, a network open to any participant who agrees with the established rules, which are limited to being identified and complying with the regulations. As benefits can be listed: public network (open to all), decentralized, low transaction cost, greater publicity of transactions, reduction of corruption in contracts / public acts, in addition to improving transparency for the population in general. It is also noteworthy that the platform is not based on cryptocurrency and is not anonymous; that is, it is possible to be regulated. It is concluded that the use of record platforms, such as LACChain, can contribute to greater security on the part of the public agent in the migration process of their informational applications.

Keywords: blockchain, LACChain, public sector, technological disruptions

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
4 Static Application Security Testing Approach for Non-Standard Smart Contracts

Authors: Antonio Horta, Renato Marinho, Raimir Holanda


Considered as an evolution of the Blockchain, the Ethereum platform, besides allowing transactions of its cryptocurrency named Ether, it allows the programming of decentralised applications (DApps) and smart contracts. However, this functionality into blockchains has raised other types of threats, and the exploitation of smart contracts vulnerabilities has taken companies to experience big losses. This research intends to figure out the number of contracts that are under risk of being drained. Through a deep investigation, more than two hundred thousand smart contracts currently available in the Ethereum platform were scanned and estimated how much money is at risk. The experiment was based in a query run on Google Big Query in July 2022 and returned 50,707,133 contracts published on the Ethereum platform. After applying the filtering criteria, the experimentgot 430,584 smart contracts to download and analyse. The filtering criteria consisted of filtering out: ERC20 and ERC721 contracts, contracts without transactions, and contracts without balance. From this amount of 430,584 smart contracts selected, only 268,103 had source codes published on Etherscan, however, we discovered, using a hashing process, that there were contracts duplication. Removing the duplicated contracts, the process ended up with 20,417 source codes, which were analysed using the open source SAST tool smartbugswith oyente and securify algorithms. In the end, there was nearly $100,000 at risk of being drained from the potentially vulnerable smart contracts. It is important to note that the tools used in this study may generate false positives, which may interfere with the number of vulnerable contracts. To address this point, our next step in this research is to develop an application to test the contract in a parallel environment to verify the vulnerability. Finally, this study aims to alert users and companies about the risk on not properly creating and analysing their smart contracts before publishing them into the platform. As any other application, smart contracts are at risk of having vulnerabilities which, in this case, may result in direct financial losses.

Keywords: blockchain, reentrancy, static application security testing, smart contracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 27