Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: cryptocurrency

19 A Context-Centric Chatbot for Cryptocurrency Using the Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers Neural Networks

Authors: Qitao Xie, Qingquan Zhang, Xiaofei Zhang, Di Tian, Ruixuan Wen, Ting Zhu, Ping Yi, Xin Li

Abstract:

Inspired by the recent movement of digital currency, we are building a question answering system concerning the subject of cryptocurrency using Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT). The motivation behind this work is to properly assist digital currency investors by directing them to the corresponding knowledge bases that can offer them help and increase the querying speed. BERT, one of newest language models in natural language processing, was investigated to improve the quality of generated responses. We studied different combinations of hyperparameters of the BERT model to obtain the best fit responses. Further, we created an intelligent chatbot for cryptocurrency using BERT. A chatbot using BERT shows great potential for the further advancement of a cryptocurrency market tool. We show that the BERT neural networks generalize well to other tasks by applying it successfully to cryptocurrency.

Keywords: bidirectional encoder representations from transformers, BERT, chatbot, cryptocurrency, deep learning

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18 Cryptocurrency-Based Mobile Payments with Near-Field Communication-Enabled Devices

Authors: Marko Niinimaki

Abstract:

Cryptocurrencies are getting increasingly popular, but very few of them can be conveniently used in daily mobile phone purchases. To solve this problem, we demonstrate how to build a functional prototype of a mobile cryptocurrency-based e-commerce application the communicates with Near-Field Communication (NFC) tags. Using the system, users are able to purchase physical items with an NFC tag that contains an e-commerce URL. The payment is done simply by touching the tag with a mobile device and accepting the payment. Our method is constructive: we describe the design and technologies used in the implementation and evaluate the security and performance of the solution. Our main finding is that the analysis and measurements show that our solution is feasible for e-commerce.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, e-commerce, NFC, mobile devices

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17 Cryptocurrency as a Payment Method in the Tourism Industry: A Comparison of Volatility, Correlation and Portfolio Performance

Authors: Shu-Han Hsu, Jiho Yoon, Chwen Sheu

Abstract:

With the rapidly growing of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency, various industries which include tourism has added in cryptocurrency as the payment method of their transaction. More and more tourism companies accept payments in digital currency for flights, hotel reservations, transportation, and more. For travellers and tourists, using cryptocurrency as a payment method has become a way to circumvent costs and prevent risks. Understanding volatility dynamics and interdependencies between standard currency and cryptocurrency is important for appropriate financial risk management to assist policy-makers and investors in marking more informed decisions. The purpose of this paper has been to understand and explain the risk spillover effects between six major cryptocurrencies and the top ten most traded standard currencies. Using data for the daily closing price of cryptocurrencies and currency exchange rates from 7 August 2015 to 10 December 2019, with 1,133 observations. The diagonal BEKK model was used to analyze the co-volatility spillover effects between cryptocurrency returns and exchange rate returns, which are measures of how the shocks to returns in different assets affect each other’s subsequent volatility. The empirical results show there are co-volatility spillover effects between the cryptocurrency returns and GBP/USD, CNY/USD and MXN/USD exchange rate returns. Therefore, currencies (British Pound, Chinese Yuan and Mexican Peso) and cryptocurrencies (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Tether, Litecoin and Stellar) are suitable for constructing a financial portfolio from an optimal risk management perspective and also for dynamic hedging purposes.

Keywords: blockchain, co-volatility effects, cryptocurrencies, diagonal BEKK model, exchange rates, risk spillovers

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16 Cryptocurrency Forensics: Analysis on Bitcoin E-Wallet from Computer Source Evidence

Authors: Muhammad Nooraiman bin Noorashid, Mohd Sharizuan bin Mohd Omar, Mohd Zabri Adil bin Talib, Aswami Fadillah bin Mohd Ariffin

Abstract:

Nowadays cryptocurrency has become a global phenomenon known to most people. People using this alternative digital money to do a transaction in many ways (e.g. Used for online shopping, wealth management, and fundraising). However, this digital asset also widely used in criminal activities since its use decentralized control as opposed to centralized electronic money and central banking systems and this makes a user, who used this currency invisible. The high-value exchange of these digital currencies also has been a target to criminal activities. The cryptocurrency crimes have become a challenge for the law enforcement to analyze and to proof the evidence as criminal devices. In this paper, our focus is more on bitcoin cryptocurrency and the possible artifacts that can be obtained from the different type of digital wallet, which is software and browser-based application. The process memory and physical hard disk are examined with the aims of identifying and recovering potential digital evidence. The stage of data acquisition divided by three states which are the initial creation of the wallet, transaction that consists transfer and receiving a coin and the last state is after the wallet is being deleted. Findings from this study suggest that both data from software and browser type of wallet process memory is a valuable source of evidence, and many of the artifacts found in process memory are also available from the application and wallet files on the client computer storage.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, bitcoin, digital wallet, digital forensics

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15 A Regulatory Analysis on Legal Problems of BitCoin

Authors: Fady Tawakol

Abstract:

BitCoin is a decentralized cryptocurrency that can be used without the need of traditional central banks to accomplish any e-commerce trade. The use of such currency could facilitate new economic interactions and linkages. However, without effective and efficient regulations, cryptocurrency transactions are mostly used by criminals to commit crimes such as money laundering, theft, and blackmailing. And because law is one step behind technological developments, this paper discusses the importance of regulations and supervision for the BitCoin-system, to provide unified regulatory solutions for our digital future in the Middle East. It will provide a detailed analysis of the legal nature of BitCoin along with, its regulation with respect to criminal and civil law.

Keywords: BitCoin, financial protection, crypto currency, money laundering

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14 Cryptocurrency Crime: Behaviors of Malicious Smart Contracts in Blockchain

Authors: Malaw Ndiaye, Karim Konate

Abstract:

Blockchain and smart contracts can be used to facilitate almost any financial transaction. Thanks to these smart contracts, the settlement of dividends and coupons could be automated. The blockchain would allow all these transactions to be saved in a single ledger rather than in many databases through many organizations as is currently the case. Smart contracts have become lucrative and profitable targets for attackers because they can hold a large amount of money. This paper takes stock of cryptocurrency crime by assessing attacks due to smart contracts and the cost of losses. These losses are often the result of two types of malicious contracts: vulnerable contracts and criminal smart contracts. Studying the behavior of malicious contracts allows us to understand the root causes and consequences of attacks and the defense capabilities that exist although they do not definitively solve the crime problem. It makes it possible to approach new defense perspectives which will be concretized in future work.

Keywords: blockchain, malicious smart contracts, crypto-currency, crimes, attacks

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13 From Al Capone to Silk Road: Money Laundering Regulation for Cryptocurrency on the Horizon

Authors: Chinelle van der Westhuizen

Abstract:

The introduction of cryptocurrencies as an alternative payment system have placed governments in a challenging position in relation to the regulatory status of cryptocurrencies and the money laundering activities associated with it. In April 2018, the Australian government amended its Anti-Money Laundering laws to regulate digital currency exchanges in an attempt to regulate money laundering activities and the introduction of ‘know-your-customer’ policies within the digital currency sector. Part one of this paper explores the use of cryptocurrencies for money laundering purposes and its significance to money launderers. Part two studies the efficacy of the current Australian Anti-Money Laundering laws and whether more can be done on a regulatory level. This paper will, therefore, highlight recent court decisions and legislation in terms of money laundering activities within these alternative payment systems in Australia and the United Kingdom. Part three of the paper will further analyze recent case studies by the Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre and the Office for Professional Body Anti-Money Laundering Supervision in the United Kingdom as the regulatory bodies for money laundering activities. The case studies and research will explore the legal disputes and future regulation concerning the use of cryptocurrencies and money laundering on a national as well as international level. This paper intends to highlight that although cryptocurrency is viewed as an innovative global phenomenon and an alternative method of payment, there are a number of legal issues associated with its use that indicate the need for regulatory reform. It is recommended in this paper that the Financial Action Task Force, International Monetary Fund as well as concerned governments have ongoing discussions on these regulatory issues and how to address it appropriately, whether through legislation or universal guidelines. Therefore, the conclusion of this paper will emphasize the benefits of a regulatory regime for money laundering activities within the cryptocurrency space and that the lack of such a regime may be detrimental to countries.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, know-your-customer policy, money laundering, regulation

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12 Money Laundering and Governance in Cryptocurrencies: The Double-Edged Sword of Blockchain Technology

Authors: Jiaqi Yan, Yani Shi

Abstract:

With the growing popularity of bitcoin transactions, criminals have exploited the bitcoin like cryptocurrencies, and cybercriminals such as money laundering have thrived. Unlike traditional currencies, the Internet-based virtual currencies can be used anonymously via the blockchain technology underpinning. In this paper, we analyze the double-edged sword features of blockchain technology in the context of money laundering. In particular, the traceability feature of blockchain-based system facilitates a level of governance, while the decentralization feature of blockchain-based system may bring governing difficulties. Based on the analysis, we propose guidelines for policy makers in governing blockchain-based cryptocurrency systems.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, money laundering, blockchain, decentralization, traceability

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11 Bitcoin Adoption in E-Transaction: Barriers of Its Implementation

Authors: Naby Nouhou Conde, Adamu Abubakar Ibrahim, Norbik Idris, Hazwani Mohd Mohadis

Abstract:

Cryptocurrency is a type of cryptographic e-currency generated by the computational result of mathematical techniques throughout blockchain technology. It has bitcoin as the world's first decentralized anonymous digital currency, which allows online transactions without relying on any third-party institutions or government. Though bitcoin is considered as one of the secure online integrated payment systems in financial transactions for many different businesses, it is still struggling for its integration, and people are reluctant to embrace its adoption. Therefore, to address this gap, the research utilized a quantitative method survey built on theories of Technological Acceptance Model (TAM), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), Delone and McLean Information System Success Model, and Self-determination Theory Model (SDT) to examine the factors influencing its adoption in e-payment. We used a sample of 402 participants for the analysis where seven main variables and nine hypotheses got formulated and tested using PLS-SEM path modeling with SPSS. The result shows that the analysis of the data provided support for all the hypotheses and established a positive relationship between variables, and the findings obtained have both academic and practical worth in terms of information systems technology adoption for improving the understanding of factors influencing bitcoin adoption in e-transaction.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, bitcoin, resource appropriateness, perceived trust, perceived risk

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10 Together - A Decentralized Application Connects Ideas and Investors

Authors: Chandragiri Nagadeep, M. V. V. S. Durga, Sadu Mahikshith

Abstract:

Future generation is depended on new ideas and innovations that develops the country economical growth and technology standards so, Startups plays an important role in satisfying above goals. Startups includes support which is given by investing into it by investors but, single digit investors can’t keep supporting one startup and lot of security problems occurs while transferring large funds to startup’s bank account. Targeting security and most supportive funding, TogEther solves these issues by providing a platform where “Crowd Funding” is available in a decentralized way such that funding is done with digital currency called cryptocurrency where transactions are done in a secured way using “Block Chain Technology”. Not only Funding but also Ideas along with their documents can be presented and hosted with help of IPFS (Inter Planetary File System).

Keywords: blockchain, ethereum, web3, reactjs, interplanetary file system, funding

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9 The Analysis of the Blockchain Technology and Challenges Hampering Its Adoption

Authors: Sthembile Mthethwa

Abstract:

With the rise in the usage of internet in the past decades, this presented an opportunity for users to transact with each other over the use of internet. Cryptocurrencies have been introduced, which allows users to transact with each other without the involvement of a third party i.e. the bank. These systems are widely known as cryptocurrencies or digital currencies and the first system to be introduced was Bitcoin which has been receiving a lot of attention. Bitcoin introduced a new technology known as the blockchain technology. In the past years, blockchain has been getting attention; whereby new applications are introduced that utilize blockchain. Yet, most people are still hesitant about the adoption of blockchain and the adoption of cryptocurrencies at large. Some people still do not understand the technology. Thus, it leads to the slow adoption of this technology. In this paper, a review of the blockchain is provided, whereby the different types of blockchain are discussed in details. Details of the things that contribute to the hindrance of the process of adoption are discussed.

Keywords: bitcoin, blockchain, cryptocurrency, payment system

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8 Evotrader: Bitcoin Trading Using Evolutionary Algorithms on Technical Analysis and Social Sentiment Data

Authors: Martin Pellon Consunji

Abstract:

Due to the rise in popularity of Bitcoin and other crypto assets as a store of wealth and speculative investment, there is an ever-growing demand for automated trading tools, such as bots, in order to gain an advantage over the market. Traditionally, trading in the stock market was done by professionals with years of training who understood patterns and exploited market opportunities in order to gain a profit. However, nowadays a larger portion of market participants are at minimum aided by market-data processing bots, which can generally generate more stable signals than the average human trader. The rise in trading bot usage can be accredited to the inherent advantages that bots have over humans in terms of processing large amounts of data, lack of emotions of fear or greed, and predicting market prices using past data and artificial intelligence, hence a growing number of approaches have been brought forward to tackle this task. However, the general limitation of these approaches can still be broken down to the fact that limited historical data doesn’t always determine the future, and that a lot of market participants are still human emotion-driven traders. Moreover, developing markets such as those of the cryptocurrency space have even less historical data to interpret than most other well-established markets. Due to this, some human traders have gone back to the tried-and-tested traditional technical analysis tools for exploiting market patterns and simplifying the broader spectrum of data that is involved in making market predictions. This paper proposes a method which uses neuro evolution techniques on both sentimental data and, the more traditionally human-consumed, technical analysis data in order to gain a more accurate forecast of future market behavior and account for the way both automated bots and human traders affect the market prices of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. This study’s approach uses evolutionary algorithms to automatically develop increasingly improved populations of bots which, by using the latest inflows of market analysis and sentimental data, evolve to efficiently predict future market price movements. The effectiveness of the approach is validated by testing the system in a simulated historical trading scenario, a real Bitcoin market live trading scenario, and testing its robustness in other cryptocurrency and stock market scenarios. Experimental results during a 30-day period show that this method outperformed the buy and hold strategy by over 260% in terms of net profits, even when taking into consideration standard trading fees.

Keywords: neuro-evolution, Bitcoin, trading bots, artificial neural networks, technical analysis, evolutionary algorithms

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7 Formal Verification for Ethereum Smart Contract Using Coq

Authors: Xia Yang, Zheng Yang, Haiyong Sun, Yan Fang, Jingyu Liu, Jia Song

Abstract:

The smart contract in Ethereum is a unique program deployed on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) to help manage cryptocurrency. The security of this smart contract is critical to Ethereum’s operation and highly sensitive. In this paper, we present a formal model for smart contract, using the separated term-obligation (STO) strategy to formalize and verify the smart contract. We use the IBM smart sponsor contract (SSC) as an example to elaborate the detail of the formalizing process. We also propose a formal smart sponsor contract model (FSSCM) and verify SSC’s security properties with an interactive theorem prover Coq. We found the 'Unchecked-Send' vulnerability in the SSC, using our formal model and verification method. Finally, we demonstrate how we can formalize and verify other smart contracts with this approach, and our work indicates that this formal verification can effectively verify the correctness and security of smart contracts.

Keywords: smart contract, formal verification, Ethereum, Coq

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6 Islamic Equity Markets Response to Volatility of Bitcoin

Authors: Zakaria S. G. Hegazy, Walid M. A. Ahmed

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This paper examines the dependence structure of Islamic stock markets on Bitcoin’s realized volatility components in bear, normal, and bull market periods. A quantile regression approach is employed, after adjusting raw returns with respect to a broad set of relevant global factors and accounting for structural breaks in the data. The results reveal that upside volatility tends to exert negative influences on Islamic developed-market returns more in bear than in bull market conditions, while downside volatility positively affects returns during bear and bull conditions. For emerging markets, we find that the upside (downside) component exerts lagged negative (positive) effects on returns in bear (all) market regimes. By and large, the dependence structures turn out to be asymmetric. Our evidence provides essential implications for investors.

Keywords: cryptocurrency markets, bitcoin, realized volatility measures, asymmetry, quantile regression

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5 Thai Perception on Bitcoin Value

Authors: Toby Gibbs, Suwaree Yordchim

Abstract:

This research analyzes factors affecting the success of Litecoin Value within Thailand and develops a guideline for self-reliance for effective business implementation. Samples in this study included 119 people through surveys. The results revealed four main factors affecting the success as follows: 1) Future Career training should be pursued in applied Litecoin development. 2) Didn't grasp the concept of a digital currency or see the benefit of a digital currency. 3) There is a great need to educate the next generation of learners on the benefits of Litecoin within the community. 4) A great majority didn't know what Litecoin was. The guideline for self-reliance planning consisted of 4 aspects: 1) Development planning: by arranging meet up groups to conduct further education on Litecoin and share solutions on adoption into every day usage. Local communities need to develop awareness of the usefulness of Litecoin and share the value of Litecoin among friends and family. 2) Computer Science and Business Management staff should develop skills to expand on the benefits of Litecoin within their departments. 3) Further research should be pursued on how Litecoin Value can improve business and tourism within Thailand. 4) Local communities should focus on developing Litecoin awareness by encouraging street vendors to accept Litecoin as another form of payment for services rendered.

Keywords: bitcoin, cryptocurrency, decentralized, business implementation

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4 SISSLE in Consensus-Based Ripple: Some Improvements in Speed, Security, Last Mile Connectivity and Ease of Use

Authors: Mayank Mundhra, Chester Rebeiro

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Cryptocurrencies are rapidly finding wide application in areas such as Real Time Gross Settlements and Payments Systems. Ripple is a cryptocurrency that has gained prominence with banks and payment providers. It solves the Byzantine General’s Problem with its Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm (RPCA), where each server maintains a list of servers, called Unique Node List (UNL) that represents the network for the server, and will not collectively defraud it. The server believes that the network has come to a consensus when members of the UNL come to a consensus on a transaction. In this paper we improve Ripple to achieve better speed, security, last mile connectivity and ease of use. We implement guidelines and automated systems for building and maintaining UNLs for resilience, robustness, improved security, and efficient information propagation. We enhance the system so as to ensure that each server receives information from across the whole network rather than just from the UNL members. We also introduce the paradigm of UNL overlap as a function of information propagation and the trust a server assigns to its own UNL. Our design not only reduces vulnerabilities such as eclipse attacks, but also makes it easier to identify malicious behaviour and entities attempting to fraudulently Double Spend or stall the system. We provide experimental evidence of the benefits of our approach over the current Ripple scheme. We observe ≥ 4.97x and 98.22x in speedup and success rate for information propagation respectively, and ≥ 3.16x and 51.70x in speedup and success rate in consensus.

Keywords: Ripple, Kelips, unique node list, consensus, information propagation

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3 Blockchain: Institutional and Technological Disruptions in the Public Sector

Authors: Maria Florencia Ferrer, Saulo Fabiano Amancio-Vieira

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The use of the blockchain in the public sector is present today and no longer the future of disruptive institutional and technological models. There are still some cultural barriers and resistance to the proper use of its potential. This research aims to present the strengths and weaknesses of using a public-permitted and distributed network in the context of the public sector. Therefore, bibliographical/documentary research was conducted to raise the main aspects of the studied platform, focused on the use of the main demands of the public sector. The platform analyzed was LACChain, which is a global alliance composed of different actors in the blockchain environment, led by the Innovation Laboratory of the Inter-American Development Bank Group (IDB Lab) for the development of the blockchain ecosystem in Latin America and the Caribbean. LACChain provides blockchain infrastructure, which is a distributed ratio technology (DLT). The platform focuses on two main pillars: community and infrastructure. It is organized as a consortium for the management and administration of an infrastructure classified as public, following the ISO typologies (ISO / TC 307). It is, therefore, a network open to any participant who agrees with the established rules, which are limited to being identified and complying with the regulations. As benefits can be listed: public network (open to all), decentralized, low transaction cost, greater publicity of transactions, reduction of corruption in contracts / public acts, in addition to improving transparency for the population in general. It is also noteworthy that the platform is not based on cryptocurrency and is not anonymous; that is, it is possible to be regulated. It is concluded that the use of record platforms, such as LACChain, can contribute to greater security on the part of the public agent in the migration process of their informational applications.

Keywords: blockchain, LACChain, public sector, technological disruptions

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2 Data, Digital Identity and Antitrust Law: An Exploratory Study of Facebook’s Novi Digital Wallet

Authors: Wanjiku Karanja

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Facebook has monopoly power in the social networking market. It has grown and entrenched its monopoly power through the capture of its users’ data value chains. However, antitrust law’s consumer welfare roots have prevented it from effectively addressing the role of data capture in Facebook’s market dominance. These regulatory blind spots are augmented in Facebook’s proposed Diem cryptocurrency project and its Novi Digital wallet. Novi, which is Diem’s digital identity component, shall enable Facebook to collect an unprecedented volume of consumer data. Consequently, Novi has seismic implications on internet identity as the network effects of Facebook’s large user base could establish it as the de facto internet identity layer. Moreover, the large tracts of data Facebook shall collect through Novi shall further entrench Facebook's market power. As such, the attendant lock-in effects of this project shall be very difficult to reverse. Urgent regulatory action is therefore required to prevent this expansion of Facebook’s data resources and monopoly power. This research thus highlights the importance of data capture to competition and market health in the social networking industry. It utilizes interviews with key experts to empirically interrogate the impact of Facebook’s data capture and control of its users’ data value chains on its market power. This inquiry is contextualized against Novi’s expansive effect on Facebook’s data value chains. It thus addresses the novel antitrust issues arising at the nexus of Facebook’s monopoly power and the privacy of its users’ data. It also explores the impact of platform design principles, specifically data portability and data portability, in mitigating Facebook’s anti-competitive practices. As such, this study finds that Facebook is a powerful monopoly that dominates the social media industry to the detriment of potential competitors. Facebook derives its power from its size, annexure of the consumer data value chain, and control of its users’ social graphs. Additionally, the platform design principles of data interoperability and data portability are not a panacea to restoring competition in the social networking market. Their success depends on the establishment of robust technical standards and regulatory frameworks.

Keywords: antitrust law, data protection law, data portability, data interoperability, digital identity, Facebook

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1 Gender and Total Compensation, in an ‘Age’ of Disruption

Authors: Daniel J. Patricio Jiménez

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The term 'total compensation’ refers to salary, training, innovation, and development, and of course, motivation; total compensation is an open and flexible system which must facilitate personal and family conciliation and therefore cannot be isolated from social reality. Today, the challenge for any company that wants to have a future is to be sustainable, and women play a ‘special’ role in this. Spain, in its statutory and conventional development, has not given sufficient response to new phenomena such as ‘bonuses’, ‘stock options’ or ‘fringe benefits’ (constructed dogmatically and by court decisions), the new digital reality, where cryptocurrency, new collaborative models and service provision -such as remote work-, are always ahead of the law. To talk about compensation is to talk about the gender gap, and with the entry into force of RD.902 /2020 on 14 April 2021, certain measures are necessary under the principle of salary transparency; the valuation of jobs, the pay register (Rd. 6/2019) and the pay audit, are an example of this. Analyzing the methodologies, and in particular the determination and weight of the factors -so that the system itself is not discriminatory- is essential. The wage gap in Spain is smaller than in Europe, but the sources do not reflect the reality, and since the beginning of the pandemic, there has been a clear stagnation. A living wage is not the minimum wage; it is identified with rights and needs; it is that which, based on internal equity, reflects the competitiveness of the company in terms of human capital. Spain has lost and has not recovered the relative weight of its wages; this is having a direct impact on our competitiveness, consequently on the precariousness of employment and undoubtedly on the levels of extreme poverty. Training is becoming more than ever a strategic factor; the new digital reality requires that each component of the system is connected, the transversality is imposed on us, this forces us to redefine content, to give answers to the new demands that the new normality requires because technology and robotization are changing the concept of employability. The presence of women in this context is necessary, and there is a long way to go. The so-called emotional compensation becomes particularly relevant at a time when pandemics, silence, and disruption, are leaving after-effects; technostress (in all its manifestations) is just one of them. Talking about motivation today makes no sense without first being aware that mental health is a priority, that it must be treated and communicated in an inclusive way because it increases satisfaction, productivity, and engagement. There is a clear conclusion to all this: compensation systems do not respond to the ‘new normality’: diversity, and in particular women, cannot be invisible in human resources policies if the company wants to be sustainable.

Keywords: diversity, gender gap, human resources, sustainability.

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