Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2548

Search results for: agricultural productivity

2548 Value-Added Tax Exemptions and Farm-Level Productivity: The Case of Rice, Millet, and Maize in Senegal

Authors: Awa Diouf

Abstract:

Since 2004, inputs specific to the agricultural sector have been exempt from VAT in Senegal. This paper measures, using the Naatal Mbay survey, the impact of this reform on agricultural productivity. The survey covers a sample of 3,122 rice, millet and maize farms for the 2016 crop year. The regressions show that tax incentives are ineffective in improving partial productivity of the land factor: the higher the share of the value of exemptions in the higher the production costs, the less productive the operation. The negative effect of the exemptions on productivity is accentuated for the most intensive agricultural area: the Senegal River Delta, and the most intensive crop: irrigated rice. This relationship could stem from a decrease in allocative efficiency: farmers have overinvested in the most accessible inputs. The loose budget constraint syndrome, therefore, explains this result: farmers who benefit more from exemptions reduce their managerial effort. The results suggest a removal of the VAT exemptions applied to finished products and agricultural inputs for a better efficiency of this tax, which typically taxes final consumption and should be neutral for the producer.

Keywords: agricultural productivity, agricultural taxation, Senegal, tax incentives

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2547 Monitoring Land Productivity Dynamics of Gombe State, Nigeria

Authors: Ishiyaku Abdulkadir, Satish Kumar J

Abstract:

Land Productivity is a measure of the greenness of above-ground biomass in health and potential gain and is not related to agricultural productivity. Monitoring land productivity dynamics is essential to identify, especially when and where the trend is characterized degraded for mitigation measures. This research aims to monitor the land productivity trend of Gombe State between 2001 and 2015. QGIS was used to compute NDVI from AVHRR/MODIS datasets in a cloud-based method. The result appears that land area with improving productivity account for 773sq.km with 4.31%, stable productivity traced to 4,195.6 sq.km with 23.40%, stable but stressed productivity represent 18.7sq.km account for 0.10%, early sign of decline productivity occupied 5203.1sq.km with 29%, declining productivity account for 7019.7sq.km, represent 39.2%, water bodies occupied 718.7sq.km traced to 4% of the state’s area.

Keywords: above-ground biomass, dynamics, land productivity, man-environment relationship

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2546 Farming Production in Brazil: Innovation and Land-Sparing Effect

Authors: Isabela Romanha de Alcantara, Jose Eustaquio Ribeiro Vieira Filho, Jose Garcia Gasques

Abstract:

Innovation and technology can be determinant factors to ensure agricultural and sustainable growth, as well as productivity gains. Technical change has contributed considerably to supply agricultural expansion in Brazil. This agricultural growth could be achieved by incorporating more land or capital. If capital is the main source of agricultural growth, it is possible to increase production per unit of land. The objective of this paper is to estimate: 1) total factor productivity (TFP), which is measured in terms of the rate of output per unit of input; and 2) the land-saving effect (LSE) that is the amount of land required in the case that yield rate is constant over time. According to this study, from 1990 to 2019, it appears that 87 percent of Brazilian agriculture product growth comes from the gains of productivity; the rest of 13 percent comes from input growth. In the same period, the total LSE was roughly 400 Mha, which corresponds to 47 percent of the national territory. These effects reflect the greater efficiency of using productive factors, whose technical change has allowed an increase in agricultural production based on productivity gains.

Keywords: agriculture, land-saving effect, livestock, productivity

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2545 Fertilizer Procurement and Distribution in Nigeria: Assessing Policy against Implementation

Authors: Jacob Msughter Gwa, Rhys Williams

Abstract:

It is widely known that food security is a major concern in Sub-Saharan Africa. In many regions, including Nigeria, this is due to an agriculture-old problem of soil erosion beyond replacement levels. It seems that the use of fertilizer would be an immediate solution as it can boost agricultural productivity, and low agricultural productivity is attributed to the low use of fertilizers in Nigeria. The Government of Nigeria has been addressing the challenges of food shortage but with limited success. The utilisation of a practical and efficient subsidy programme in addressing this issue seems to be needed. However, the problem of procurement and distribution changes from one stage of subsidy to another. This paper looks at the difference between the ideal and the actual implementation of agricultural fertilizer policies in Nigeria, as it currently runs the risk of meeting required standards on paper but missing the desired real outcomes, and recognises the need to close the gap between the paper work and the realities on the ground.

Keywords: agricultural productivity, fertilizer distribution, fertilizer procurement, Nigeria

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2544 Challenges of Climate Change on Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Mohammed Sale Abubakar, Kabir Omar, Mohammed Umar Abba

Abstract:

The effects of climate change continue to ravage globe upsetting or even overturning the entire communities in its wake. It is therefore on the front burner of most global issues affecting the world today. Hardly any field of endeavor has escaped the manifestation of its effects. The effects of climate change on agricultural productivity calls for intense study because of the nexus between agriculture, global food security and provision of employment for the teaming population in sub-saharan Africa. This paper examines current challenges of climate change on agricultural productivity in this region. This challenge indicated that both long and short-term change in climate bring unpleasant repercussion on agricultural productivity as they manifest in the vulnerability of industrial work force. The paper also focused on the impact of agriculture and bio-environmental engineering as a separate entity that will help to fight these major challenges facing humanity currently associated with negative effects of climate change such as scarcity of water, declining agricultural yields, desert encroachment, and damage of coastal structures. Finally, a suggestion was put forward as an effort that should be directed towards mitigating the negative effects of climate change on our environment.

Keywords: climate change mitigation, desert encroachment, environment, global food security, greenhouse gases (GHGs)

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2543 The Effect of Resource Misallocation on the Productivity of Rice Farming in Thailand: Evidence from Household-Level Data

Authors: Siwapong Dheera-Aumpon

Abstract:

Resource misallocation is known to be prevalent in many countries. Such misallocation in the manufacturing sector is large and has a considerable negative effect on aggregate productivity. Thailand is one of the countries having large resource misallocation in the manufacturing sector. Resource misallocation is also known to be widespread in the agricultural sector. It is, therefore, likely that resource misallocation exists in the agricultural sector of Thailand as well. This study aims to evaluate the extent of resource misallocation in Thai rice farming. Using household-level data from 2013 Thai Agricultural Census, this study calculates farm total factor productivity (TFP) controlling for land quality and rain. Similar to the case of Malawi, marginal products of land and capital are found to be related to farm TFP implying large resource misallocation. The output gain from a reallocation of resources to their best use is 67 percent. The gain from reallocation is highest for farms in the southern region and followed by the northeastern region.

Keywords: agriculture, misallocation, productivity, rice

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2542 Livestock Production in Vietnam: Technical Efficiency and Productivity Performance Based on Regional Differences

Authors: Diep Thanh Tung

Abstract:

This study aims to measure technical efficiency and examine productivity performance of livestock production in regions of Vietnam based on a panel data of 2008–2012. After four years, although there are improvements in efficiency of some regions, low technical efficiency, poor performance of productivity and its compositions are dominant features in almost regions. Households which much depend on livestock income in agricultural income or agricultural income in total income are more vulnerable than the others in term of livestock production.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, meta-frontier, Malmquist, technical efficiency, livestock production

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2541 A Comprehensive Procedure of Spatial Panel Modelling with R, A Study of Agricultural Productivity Growth of the 38 East Java’s Regencies/Municipalities

Authors: Rahma Fitriani, Zerlita Fahdha Pusdiktasari, Herman Cahyo Diartho

Abstract:

Spatial panel model is commonly used to specify more complicated behavior of economic agent distributed in space at an individual-spatial unit level. There are several spatial panel models which can be adapted based on certain assumptions. A package called splm in R has several functions, ranging from the estimation procedure, specification tests, and model selection tests. In the absence of prior assumptions, a comprehensive procedure which utilizes the available functions in splm must be formed, which is the objective of this study. In this way, the best specification and model can be fitted based on data. The implementation of the procedure works well. It specifies SARAR-FE as the best model for agricultural productivity growth of the 38 East Java’s Regencies/Municipalities.

Keywords: spatial panel, specification, splm, agricultural productivity growth

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2540 Quantile Smoothing Splines: Application on Productivity of Enterprises

Authors: Semra Turkan

Abstract:

In this paper, we have examined the factors that affect the productivity of Turkey’s Top 500 Industrial Enterprises in 2014. The labor productivity of enterprises is taken as an indicator of productivity of industrial enterprises. When the relationships between some financial ratios and labor productivity, it is seen that there is a nonparametric relationship between labor productivity and return on sales. In addition, the distribution of labor productivity of enterprises is right-skewed. If the dependent distribution is skewed, the quantile regression is more suitable for this data. Hence, the nonparametric relationship between labor productivity and return on sales by quantile smoothing splines.

Keywords: quantile regression, smoothing spline, labor productivity, financial ratios

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2539 Evaluating the Rate of Return to Peach and Nectarine Research in South Africa: 1971-2012

Authors: Chiedza Z. Tsvakirai, Precious M. Tshabalala, Frikkie Liebenberg, Johann F. Kirsten

Abstract:

Agricultural research conducted by the Agricultural Research Council has played an important role in increasing the productivity and profitability of the South African peach and nectarine industry. However, the importance of this research remains unclear to the industry stakeholders because a rate of return for this research has never been done. As a result, funding for the research at Agricultural Research Council has been waning because it is not clear how much value has been created and how much the industry stands to gain with continued research investment. Therefore, this study seeks to calculate the benefit of research investments in a bid to motivate for an increase in funding. The study utilized the supply response function to do this. The rate of return calculation revealed that agricultural research had a marginal internal rate of return of 55.9%. This means that every R1 invested yields a 56 c increase in value in the industry. Being this high, it can be concluded that investment in agricultural research is worthwhile. Thus justifies for an increase in research funding.

Keywords: Benefits of research investment, productivity.

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2538 Understanding the Endogenous Impact of Tropical Cyclones Floods and Sustainable Landscape Management Innovations on Farm Productivity in Malawi

Authors: Innocent Pangapanga, Eric Mungatana

Abstract:

Tropical cyclones–related floods (TCRFs) in Malawi have devastating effects on smallholder agriculture, thereby threatening the food security agenda, which is already constrained by poor agricultural innovations, low use of improved varieties, and unaffordable inorganic fertilizers, and fragmenting landholding sizes. Accordingly, households have engineered and indigenously implemented sustainable landscape management (SLM) innovations to contain the adverse effects of TCRFs on farm productivity. This study, therefore, interrogated the efficacy of SLM adoption on farm productivity under varying TCRFs, while controlling for the potential selection bias and unobservable heterogeneity through the application of the Endogenous Switching Regression Model. In this study, we further investigated factors driving SLM adoption. Substantively, we found TCRFs reducing farm productivity by 31 percent, on the one hand, and influencing the adoption of SLM innovations by 27 percent, on the other hand. The study also observed that households that interacted SLM with TCRFs were more likely to enhance farm productivity by 24 percent than their counterparts. Interestingly, the study results further demonstrated that multiple adoptions of SLM-related innovations, including intercropping, agroforestry, and organic manure, enhanced farm productivity by 126 percent, suggesting promoting SLM adoption as a package to appropriately inform existing sustainable development goals’ agricultural productivity initiatives under intensifying TCRFs in the country.

Keywords: tropical cyclones–related floods, sustainable landscape management innovations, farm productivity, endogeneity, endogenous switching regression model, panel data, smallholder agriculture

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2537 Impact Assessment of Plum Research Investments in South Africa

Authors: Precious M. Tshabalala, Thula S. Dlamini, Frikkie Liebenberg, Johann Kirsten

Abstract:

Numerous studies have been conducted, and the evidence has been unambiguous showing that investing in agricultural research and development increases productivity. Continued investments in agricultural research have led to the development of over 26 successful plum cultivars since 1980 at the Agricultural Research Council’s (ARC) Infruitec/Nietvoorbij in South Africa, and more continue to be developed to meet the specific needs of both producers and consumers. Yet very little is known about the returns on any of these research initiatives. The objective of the study was determine the economic impact of plum research investments at the ARC-the main plum breeding research organization in the country. The rate of return to plum research is estimated by estimating parameters in plum production and expressing research investment as an explanatory variable. The marginal rate of return is then determined to be 14.23 per cent. The rate of return to investment being this high is indicative of an under investment in plum research.

Keywords: Agricultural research investments, productivity and rate of return, plum

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2536 Productivity and Household Welfare Impact of Technology Adoption: A Microeconometric Analysis

Authors: Tigist Mekonnen Melesse

Abstract:

Since rural households are basically entitled to food through own production, improving productivity might lead to enhance the welfare of rural population through higher food availability at the household level and lowering the price of agricultural products. Increasing agricultural productivity through the use of improved technology is one of the desired outcomes from sensible food security and agricultural policy. The ultimate objective of this study was to evaluate the potential impact of improved agricultural technology adoption on smallholders’ crop productivity and welfare. The study is conducted in Ethiopia covering 1500 rural households drawn from four regions and 15 rural villages based on data collected by Ethiopian Rural Household Survey. Endogenous treatment effect model is employed in order to account for the selection bias on adoption decision that is expected from the self-selection of households in technology adoption. The treatment indicator, technology adoption is a binary variable indicating whether the household used improved seeds and chemical fertilizer or not. The outcome variables were cereal crop productivity, measured in real value of production and welfare of households, measured in real per capita consumption expenditure. Results of the analysis indicate that there is positive and significant effect of improved technology use on rural households’ crop productivity and welfare in Ethiopia. Adoption of improved seeds and chemical fertilizer alone will increase the crop productivity by 7.38 and 6.32 percent per year of each. Adoption of such technologies is also found to improve households’ welfare by 1.17 and 0.25 percent per month of each. The combined effect of both technologies when adopted jointly is increasing crop productivity by 5.82 percent and improving welfare by 0.42 percent. Besides, educational level of household head, farm size, labor use, participation in extension program, expenditure for input and number of oxen positively affect crop productivity and household welfare, while large household size negatively affect welfare of households. In our estimation, the average treatment effect of technology adoption (average treatment effect on the treated, ATET) is the same as the average treatment effect (ATE). This implies that the average predicted outcome for the treatment group is similar to the average predicted outcome for the whole population.

Keywords: Endogenous treatment effect, technologies, productivity, welfare, Ethiopia

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2535 Examining the Market Challenges That Constrain the Proper Sales of Farming Produces Amongst the Small-Scale Farms

Authors: Simiso Fisokuhle Nyandeni

Abstract:

Climate change has turned out to be a pandemic that has drawn the attention of many countries’ households around the globe, especially those whose livelihood and economic status depend on agricultural productivity. Hence, the agricultural sector is regarded as the sector that is most dependent on climate conditions for its productivity/harvest, yet in recent years this sector has been experiencing drought. However, adaptation seems to be a tool that every farmer looks upon as a solution to their challenges as their productivity keeps on being vulnerable to climate effects. Thus, exposure/access to the market seems to be a major challenge that faces especially small-scale farmers. We, therefore, examine the small-scale farmers’ constraints or challenges towards getting access to the market for them to get proper sales of their farming products. As a result, the adaptation capacity of every farm household varies on the financial status.

Keywords: climate change, small-scale farming, agriculture sector, adaptation

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2534 Modern Agriculture and Employment Generation in Nigeria: A Recursive Model Approach

Authors: Ese Urhie, Olabisi Popoola, Obindah Gershon

Abstract:

Several policies and programs initiated to address the challenge of unemployment in Nigeria seem to be inadequate. The desired structural transformation which is expected to absorb the excess labour in the economy is yet to be achieved. The agricultural sector accounts for almost half of the labour force with very low productivity. This could partly explain why the much anticipated structural transformation has not been achieved. A major reason for the low productivity is the fact that the production process is predominantly based on the use of traditional tools. In view of the underdeveloped nature of the agricultural sector, Nigeria still has huge potentials for productivity enhancement through modern technology. Aside from productivity enhancement, modern agriculture also stimulates both backward and forward linkages that promote investment and thus generate employment. Contrary to the apprehension usually expressed by many stake-holders about the adoption of modern technology by labour-abundant less-developed countries, this study showed that though there will be job loss initially, the reverse will be the case in the long-run. The outcome of this study will enhance the understanding of all stakeholders in the sector and also encourage them to adopt modern techniques of farming. It will also aid policy formulation at both sectoral and national levels. The recursive model and analysis adopted in the study is useful because it exhibits a unilateral cause-and-effect relationship which most simultaneous equation models do not. It enables the structural equations to be ordered in such a way that the first equation includes only predetermined variables on the right-hand side, while the solution for the final endogenous variable is completely determined by all equations of the system. The study examines the transmission channels and effect of modern agriculture on agricultural productivity and employment growth in Nigeria, via its forward and backward linkages. Using time series data spanning 1980 to 2014, the result of the analyses shows that: (i) a significant and positive relationship between agricultural productivity growth and modern agriculture; (ii) a significant and negative relationship between export price index and agricultural productivity growth; (iii) a significant and positive relationship between export and investment; and (iv) a significant and positive relationship between investment and employment growth. The unbalanced growth theory will be a good strategy to adopt by developing countries such as Nigeria.

Keywords: employment, modern agriculture, productivity, recursive model

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2533 Assessing Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change and Agricultural Productivity of Farming Households of Makueni County in Kenya

Authors: Lilian Mbinya Muasa

Abstract:

Climate change is inevitable and a global challenge with long term implications to the sustainable development of many countries today. The negative impacts of climate change are creating far reaching social, economic and environmental problems threatening lives and livelihoods of millions of people in the world. Developing countries especially sub-Saharan countries are more vulnerable to climate change due to their weak ecosystem, low adaptive capacity and high dependency on rain fed agriculture. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are more vulnerable to climate change impacts due to their weak adaptive capacity and over-reliance on rain fed agriculture. In Kenya, 78% of the rural communities are poor farmers who heavily rely on rain fed agriculture thus are directly affected by climate change impacts.Currently, many parts of Kenya are experiencing successive droughts which are contributing to persistently unstable and declining agricultural productivity especially in semi arid eastern Kenya. As a result, thousands of rural communities repeatedly experience food insecurity which plunge them to an ever over-reliance on relief food from the government and Non-Governmental Organization In addition, they have adopted poverty coping strategies to diversify their income, for instance, deforestation to burn charcoal, sand harvesting and overgrazing which instead contribute to environmental degradation.This research was conducted in Makueni County which is classified as one of the most food insecure counties in Kenya and experiencing acute environmental degradation. The study aimed at analyzing the adaptive capacity to climate change across farming households of Makueni County in Kenya by, 1) analyzing adaptive capacity to climate change and agricultural productivity across farming households, 2) identifying factors that contribute to differences in adaptive capacity across farming households, and 3) understanding the relationship between climate change, agricultural productivity and adaptive capacity. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied to determine adaptive capacity and Total Factor Productivity (TFP) to determine Agricultural productivity per household. Increase in frequency of prolonged droughts and scanty rainfall. Preliminary findings indicate a magnanimous decline in agricultural production in the last 10 years in Makueni County. In addition, there is an over reliance of households on indigenous knowledge which is no longer reliable because of the unpredictability nature of climate change impacts. These findings on adaptive capacity across farming households provide the first step of developing and implementing action-oriented climate change policies in Makueni County and Kenya.

Keywords: adaptive capacity, agricultural productivity, climate change, vulnerability

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2532 Development of Value Productivity in Automotive Industry

Authors: Jiří Klečka, Dagmar Čámská

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the investigation of productivity (total productivity and partial productivity). The value productivity is an indicator of level and changes in technical economic efficiency of production factors. It represents an important factor in achieving corporate objectives. This text works with the contemporary concept of value productivity that means that indicators of the productivity express the effect of economic efficiency not only of inputs consumption, but also of inputs binding efficiency. This approach is based on principles of the economic profit, respectively the economic value added (EVA). The research is done on the sample of Czech enterprises operating in the automotive industry in the regions of Liberec and the Central Bohemia. The data sample covers the time period 2006-2011 which allows the comparison of development before crisis and during crisis period. It enables to discover the companies' reaction during crises and the regional comparison allows to showing if there are significant differences between regions.

Keywords: automotive industry, Czech Republic, economic efficiency, regional comparison, value productivity

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2531 Check Factors Contributing to the Increase or Decrease in Labor Productivity in Employees Applied Science Center Municipal Andimeshk

Authors: Hossein Boromandfar, Ahmad Ghalavandi

Abstract:

This paper examines the importance of human resources as a strategic resource and the factors that lead to increased Labor productivity in Applied Science Center Andimeshk pay. First, the concepts and definitions of productivity and factors affecting it, and then determine the center Recommendations for improving the productivity of the university at a high level its improvement. What leads to increased productivity of labor is worth. The most competent human resources infrastructure is set, because by moving towards the development and promotion. The use of qualified employees in the university with a focus on specific objectives can be effective on its promotion.

Keywords: productivity, manage, human resources, center for applied science

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2530 A Review: Global Crisis Effects on Agriculture and Animal Production in Turkey

Authors: Muhittin Fatih Demirhan, Sibel Alapala Demirhan

Abstract:

Agriculture, is also regarded as the primary activity area in all economies. When international comparisons are made Turkey has comparative advantages in agricultural potential. However, it is diffi cult to say that Turkey's agricultural productivity and use of technology is well developed in terms of sufficieny. Turkey, in terms of agricultural production, is one of the rare self-sufficient countries, but for supplying excessive demand of its domesticproduction to foreign markets to obtain the necessary income it is rather insufficient. On the basis of wrong policies implemented during the crisis and found that bottlenecks in agriculture and animal husbandry or agriculture policies of the IMF and World Bank are imposed on countries like Turkey. The IMF and the World Bank, the reduction of support in the agricultural and livestock Turkey, is known to put pressure for the abolition. Under these circumstances, our farmers, livestock producers and breeders of, not a chance to compete in the same market with EU producers. Animal products that capture the productivity levels of developed countries, seems to be our chance to compete with the quality and hygiene criteria. Thus, the discussion of the issue must be raised as for the sector's contribution to the economy in terms of further increasing production of the existing potential in mobilization.

Keywords: agricultural development, animal production, competition, economic crisis, food supply

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2529 The Effect of Wellness Program on Organizations Productivity: The Case of Pakistani Corporation’s

Authors: Saad Bin Nasir

Abstract:

This study imperially evaluated of five human resource (HR) practices (Wellness program extents are Employee’s assistance program, Health care screenings, and Recreation trips, Seminars for life style, Indoor and Outdoor activities) and there likely impact on the organization productivity in Pakistani organizations. The data were gathering by administrating questionnaires. The result indicated that all five variables are positively and significantly correlated with organization productivity. Results of regressing the all variables on organization productivity show that seminars for life style and employee’s assistance program strong predictors of organization productivity.

Keywords: wellness program, organization’s productivity, employee’s assistance program, health care screening

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2528 Study of Some Factors Effecting on Productivity of Solar Distillers

Authors: Keshek M.H, Mohamed M.A, El-Shafey M.A

Abstract:

The aim of this research was increasing the productivity of solar distillation. In order to reach this aim, a solar distiller was created with three glass sides sloping 30o at the horizontal level, and the experiments were carried out on the solar distillation unit during the period from 24th August, 2016 till 24th May, 2017 at the Agricultural Engineering and Bio Systems Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Menoufia University. Three gap lengths were used between the water level and the inner glass cover, those were 3, 6, and 9 cm. As the result of change the gap length between the water level and the inner glass cover the total volume of basins were changed from 15.5, 13, and 11 L, respectively. The total basin volume was divided to three sections, to investigate the effect of water volume. The three water volumes were 100%, 75%, and 50%. Every section was supplied with one, two, or three heaters. The one heater power was 15 W. The results showed that, by increasing the distance between the basins edge and the inner edge of the glass cover, an increase occurs in the percentage of temperature difference with maximum value was 52% at distance 9 cm from each edge, an increase occurs in the productivity with maximum productivity was 3.3 L/m2 at distance 9 cm from each edge and an increase occurs in the efficiency with maximum efficiency was 70% at distance 9 cm from each edge.

Keywords: distillation, solar energy, still productivity, efficiency

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2527 A Framework for Improving Trade Contractors’ Productivity Tracking Methods

Authors: Sophia Hayes, Kenny L. Liang, Sahil Sharma, Austin Shema, Mahmoud Bader, Mohamed Elbarkouky

Abstract:

Despite being one of the most significant economic contributors of the country, Canada’s construction industry is lagging behind other sectors when it comes to labor productivity improvements. The construction industry is very collaborative as a general contractor, will hire trade contractors to perform most of a project’s work; meaning low productivity from one contractor can have a domino effect on the shared success of a project. To address this issue and encourage trade contractors to improve their productivity tracking methods, an investigative study was done on the productivity views and tracking methods of various trade contractors. Additionally, an in-depth review was done on four standard tracking methods used in the construction industry: cost codes, benchmarking, the job productivity measurement (JPM) standard, and WorkFace Planning (WFP). The four tracking methods were used as a baseline in comparing the trade contractors’ responses, determining gaps within their current tracking methods, and for making improvement recommendations. 15 interviews were conducted with different trades to analyze how contractors value productivity. The results of these analyses indicated that there seem to be gaps within the construction industry when it comes to an understanding of the purpose and value in productivity tracking. The trade contractors also shared their current productivity tracking systems; which were then compared to the four standard tracking methods used in the construction industry. Gaps were identified in their various tracking methods and using a framework; recommendations were made based on the type of trade on how to improve how they track productivity.

Keywords: labor productivity, productivity tracking methods, trade contractors, construction

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2526 Labour Productivity Measurement and Control Standards for Hotels

Authors: Kristine Joy Simpao

Abstract:

Improving labour productivity is one of the most enthralling and challenging aspects of managing hotels and restaurant business. The demand to secure countless productivity became an increasingly pivotal role of managers to survive and sustain the business. Besides making business profitable, they are in the doom to make every resource to become productive and effective towards achieving company goal while maximizing the value of organization. This paper examines what productivity means to the services industry, in particular, to the hotel industry. This is underpinned by an investigation of the extent of practice of respondent hotels to the labour productivity aspect in the areas of materials management, human resource management and leadership management and in a way, computing the labour productivity ratios using the hotel simple ratios of productivity in order to find a suitable measurement and control standards for hotels with SBMA, Olongapo City as the locale of the study. The finding shows that hotels labour productivity ratings are not perfect with some practices that are far below particularly on strategic and operational decisions in improving performance and productivity of its human resources. It further proves of the no significant difference ratings among the respondent’s type in all areas which indicated that they are having similar perception of the weak implementation of some of the indicators in the labour productivity practices. Furthermore, the results in the computation of labour productivity efficiency ratios resulted relationship of employees versus labour productivity practices are inversely proportional. This study provides a potential measurement and control standards for the enhancement of hotels labour productivity. These standards should also contain labour productivity customized for standard hotels in Subic Bay Freeport Zone to assist hotel owners in increasing the labour productivity while meeting company goals and objectives effectively.

Keywords: labour productivity, hotel, measurement and control, standards, efficiency ratios, practices

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2525 Experimental Determination of Water Productivity of Improved Cassava Varieties Propagation under Rain-Fed Condition in Tropical Environment

Authors: Temitayo Abayomi Ewemoje, Isaac Olugbemiga Afolayan, Badmus Alao Tayo

Abstract:

Researchers in developing countries have worked on improving cassava resistance to diseases and pests, high yielding and early maturity However, water management has received little or no attention as cassava cultivation in Sub-Saharan Africa depended on available precipitation (rain-fed condition). Therefore the need for water management in Agricultural crop production cannot be overemphasized. As other sectors compete with agricultural sector for fresh water (which is not readily available), there is need to increase water productivity in agricultural production. Experimentation was conducted to examine water use, growth and yield of improved cassava varieties under rain fed condition using Latin- square design with four replications. Four improved disease free stem cassava varieties TMS (30572, 980505, 920326 and 090581) were planted and growth parameters of the varieties were monitored for 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP). Effective rainfall useful for the plant growth was calculated using CROPWAT8 for Windows. Results indicated TMS090581 was having the highest tuber yield and plant height while TMS30572 had highest number of nodes. Tuber stem and leaf water productivities at 90 and 120 DAP of TMS (30572, 980505, 920326 and 090581) are (1.27 and 3.58, 1.44 and 2.35, 0.89 and 1.86, 1.64 and 3.77) kg/m3 (1.56 and 2.59, 1.95 and 2.02, 1.98 and 2.05, 1.95 and 2.18) kg/m3, and (1.34 and 2.32, 1.94 and 2.16, 1.57 and 1.40, 1.27 and 1.80) kg/m3 respectively. Based on tuber water productivity TMS090581 are recommended while TMS30572 are recommended based on leaf and stem productivity in water scarce regions.Experimentation was conducted to examine water use, growth and yield of improved cassava varieties under rain fed condition using Latin- square design with four replications. Four improved disease free stem cassava varieties TMS (30572, 980505, 920326 and 090581) were planted and growth parameters of the varieties were monitored for 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP). Effective rainfall useful for the plant growth was calculated using CROPWAT8 for Windows. Results indicated TMS090581 was having the highest tuber yield and plant height while TMS30572 had the highest number of nodes. Tuber, stem and leaf water productivities at 90 and 120 DAP of TMS (30572, 980505, 920326 and 090581) are (1.27 and 3.58, 1.44 and 2.35, 0.89 and 1.86, 1.64 and 3.77) kg/m3 (1.56 and 2.59, 1.95 and 2.02, 1.98 and 2.05, 1.95 and 2.18) kg/m3, and (1.34 and 2.32, 1.94 and 2.16, 1.57 and 1.40, 1.27 and 1.80) kg/m3 respectively. Based on tuber water productivity TMS090581 are recommended while TMS30572 are recommended based on leaf and stem productivity in water scarce regions

Keywords: improved TMS varieties, leaf productivity, rain-fed cassava production, stem productivity, tuber productivity

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2524 Role of Agricultural Journalism in Diffusion of Farming Technologies

Authors: Muhammad Luqman, Mujahid Karim

Abstract:

Agricultural journalism considered an effective tool in the diffusion of agricultural technologies among the members of farming communities. Various agricultural journalism forms are used by the different organization in order to address the community problems and provide solutions to them. The present study was conducted for analyzing the role of agricultural journalism in the dissemination of agricultural information. The universe of the study was district Sargodha from which a sample of 100 was collected through a validating and pre-tested questionnaire. Statistical analysis of collected data was done with the help of SPSS. It was concluded that majority (64.6%) of the respondent were middle-aged (31-50) years, also indicates a high (73.23%) literacy rate above middle-level education, most (78.3%) of the respondents were connected with the occupation of farming. In various forms of agricultural journalism “Radio/T.V./F.M) is used by 99.4% of the respondent, Mobile phones (96%), Magazine/ Newspaper/ periodical (66.4%) and social media (60.9%). Regarding majors areas focused on agriculture journalism “Help farmers to enhance their productivity is on the highest level with a mean of ( =3.98/5.00). The regression model of farmer's education and various forms of agricultural journalism facilities used was found to be significant.

Keywords: agricultural information, journalism, farming community, technology diffusion and adoption

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2523 Simulation Model for Evaluating the Impact of Adaptive E-Learning in the Agricultural Sector

Authors: Maria Nabakooza

Abstract:

Efficient agricultural production is very significant in attaining food sufficiency and security in the world. Many methods are employed by the farmers while attending to their gardens, from manual to mechanized, with Farmers range from subsistence to commercial depending on the motive. This creates a lacuna in the modes of operation in this field as different farmers will take different approaches. This has led to many e-Learning courses being introduced to address this gap. Many e-learning systems use advanced network technologies like Web services, grid computing to promote learning at any time and any place. Many of the existing systems have not inculcated the applicability of the modules in them, the tools to be used and further access whether they are the right tools for the right job. A thorough investigation into the applicability of adaptive eLearning in the agricultural sector has not been taken into account; enabling the assumption that eLearning is the right tool for boosting productivity in this sector. This study comes in to provide an insight and thorough analysis as to whether adaptive eLearning is the right tool for boosting agricultural productivity. The Simulation will adopt a system dynamics modeling approach as a way of examining causality and effect relationship. This study will provide teachers with an insight into which tools they should adopt in designing, and provide students the opportunities to achieve an orderly learning experience through adaptive navigating e-learning services.

Keywords: agriculture, adaptive, e-learning, technology

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2522 Integrated Farming Barns as a Strategy for National Food Security

Authors: Ilma Ulfatul Janah, Ibnu Rizky Briwantara, Muhammad Afif

Abstract:

The agricultural sector is one of the sectors that contribute to national development. The benefit of the agricultural sector can be felt directly by the majority of Indonesian people. Indonesia is one of the agricultural countries and most of the people working in the agricultural sector. Hence, the agricultural sector’s become the second sector which has contributed greatly to the growth of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) after the manufacture sector. Based on the National Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN) from 2015 to 2019, one of the targets to be achieved by the Indonesian government is rice’s self-sufficient. Rice is the main food commodities which as most people in Indonesia, and it is making Indonesian government attempt self-sufficient in rice. Indonesia as an agricultural country becomes one of the countries that have a lower percentage of food security than other ASEAN countries. Rice self-sufficiency can be created through agricultural productivity and the availability of a market for the output. There are some problems still to be faced by the farmers such as farmer exchange rate is low. The low exchange rate of farmers showed that the level of the welfare’s Indonesian farmers is still low. The aims of this paper are to resolve problems related to food security and improve the welfare of the national rice farmers. The method by using materials obtained from the analysis of secondary data with the descriptive approach and conceptual framework. Integrated Farmers barn raising rice production is integrated and managed by the government coupled with the implementation of technology in the form of systems connected and accessible to farmers, namely 'SIBUNGTAN'.

Keywords: agriculture, self-sufficiency, technology, productivity

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2521 Theoretical Comparisons and Empirical Illustration of Malmquist, Hicks–Moorsteen, and Luenberger Productivity Indices

Authors: Fatemeh Abbasi, Sahand Daneshvar

Abstract:

Productivity is one of the essential goals of companies to improve performance, which as a strategy-oriented method, determines the basis of the company's economic growth. The history of productivity goes back centuries, but most researchers defined productivity as the relationship between a product and the factors used in production in the early twentieth century. Productivity as the optimal use of available resources means that "more output using less input" can increase companies' economic growth and prosperity capacity. Also, having a quality life based on economic progress depends on productivity growth in that society. Therefore, productivity is a national priority for any developed country. There are several methods for calculating productivity growth measurements that can be divided into parametric and non-parametric methods. Parametric methods rely on the existence of a function in their hypotheses, while non-parametric methods do not require a function based on empirical evidence. One of the most popular non-parametric methods is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which measures changes in productivity over time. The DEA evaluates the productivity of decision-making units (DMUs) based on mathematical models. This method uses multiple inputs and outputs to compare the productivity of similar DMUs such as banks, government agencies, companies, airports, Etc. Non-parametric methods are themselves divided into the frontier and non frontier approaches. The Malmquist productivity index (MPI) proposed by Caves, Christensen, and Diewert (1982), the Hicks–Moorsteen productivity index (HMPI) proposed by Bjurek (1996), or the Luenberger productivity indicator (LPI) proposed by Chambers (2002) are powerful tools for measuring productivity changes over time. This study will compare the Malmquist, Hicks–Moorsteen, and Luenberger indices theoretically and empirically based on DEA models and review their strengths and weaknesses.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, Hicks–Moorsteen productivity index, Leuenberger productivity indicator, malmquist productivity index

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2520 Productivity, Labour Flexibility, and Migrant Workers in Hotels: An Establishment and Departmental Level Analysis

Authors: Natina Yaduma, Allan Williams, Sangwon Park, Andrew Lockwood

Abstract:

This paper analyses flexible working, and the employment of migrants, as determinants of productivity in hotels. Controlling for the institutional environment, by focussing on a single firm, it analyses data on actual hours worked and outputs, on a weekly basis, over an 8 year period. The unusually disaggregated data allows the paper to examine not only inter-establishment, but also intra-establishment (departmental) variations in productivity, and to compare financial versus physical measures. The findings emphasise the complexity of productivity findings, sometimes contrasting evidence for establishments versus departments, and the positive but scale and measure-specific contributions of both the employment of migrants and flexible working, especially the utilisation of zero hours contracts.

Keywords: labour productivity, physical productivity, financial productivity, numerical flexibility, functional flexibility, migrant employment, cero-contract employment

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
2519 Analyzing the Climate Change Impact and Farmer's Adaptability Strategies in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Authors: Khuram Nawaz Sadozai, Sonia

Abstract:

The agriculture sector is deemed more vulnerable to climate change as its variation can directly affect the crop’s productivity, but farmers’ adaptation strategies play a vital role in climate change-agriculture relationship. Therefore, this research has been undertaken to assess the Climate Change impact on wheat productivity and farmers’ adaptability strategies in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. The panel dataset was analyzed to gauge the impact of changing climate variables (i.e., temperature, rainfall, and humidity) on wheat productivity from 1985 to 2015. Amid the study period, the fixed effect estimates confirmed an inverse relationship of temperature and rainfall on the wheat yield. The impact of temperature is observed to be detrimental as compared to the rainfall, causing 0.07 units reduction in the production of wheat with 1C upsurge in temperature. On the flip side, humidity revealed a positive association with the wheat productivity by confirming that high humidity could be beneficial to the production of the crop over time. Thus, this study ensures significant nexus between agricultural production and climatic parameters. However, the farming community in the underlying study area has limited knowledge about the adaptation strategies to lessen the detrimental impact of changing climate on crop yield. It is recommended that farmers should be well equipped with training and advanced agricultural management practices under the realm of climate change. Moreover, innovative technologies pertinent to the agriculture system should be encouraged to handle the challenges arising due to variations in climate factors.

Keywords: climate change, fixed effect model, panel data, wheat productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 51