Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4384

Search results for: communicative language teaching

4384 Enhancing Communicative Skills for Students in Automatics

Authors: Adrian Florin Busu

Abstract:

The communicative approach, or communicative language teaching, used for enhancing communicative skills in students in automatics is a modern teaching approach based on the concept of learning a language through having to communicate real meaning. In the communicative approach, real communication is both the objective of learning and the means through which it takes place. This approach was initiated during the 1970’s and quickly became prominent, as it proposed an alternative to the previous systems-oriented approaches. In other words, instead of focusing on the acquisition of grammar and vocabulary, the communicative approach aims at developing students’ competence to communicate in the target language with an enhanced focus on real-life situations. To put it in an nutshell, CLT considers using the language to be just as important as actually learning the language.

Keywords: communication, approach, objective, learning

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4383 Developing University EFL Students’ Communicative Competence by Using Communicative Approach

Authors: Mutwakel Abdalla Ali Garalzain

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop university EFL students’ communicative competence. The descriptive, analytical method was used in this study. To collect the data, the researcher designed two questionnaires, one for university EFL students and the other for English language teachers. The respondents of the study were eighty-eight; 76 university EFL students, and 12 English language teachers. The data obtained were analyzed by using statistical package for social science (SPSS). The findings of the study have revealed that most of the university EFL students are unable to express their ideas properly, although they have an abundance of vocabulary. The findings of the study have also shown that most of the university EFL students have positive attitudes towards communicative competence. The results of the study also identified the best strategies that can be used to enhance university EFL students’ communicative competence in English language teaching. The study recommends that English language textbooks should be compatible with the requirements of the student-centered approach. It also recommends that English language teachers should adopt the communicative approach’s strategies in the EFL classroom.

Keywords: applied linguistics, communicative competence , English language teaching, university EFL students

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4382 Potential Roles of Motivation and Teaching Strategies in Communicative Competencies among Palestinian University Students

Authors: Hazem Hasan Hushayish

Abstract:

Motivation and teaching strategies are commonly believed to improve students’ communicative competence in English as a foreign language; still, there is not much empirical evidence to support this claim. The present study is intended to focus on the effects of motivational factors and teaching strategies on the communicative competence among the Palestinian undergraduates. In the first phase, one hundred and eighty participants, who are studying English language in three Palestinian universities, answered a questionnaire. The questionnaire included items derived from Gardner’s 2001, 2004, 2006, 2007 Attitude/Motivation Test Battery AMTB and items from Dörnyei 2007 and Guilloteaux and Dörnyei 2008 teaching strategies framework for foreign language classrooms. In the second phase, 6 participants, from the same universities, were interviewed. The quantitative results indicated that participants’ communicative competence is significantly affected by motivation and teaching strategies. Also, the qualitative results indicated that teaching strategies do not directly affect students’ communicative competence, but rather affect their motivation. Consequently, the current study will add substantively to the literature concerning the effects of motivation and teaching strategies in communicative competencies among EFL learners in the Palestinian context, and some suggested procedures and suggestions that help improve learners’ communicative competences.

Keywords: communicative competence, motivation, teaching strategies, Palestinian undergraduates

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4381 Philosophical Foundations of Education at the Kazakh Languages by Aiding Communicative Methods

Authors: Duisenova Marzhan

Abstract:

This paper considers the looking from a philosophical point of view the interactive technology and tiered developing Kazakh language teaching primary school pupils through the method of linguistic communication, content and teaching methods formed in the education system. The values determined by the formation of new practical ways that could lead to a novel qualitative level and solving the problem. In the formation of the communicative competence of elementary school students would be to pay attention to other competencies. It helps to understand the motives and needs socialization of students, the development of their cognitive abilities and participate in language relations arising from different situations. Communicative competence is the potential of its own in pupils creative language activity. In this article, the Kazakh language teaching in primary school communicative method is presented. The purpose of learning communicative method, personal development, effective psychological development of the child, himself-education, expansion and growth of language skills and vocabulary, socialization of children, the adoption of the laws of life in the social environment, analyzed the development of vocabulary richness of the language that forms the erudition to ensure continued improvement of education of the child.

Keywords: communicative, culture, training, process, method, primary, competence

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4380 Implementation of Computer-Based Technologies into Foreign Language Teaching Process

Authors: Golovchun Aleftina, Dabyltayeva Raikhan

Abstract:

Nowadays, in the world of widely developing cross-cultural interactions and rapidly changing demands of the global labor market, foreign language teaching and learning has taken a special role not only in school education but also in everyday life. Cognitive Lingua-Cultural Methodology of Foreign Language Teaching originated in Kazakhstan brings a communicative approach to the forefront in foreign language teaching that gives raise a variety of techniques to make the language learning a real communication. One of these techniques is Computer Assisted Language Learning. In our article, we aim to: demonstrate what learning benefits students are likely to get by teachers having implemented computer-based technologies into foreign language teaching process; prove that technology-based classroom serves as the best tool for interactive and efficient language learning; give examples of classroom sufficient organization with computer-based activities.

Keywords: computer assisted language learning, learning benefits, foreign language teaching process, implementation, communicative approach

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4379 The Role of Eclectic Approach to Teach Communicative Function at Secondary Level

Authors: Fariha Asif

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of eclectic approach in teaching of communicative functions. The objectives of the study were to get the information about the use of communicative functions through eclectic approach and to point out the most effective way of teaching functional communication and social interaction with the help of communicative activities through eclectic approach. The next step was to select sample from the selected population. As the research was descriptive so a questionnaire was developed on the basis of hypothesis and distributed to different selected schools of Lahore, Pakistan. Then data was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted through computer by finding percentages of different responses given by teachers to see the results. It was concluded that eclectic approach is effective in teaching communicative functions and communicative functions are better when taught through eclectic approach and communicative activities are more appropriate way of teaching communicative functions. It was found those teachers who were qualified in ELT gave better opinions as compare to those who did not have this degree. Techniques like presentations, dialogues and roleplay proved to be effective for teaching functional communication through communicative activities and also motivate the students not only in learning rules but also in using them to communicate with others.

Keywords: methodology, functions, teaching, ESP

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4378 Arabic as a Foreign Language in the Curriculum of Higher Education in Nigeria: Problems, Solutions, and Prospects

Authors: Kazeem Oluwatoyin Ajape

Abstract:

The study is concerned with the problem of how to improve the teaching of Arabic as a foreign language in Nigerian Higher Education System. The paper traces the historical background of Arabic education in Nigeria and also outlines the problems facing the language in Nigerian Institutions. It lays down some of the essential foundation work necessary for bringing about systematic and constructive improvements in the Teaching of Arabic as a Foreign Language (TAFL) by giving answers to the following research questions: what is the appropriate medium of instruction in teaching a foreign or second language? What is the position of English language in the teaching and learning of Arabic/Islamic education? What is the relevance of the present curriculum of Arabic /Islamic education in Nigerian institutions to the contemporary society? A survey of the literature indicates that a revolution is currently taking place in FL teaching and that a new approach known as the Communicative Approach (CA), has begun to emerge and influence the teaching of FLs in general, over the last decade or so. Since the CA is currently being adapted to the teaching of most major FLs and since this revolution has not yet had much impact on TAPL, the study explores the possibility of the application of the CA to the teaching of Arabic as a living language and also makes recommendations towards the development of the language in Nigerian Institutions of Higher Learning.

Keywords: Arabic Language, foreign language, Nigerian institutions, curriculum, communicative approach

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4377 Communicative Language Teaching in English as a Foreign Language Classrooms: An Overview of Secondary Schools in Bangladesh

Authors: Saifunnahar

Abstract:

As a former English colony, the relationship of Bangladesh with the English language goes a long way back. English is taught as a compulsory subject in Bangladesh from an early age starting from grade 1 and continuing through the 12th, yet, students are not competent enough to communicate in English proficiently. To improve students’ English language competency, the Bangladesh Ministry of Education introduced communicative language teaching (CLT) methods in English classrooms in the 1990s. It has been decades since this effort was taken, but the students’ level of proficiency is still not satisfactory. The main reason behind this failure is that CLT-based teaching-learning methods have not been effectively implemented. Very little research has been conducted to address the issues English as a foreign language (EFL) classrooms are facing to carry out CLT methodologies in secondary schools (grades 6 to 10) in Bangladesh. Though the secondary level is crucial for students’ language learning and retention, EFL classrooms are marked with various issues that make teaching-learning harder for teachers and students. This study provides an overview of the status of CLT in EFL classrooms and the reasons behind failing to implement CLT in secondary schools in Bangladesh through an analysis of the qualitative data collected from different literature. Based on the findings, effective approaches have been recommended to employ CLT in EFL classrooms.

Keywords: Bangladesh, communicative language teaching, English as a foreign language, secondary schools, pedagogy

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4376 Reemergence of Behaviorism in Language Teaching

Authors: Hamid Gholami

Abstract:

During the years, the language teaching methods have been the offshoots of schools of thought in psychology. The methods were mainly influenced by their contemporary psychological approaches, as Audiolingualism was based on behaviorism and Communicative Language Teaching on constructivism. In 1950s, the text books were full of repetition exercises which were encouraged by Behaviorism. In 1980s they got filled with communicative exercises as suggested by constructivism. The trend went on to nowadays that sees no specific method as prevalent since none of the schools of thought seem to be illustrative of the complexity in human being learning. But some changes can be notable; some textbooks are giving more and more space to repetition exercises at least to enhance some aspects of language proficiency, namely collocations, rhythm and intonation, and conversation models. These changes may mark the reemergence of one of the once widely accepted schools of thought in psychology; behaviorism.

Keywords: language teaching methods, psychology, schools of thought, Behaviorism

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4375 Using Authentic and Instructional Materials to Support Intercultural Communicative Competence in ELT

Authors: Jana Beresova

Abstract:

The paper presents a study carried out in 2015-2016 within the national scheme of research - VEGA 1/0106/15 based on theoretical research and empirical verification of the concept of intercultural communicative competence. It focuses on the current conception concerning target languages teaching compatible with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Our research had revealed how the concept of intercultural communicative competence had been perceived by secondary-school teachers of English in Slovakia before they were intensively trained. Intensive workshops were based on the use of both authentic and instructional materials with the goal to support interculturally oriented language teaching aimed at challenging thinking. The former concept that supported the development of the students´ linguistic knowledge and the use of a target language to obtain information about the culture of the country whose language learners were learning was expanded by the meaning-making framework which views language as a typical means by which culture is mediated. The goal of the workshop was to influence English teachers to better understand the concept of intercultural communicative competence, combining theory and practice optimally. The results of the study will be presented and analysed, providing particular recommendations for language teachers and suggesting some changes in the National Educational Programme from which English learners should benefit in their future studies or professional careers.

Keywords: authentic materials, English language teaching, instructional materials, intercultural communicative competence

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4374 Communicative Competence versus Language Proficiency

Authors: Pouya Vakili

Abstract:

The aim of present paper is to have a rough comparison between language proficiency and communicative competence, moreover, how different scholars in the field of second language acquisition/assessment have defined competence in different paradigms. Researchers differ, however, in how they view 'competence'. Those who are dealing with generative tradition associated with Chomsky have defined it as linguistic competence (knowledge of the grammar of L2). Other researchers have adopted a broader perspective that is examining how learners acquire communicative competence (knowledge of both the L2 grammar and of how this system is put to use in actual communication).

Keywords: communicative competence, competence, language proficiency, linguistic competence

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4373 The Use of Authentic Materials in the Chinese Language Classroom

Authors: Yiwen Jin, Jing Xiao, Pinfang Su

Abstract:

The idea of adapting authentic materials in language teaching is from the communicative method in the 1970s. Different from the language in language textbooks, authentic materials is not deliberately written, it is from the native speaker’s real life and contains real information, which can meet social needs. It could improve learners ' interest, create authentic context and improve learners ' communicative competence. Authentic materials play an important role in CFL(Chinese as a foreign language) classroom. Different types of authentic materials can be used in different ways during learning and teaching. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic,a lot of Chinese learners are learning Chinese without the real language environment. Although there are some well-written textbooks, there is a certain distance between textbook language materials and daily life. Learners cannot automatically fill this gap. That is why it is necessary to apply authentic materials as a supplement to the language textbook to create the real context. Chinese teachers around the world are working together, trying to integrate the resources and apply authentic materials through different approach. They apply authentic materials in the form of new textbooks, manuals, apps and short videos they collect and create to help Chinese learning and teaching. A review of previous research on authentic materials and the Chinese teachers’ attempt to adapt it in the classroom are offered in this manuscript.

Keywords: authentic materials, Chinese as a second language, developmental use of digital resources, materials development for language teaching

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4372 Understanding Context and Its Effects in the Implementation of Modern Foreign Language Curriculum in Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc T. Bui

Abstract:

The key issue for teachers of a modern foreign language is the creation of a pedagogic environment, and this means that an understanding of context is vital. A pedagogic environment addresses the following: time, feedback, relations with other people, curriculum integration, forms of knowledge, resources and control in the pedagogic relationship. In this light, the multiple case study of the implementation of a modern foreign language curriculum focuses on exploring Vietnamese contexts and participants’ perceptions of factors that may affect their implementation process in order to examine thoroughly how the communicative language teaching (CLT) curriculum is being implemented in second language classrooms. A mixed methods approach is utilized to investigate contextual and personal factors that may affect teachers’ implementation of curriculum and pedagogical reform in Vietnam. This project therefore has the capability to inform stakeholders of useful information and identify further changes and measures to solve potential problems to ensure the achievement of the curriculum goals. The expected outcomes may also lead to intercultural language teaching guidelines to support english as a foreign language (EFL) teachers with curriculum design, planning and how to create pedagogic environment to best implement it.

Keywords: communicative language teaching, context, curriculum implementation, modern foreign language, pedagogic environment

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4371 Empowering Business Students with Intercultural Communicative Competence through Multicultural Literature

Authors: Dorsaf Ben Malek

Abstract:

The function of culture in language teaching changed because of globalization and the latest technologies. English became a lingua franca which resulted in altering the teaching objectives. The re-evaluation of cultural awareness is one of them. Business English teaching has also been subject to all these changes. It is therefore a wrong idea if we try to consider it as a diffusion of unlimited listing of lexis, diagrams, charts, and statistics. In fact, business students’ future career will require business terminology together with intercultural communicative competence (ICC) to handle different multicultural encounters and contribute to the international community. The first part of this paper is dedicated to the necessity of empowering business students with intercultural communicative competence and the second turns around the potential of multicultural literature in implementing ICC in business English teaching. This was proved through a qualitative action research done on a group of Tunisian MA business students. It was an opportunity to discover the potential of multicultural literature together with inquiry-based learning in enhancing business students’ intercultural communicative competence. Data were collected through classroom observations, journals and semi-structured interviews. Results were in favour of using multicultural literature to enhance business students’ ICC. In addition, the short story may be a motivating tool to read literature, and inquiry-based learning can be an effective approach to teaching literature.

Keywords: intercultural communicative competence, multicultural literature, short stories, inquiry-based learning

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4370 Developing Oral Communication Competence in a Second Language: The Communicative Approach

Authors: Ikechi Gilbert

Abstract:

Oral communication is the transmission of ideas or messages through the speech process. Acquiring competence in this area which, by its volatile nature, is prone to errors and inaccuracies would require the adoption of a well-suited teaching methodology. Efficient oral communication facilitates exchange of ideas and easy accomplishment of day-to-day tasks, by means of a demonstrated mastery of oral expression and the making of fine presentations to audiences or individuals while recognizing verbal signals and body language of others and interpreting them correctly. In Anglophone states such as Nigeria, Ghana, etc., the French language, for instance, is studied as a foreign language, being used majorly in teaching learners who have their own mother tongue different from French. The same applies to Francophone states where English is studied as a foreign language by people whose official language or mother tongue is different from English. The ideal approach would be to teach these languages in these environments through a pedagogical approach that properly takes care of the oral perspective for effective understanding and application by the learners. In this article, we are examining the communicative approach as a methodology for teaching oral communication in a foreign language. This method is a direct response to the communicative needs of the learner involving the use of appropriate materials and teaching techniques that meet those needs. It is also a vivid improvement to the traditional grammatical and audio-visual adaptations. Our contribution will focus on the pedagogical component of oral communication improvement, highlighting its merits and also proposing diverse techniques including aspects of information and communication technology that would assist the second language learner communicate better orally.

Keywords: communication, competence, methodology, pedagogical component

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4369 Overcoming Challenges of Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Technical Classrooms: A Case Study at TVTC College of Technology

Authors: Sreekanth Reddy Ballarapu

Abstract:

The perception of the whole process of teaching and learning is undergoing a drastic and radical change. More and more student-centered, pragmatic, and flexible approaches are gradually replacing teacher-centered lecturing and structural-syllabus instruction. The issue of teaching English as a Foreign language is no exception in this regard. The traditional Present-Practice-Produce (P-P-P) method of teaching English is overtaken by Task-Based Teaching which is a subsidiary branch of Communicative Language Teaching. At this juncture this article strongly tries to convey that - Task-based learning, has an advantage over other traditional methods of teaching. All teachers of English must try to customize their texts into productive tasks, apply them, and evaluate the students as well as themselves. Task Based Learning is a double edged tool which can enhance the performance of both the teacher and the taught. The sample for this case study is a class of 35 students from Semester III - Network branch at TVTC College of Technology, Adhum - Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The students are high school passed out and aged between 19-21years.For the present study the prescribed textbook Technical English 1 by David Bonamy was used and a number of language tasks were chalked out during the pre- task stage and the learners were made to participate voluntarily and actively. The Action Research methodology was adopted within the dual framework of Communicative Language Teaching and Task-Based Learning. The different tools such as questionnaires, feedback and interviews were used to collect data. This study provides information about various techniques of Communicative Language Teaching and Task Based Learning and focuses primarily on the advantages of using a Task Based Learning approach. This article presents in detail the objectives of the study, the planning and implementation of the action research, the challenges encountered during the execution of the plan, and the pedagogical outcome of this project. These research findings serve two purposes: first, it evaluates the effectiveness of Task Based Learning and, second, it empowers the teacher's professionalism in designing and implementing the tasks. In the end, the possibility of scope for further research is presented in brief.

Keywords: action research, communicative language teaching, task based learning, perception

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4368 Creative Application of Cognitive Linguistics and Communicative Methods to Eliminate Common Learners' Mistakes in Academic Essay Writing

Authors: Ekaterina Lukianchenko

Abstract:

This article sums up a six-year experience of teaching English as a foreign language to over 900 university students at MGIMO (Moscow University of International Relations, Russia), all of them native speakers of Russian aged 16 to 23. By combining modern communicative approach to teaching with cognitive linguistics theories, one can deal more effectively with deeply rooted mistakes which particular students have of which conventional methods have failed to eliminate. If language items are understood as concepts and frames, and classroom activities as meaningful parts of language competence development, this might help to solve such problems as incorrect use of words, unsuitable register, and confused tenses - as well as logical or structural mistakes, and even certain psychological issues concerning essay writing. Along with classic teaching methods, such classroom practice includes plenty of interaction between students - playing special classroom games aimed at eliminating particular mistakes, working in pairs and groups, integrating all skills in one class. The main conclusions that the author of the experiment makes consist in an assumption that academic essay writing classes demand a balanced plan. This should not only include writing as such, but additionally feature elements of listening, reading, speaking activities specifically chosen according to the skills and language students will need to write the particular type of essay.

Keywords: academic essay writing, creative teaching, cognitive linguistics, competency-based approach, communicative language teaching, frame, concept

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4367 Implementing a Plurilingual Approach to ELF in Primary School: An International Comparative Study

Authors: A. Chabert

Abstract:

The present paper is motivated by the current influence of communicative approaches in language policies around the globe (especially through the Common European Framework of Reference), along with the exponential spread of English as a Lingua Franca worldwide. This study focuses on English language learning and teaching in the last year of primary education in Spain (in the bilingual Valencian region), Norway (in the Trondelag region), and China (in the Hunan region) and proposes a plurilingual communicative approach to ELT in line with ELF awareness and the current retheorisation of ELF within multilingualism (Jenkins, 2018). This study, interdisciplinary in nature, attempts to find a convergence point among English Language Teaching, English as a Lingua Franca, Language Ecology and Multilingualism, breaking with the boundaries that separate languages in language teaching and acknowledging English as international communication, while protecting the mother tongue and language diversity within multilingualism. Our experiment included over 400 students across Spain, Norway, and China, and the outcomes obtained demonstrate that despite the different factors involved in different cultures and contexts, a plurilingual approach to English learning improved English scores by 20% in each of the contexts. Through our study, we reflect on the underestimated value of the mother tongue in ELT, as well as the need for a sustainable ELF perspective in education worldwide.

Keywords: English as a Lingua Franca, English language teaching, language ecology, multilingualism

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4366 Building Intercultural Competence in English Language Learners: Practices and Materials of Cultural-Based Language Teaching

Authors: Randa Alahmadi

Abstract:

Because the world has become a global village, English is not only used by native speakers, but also by non-native speakers from culturally diverse backgrounds. Even though learning a second/foreign language requires development of the four skills: reading, writing, listening, and speaking, there is also an intertwined relationship between language and culture, making it difficult to teach language without knowing the cultural context in which it is to be used. In the past decade, the number of international students enrolled in universities around the world has increased significantly. Having the urge to communicate effectively would serve as a motivation for both international and domestic students. The teaching of culture is important because linguistic competence is not enough for successful communication with speakers of other languages. Therefore, whether teaching natives or non-natives, students need to improve their cross-cultural communication skills and become culturally prepared to communicate successfully with people from other cultures. Teachers can equip their students for this environment by giving them appropriate knowledge and skills for effective intercultural communication. This paper will focus on the importance of intercultural communicative competence and its role in developing students’ understanding of diverse cultures as part of learning foreign/second languages. It will also explain how teachers can decide which culture should be taught: the target culture, the learners’ culture, or both. Moreover, practical and effective techniques that can be used in cultural-based language teaching will be shared.

Keywords: cultural-based language teaching, English as a lingua franca, English language learners, intercultural communicative competence

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4365 Teaching English to Engineers: Between English Language Teaching and Psychology

Authors: Irina-Ana Drobot

Abstract:

Teaching English to Engineers is part of English for Specific Purposes, a domain which is under the attention of English students especially under the current conditions of finding jobs and establishing partnerships outside Romania. The paper will analyse the existing textbooks together with the teaching strategies they adopt. Teaching English to Engineering students can intersect with domains such as psychology and cultural studies in order to teach them efficiently. Textbooks for students of ESP, ranging from those at the Faculty of Economics to those at the Faculty of Engineers, have shifted away from using specialized vocabulary, drills for grammar and reading comprehension questions and toward communicative methods and the practical use of language. At present, in Romania, grammar is neglected in favour of communicative methods. The current interest in translation studies may indicate a return to this type of method, since only translation specialists can distinguish among specialized terms and determine which are most suitable in a translation. Engineers are currently encouraged to learn English in order to do their own translations in their own field. This paper will analyse the issue of the extent to which it is useful to teach Engineering students to do translations in their field using cognitive psychology applied to language teaching, including issues such as motivation and social psychology. Teaching general English to engineering students can result in lack of interest, but they can be motivated by practical aspects which will help them in their field. This is why this paper needs to take into account an interdisciplinary approach to teaching English to Engineers.

Keywords: cognition, ESP, motivation, psychology

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4364 Reading and Teaching Poetry as Communicative Discourse: A Pragma-Linguistic Approach

Authors: Omnia Elkommos

Abstract:

Language is communication on several discourse levels. The target of teaching a language and the literature of a foreign language is to communicate a message. Reading, appreciating, analysing, and interpreting poetry as a sophisticated rhetorical expression of human thoughts, emotions, and philosophical messages is more feasible through the use of linguistic pragmatic tools from a communicative discourse perspective. The poet's intention, speech act, illocutionary act, and perlocutionary goal can be better understood when communicative situational context as well as linguistic discourse structure theories are employed. The use of linguistic theories in the teaching of poetry is, therefore, intrinsic to students' comprehension, interpretation, and appreciation of poetry of the different ages. It is the purpose of this study to show how both teachers as well as students can apply these linguistic theories and tools to dramatic poetic texts for an engaging, enlightening, and effective interpretation and appreciation of the language. Theories drawn from areas of pragmatics, discourse analysis, embedded discourse level, communicative situational context, and other linguistic approaches were applied to selected poetry texts from the different centuries. Further, in a simple statistical count of the number of poems with dialogic dramatic discourse with embedded two or three levels of discourse in different anthologies outweighs the number of descriptive poems with a one level of discourse, between the poet and the reader. Poetry is thus discourse on one, two, or three levels. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers and students in the area of ESL/EFL use the linguistics theories for a better understanding of poetry as communicative discourse. The practice of applying these linguistic theories in classrooms and in research will allow them to perceive the language and its linguistic, social, and cultural aspect. Texts will become live illocutionary acts with a perlocutionary acts goal rather than mere literary texts in anthologies.

Keywords: coda, commissives, communicative situation, context of culture, context of reference, context of utterance, dialogue, directives, discourse analysis, dramatic discourse interaction, duologue, embedded discourse levels, language for communication, linguistic structures, literary texts, poetry, pragmatic theories, reader response, speech acts (macro/micro), stylistics, teaching literature, TEFL, terms of address, turn-taking

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4363 Communication Competence or Language Proficiency for Employability: An Investigation on Malaysian Polytechnics ESL Engineering Students

Authors: Chong Ling Ling

Abstract:

In the Malaysian polytechnic, there are concerns about language proficiency, communicative competence, and employability among Malaysian polytechnic ESL engineering students. This study examined the relationships between communicative competence, language proficiency, and employability using descriptive analysis and inferential statistics. Next, Pearson’s Correlation determines the correlation between communication competence, language proficiency, and employability skills of Malaysian Polytechnic ESL engineering students. The total number of participants was 81 final-year engineering students. The findings revealed high positive correlations between the communicative competence -'I can talk with a friend in English.' and employability skill (r = 0.854, p = .031), also, language proficiency -'I can understand the English songs I listen to' and employability skill (r = 0.887, p = .038). The result is consistent with the theories. The result revealed that for the 81 students, communication competence and language proficiency, and employability skills are firmly and significantly correlated. Thus, it concluded that both communicative competence and language proficiency equally essential to ensure a higher employability rate among Malaysian polytechnic ESL engineering students.

Keywords: communicative competence, employability, language proficiency, Malaysian polytechnic

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4362 Communicative Language between Doctors and Patients in Healthcare

Authors: Anita Puspawati

Abstract:

A failure in obtaining informed consent from patient occurs because there is not effective communication skill in doctors. Therefore, the language is very important in communication between doctor and patient. This study uses descriptive analysis method, that is a method used mainly in researching the status of a group of people, an object, a condition, a system of thought or a class of events in the present. The result of this study indicates that the communicative language between doctors and patients will increase the trust of patients to their doctors and accordingşy, patients will provide the informed consent voluntarily.

Keywords: communicative, language, doctor, patient

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4361 Teaching English as a Second/Foreign Language Under Humanistic and Sociocultural Psychology

Authors: Mahrukh Baig

Abstract:

This research paper, sets out to draw some traditional english language teaching practices and to suggest ways for their improvement under the light of humanistic and socio-cultural psychology. This is going to aid language teachers by applying principled psychological methods on the field of education in order to introduce a reciprocal mode of teaching where teacher and learner begin with a mutual effort. However the teacher, after initiating most of the work, gradually passes on more and more responsibility to the learners resulting in their independent endeavors.

Keywords: English Language Teaching (ELT), Second Language Acquisition (SLA), teaching english as second/foreign language, humanistic psychology, socio-cultural psychology, application of psychology to language teaching

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4360 IEP Curriculum to Include For-Credit University English Classes

Authors: Cheyne Kirkpatrick

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In an attempt to make the university intensive English program more worthwhile for students, many English language programs are redesigning curriculum to offer for-credit English for Academic Purposes classes, sometimes marketed as “bridge” courses. These programs are designed to be accredited to national language standards, provide communicative language learning, and give students the opportunity to simultaneously earn university language credit while becoming proficient in academic English. This presentation will discuss the curriculum design of one such program in the United States at a large private university that created its own for-credit “bridge” program. The planning, development, piloting, teaching, and challenges of designing this type of curriculum will be presented along with the aspects of accreditation, communicative language learning, and integration within various university programs. Attendees will learn about how such programs are created and what types of objectives and outcomes are included in American EAP classes.

Keywords: IEP, AEP, Curriculum, CEFR, University Credit, Bridge

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4359 Student's Reluctance in Oral Participation

Authors: Soumia Hebbri

Abstract:

English language has become a major medium for communication across borders. Nowadays, it is seen as a communicative medium not only for business but also for academic purposes. Some scientists describe English language as a way to enjoy an admired position in many countries. It is neither a national nor an official language in North Africa; it is considered as the most widely taught foreign language at the educational system. In order to achieve mastery of a foreign language, learners must develop the four principal language skills: Reading, writing, listening and speaking. However, being able to interact orally with others, using effectively the target language, is nowadays very important. People who cannot speak a foreign language cannot be considered effective language users, even if they can read and understand it. The teachers’ role in promoting foreign language acquisition is very important, as they are responsible for providing students appropriate contexts to foster communicative situations that allow students to express themselves and interact in the target language. So, we should understand the student’s reasons of their reluctance in oral participation when dealing with oral communicative tasks, in order to get insights about the possible motivating factors that may improve their involvement and participation in the classroom.

Keywords: EL, EFL, ET, TEFL, communication

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4358 Challenges of Teaching English as a Foreign Language in the Algerian Universities

Authors: Khedidja Benaicha Mati

Abstract:

The present research tries to highlight a very crucial issue which exists at the level of the faculty of Economics and Management at Chlef university. This issue is represented by the challenges and difficulties which face the teaching / learning process in the faculty on the part of the language teachers, the learners, and the administration staff, including mainly the absence of an agreed syllabus, lack of teaching materials, teachers’ qualifications and training, timing, coefficient, and lack of motivation and interest amongst students. All these negative factors make teaching and learning EFL rather ambiguous, ineffective and unsatisfactory. The students at the faculty of Economics and Management are looking for acquiring not only GE but also technical English to respond efficiently to the ongoing changes at the various levels most notably economy, business, technology, and sciences. Therefore, there is a need of ESP programmes which would focus on developing the communicative competence of the learners in their specific field of study or work. The aim of the present research is to explore the ways of improving the actual situation of teaching English in the faculty of Economics and to make the English courses more purposive, fulfilling and satisfactory. The sample population focused on second and third-year students of Economics from different specialties mainly commercial sciences, insurance and banking, accountancy, and management. This is done through a questionnaire which inquires students about their learning weaknesses, difficulties and challenges they encounter, and their expectations of the subject matter.

Keywords: faculty of economics and management, challenges, teaching/ learning process, EFL, GE, ESP, English courses, communicative competence

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4357 Efficacy of Task Based Language Teaching in a Second Language Classroom Context

Authors: Wajiha Fatima

Abstract:

Various approaches and methods for second language classroom teaching have been proposed since the nineteenth century. Task Based Language Teaching has been prevailing approach in a second language classroom context. It is an approach which immerses students in a naturalistic setting. Tasks are the core unit of planning and instruction. This paper aims at expounding the concept of Task Based Language Teaching and how it has been evolved. In this study, researcher will highlight the usefulness of TBLT and the role it played as a powerful tool for learning and teaching in a second language setting. The article will reflect the implementation of various tasks based activities as well as the roles played by learners and teachers and the problems faced by them. In the end, researcher will discuss how TBLT can be implemented in second language classroom pedagogy.

Keywords: implementation, second language classroom, tasks, task based language teaching

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4356 Creating Complementary Bi-Modal Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study Combining Online and Classroom Techniques

Authors: Justin P. Pool, Haruyo Yoshida

Abstract:

This research focuses on the effects of creating an English as a foreign language curriculum that combines online learning and classroom teaching in a complementary manner. Through pre- and post-test results, teacher observation, and learner reflection, it will be shown that learners can benefit from online programs focusing on receptive skills if combined with a communicative classroom environment that encourages learners to develop their productive skills. Much research has lamented the fact that many modern mobile assisted language learning apps do not take advantage of the affordances of modern technology by focusing only on receptive skills rather than inviting learners to interact with one another and develop communities of practice. This research takes into account the realities of the state of such apps and focuses on how to best create a curriculum that complements apps which focus on receptive skills. The research involved 15 adult learners working for a business in Japan simultaneously engaging in 1) a commercial online English language learning application that focused on reading, listening, grammar, and vocabulary and 2) a 15-week class focused on communicative language teaching, presentation skills, and mitigation of error aversion tendencies. Participants of the study experienced large gains on a standardized test, increased motivation and willingness to communicate, and asserted that they felt more confident regarding English communication. Moreover, learners continued to study independently at higher rates after the study than they had before the onset of the program. This paper will include the details of the program, reveal the improvement in test scores, share learner reflections, and critically view current evaluation models for mobile assisted language learning applications.

Keywords: adult learners, communicative language teaching, mobile assisted language learning, motivation

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4355 Media-Based Interventions to Influence English Language Learning: A Case of Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Mizanoor Rahman, Md. Zakir Hossain Talukder, M. Mahruf C. Shohel, Prithvi Shrestha

Abstract:

In Bangladesh, classroom practice and English Learning (EL) competencies acquired both by the teacher and learner in primary and secondary schools are still very weak. Therefore, English is the most commonly failed examination subject at the school level; in addition, there are severe problems in communicative English by the Bangladeshi nationals– this has been characterized as a constraint to economic development. Job applicants and employees often lack English language skills necessary to work effectively. As a result; both government and its international development partners such as DFID, UNESCO, and CIDA have been very active to uplift the quality of the English language learning and implementing projects with innovative approaches. Recently; the economy has been increasing and in line with this, the technology has been deployed in English learning to improve reading, writing, speaking and listening skills. Young Bangladeshi creative, from a variety of backgrounds including film, animation, photography, and digital media are being trained to develop ideas for English Language Teaching (ELT) media. They are being motivated to develop a wide range of ideas for low cost English learning media products. English Language education policy in Bangladesh supports communicative language teaching practices and accordingly, actors have been influencing curriculum, textbook, deployment of technology and assessment changes supporting communicative ELT. The various projects are also being implemented to reform the curriculum, revise the textbook and adjust the assessment mechanism so that the country can increase in proficiency in communicative English among the population. At present; the numbers of teachers, students and adult learners classified at higher levels of proficiency because of deployment of technology and motivation for learning and using English among school population of Bangladesh. The current paper discusses the various interventions in Bangladesh with appropriate media to improve the competencies of the ELT among population.

Keywords: English learning, technology, education, psychological sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 323