Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Rohingya

14 Status and Rights of Rohingya Migrants in Bangladesh: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Md Nur Uddin

Abstract:

The Rohingya people are one of the world's most oppressed and persecuted refugee populations, having been stateless for over six generations and still are. In recent years, more than half-million Rohingya Muslims have fled Myanmar (Burma) for neighboring nations. This article discusses the Status and Rights of Rohingya Migrants in Bangladesh, with a focus on the living conditions of this vulnerable population. A lot of information has been studied about Rohingya refugees states that violence in Rakhine state has sent an estimated 615,500 Rohingya across the border into Bangladesh's Cox's Bazar since August 25, 2017. In Cox's Bazar, a total of 33,131 Rohingya refugees are housed in two registered camps, with an additional 854,024 living in informal settlements nearby. The living conditions of Rohingya refugees in overcrowded camps remain dismal. Mental health is bad, cleanliness is poor, malnutrition is common, and physical and sexual abuse is endemic. A coordinated diplomatic effort involving Bangladesh and Myanmar, as well as international mediators such as the Organization of Islamic Countries and the United Nations, is essential to adequately resolve this complex matter. Bangladeshi officials must ensure the safety of the Rohingyas in the camps and use available humanitarian aid to give the refugees basic amenities such as food, shelter, sanitation, and medical treatment. UNHCR officials should keep an eye on the actual repatriation process to ensure that refugees who have expressed a desire to stay in Bangladesh are not deported against their choice.

Keywords: international refugee laws, united nations, Rohingya, stateless, humanitarian

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13 Migration and Human Security: An Analysis of a Neglected Ethnic Rohingya's Exodus in Myanmar and Its Regional Security Implications

Authors: Zarina Othman, Bakri Mat, Aini Fatihah Roslam

Abstract:

The Burmese ethnic known as Rohingya is one of the world’s most persecuted ethnic minorities on earth. They have been massacred, discriminated, humiliated, gang-raped, trafficked, abused and neglected. More than one million Rohingyas have been displaced internally and overseas. Currently, Rohingya asylum seekers can be found in India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. This forced migration is unacceptable since the Rohingya are stateless although they have been part of Myanmar for more than one century. Why the Rohingyas crisis is important to be analyse from human security perspectives? Understanding the human security of the Rohingya is important because the crisis may have implication on the regional stability in South and South-East Asia. The objectives of the research are to provide an explanation to the current human security situation in Myanmar, to analyse the regional implication of the Rohingya’s crisis and to recommend the workable solution that may help to reduce the tension. To analyze and demonstrate the case, the research has adopted the BAGHUS or Bangi Human Security Approach, a Southeast Asian human security model, designed to protect the weakest and the vital core of human life across national borders. Based on a qualitative research, and a review of literature from secondary sources of books, reports and academic journals, the research has conducted interviews with 1) Rohingya respondents in Cox’s Baza in February 2017; 2) experts and scholars in the field in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Malaysia. Preliminary findings suggest that conflicts lead to displacement and migration across borders, human insecurity is an issue where the implementation of human rights is too slow to take place even in sovereign state like Myanmar. The political and economic interests of many extraregional powers have further contributed to the current crisis. Human security perspectives is suggested as the workable solution for stability and peace in the region.

Keywords: human security, migration, Myanmar, regional security, Rohingya

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12 Understanding the Social Movements around the ‘Rohingya Crisis’ within the Political Process Model

Authors: Aklima Jesmin, Ubaidur Rob, M. Ashrafur Rahman

Abstract:

Rohingya population of Arakan state in Myanmar are one the most persecuted ethnic minorities in this 21st century. According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), all human beings are born free, equal in dignity and rights. However, these populations are systematically excluded from this universal proclamation of human rights as they are Rohingya, which signify ‘other’. Based on the accessible and available literatures about Rohingya issue, this study firstly found there are chronological pattern of human rights violations against the ethnic Rohingya which follows the pathology of the Holocaust in this 21st century of human civilization. These violations have been possible due to modern technology, bureaucracy which has been performed through authorization, routinization and dehumanization; not only in formal institutions but in the society as a whole. This kind of apparently never-ending situation poses any author with the problem of available many scientific articles. The most important sources are, therefore the international daily newspapers, social media and official webpage of the non-state actors for nitty-gritty day to day update. Although it challenges the validity and objectivity of the information, but to address the critical ongoing human rights violations against Rohingya population can become a base for further work on this issue. One of the aspects of this paper is to accommodate all the social movements since August 2017 to date. The findings of this paper is that even though it seemed only human rights violations occurred against Rohingya historically but, simultaneously the process of social movements had also started, can be traced more after the military campaign in 2017. Therefore, the Rohingya crisis can be conceptualized within one ‘campaign’ movement for justice, not as episodic events, especially within the Political Process Model than any other social movement theories. This model identifies that the role of international political movements as well as the role of non-state actors are more powerful than any other episodes of violence conducted against Rohinyga in reframing issue, blaming and shaming to Myanmar government and creating the strategic opportunities for social changes. The lack of empowerment of the affected Rohingya population has been found as the loop to utilize this strategic opportunity. Their lack of empowerment can also affect their capacity to reframe their rights and to manage the campaign for their justice. Therefore, this should be placed at the heart of the international policy agenda within the broader socio-political movement for the justice of Rohingya population. Without ensuring human rights of Rohingya population, achieving the promise of the united nation’s sustainable development goals - no one would be excluded – will be impossible.

Keywords: civilization, holocaust, human rights violation, military campaign, political process model, Rohingya population, sustainable development goal, social justice, social movement, strategic opportunity

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11 A Case Study of Psycho-Social Status of Rohingya Women Refugees Settled in Delhi

Authors: Fizza Saghir

Abstract:

Rohingyas are an ethnic minority of predominantly Buddhist-Myanmar. Living in ghettos in Rakhine, one of the poorest states of Myanmar, for decades, they have been marginalized, discriminated, deprived of the basic amenities and have faced ghastly violations of their rights- politically, socially, economically and culturally. In 2012, in violence that, erupted between ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims, hundreds of Rohingyas were slayed and many more displaced. The state does not recognize them as ‘citizens’ and the military and police have constantly persecuted and pushed them to either migrate to other countries like India, Bangladesh or else die of deprivation. Amidst the deadly violence, Rohingya women are the most vulnerable. Many of them have faced sexual abuse and gender-based violence. Minimalistic to insignificant studies have been done on the plight of Rohingya women refugees in context of India. Thus, this paper focuses on psycho-social status of Rohingya women refugees settled in Delhi, India. The research study used both quantitative and qualitative methods. It was explorative in nature and used non-probability sampling, purposive sampling, in particular. A sample size of 30 Rohingya women refugees was interviewed out of the universe of 45 Rohingya refugee families living in Kalindi Kunj Refugee Camp of Delhi. Case studies were developed. The paper explores the psychological and social status of the respondents along with a deep understanding of their issues and concerns. Moreover, it assesses the impact of violence and migration on respondents. It was found that Rohingya women refugees are deeply and severely affected by a violent past, an insecure present and an uncertain future. Major problems they face in Delhi, India are finding employment, lack of identity cards to avail government services, language barrier, lack of health and education facilities. All they desire is peace and shelter in India. Besides, recommendations and suggestions have been given to various stakeholders of the forced mass migration of Rohingya refugees which includes, Government of Myanmar, Government of India, other bordering nations of Myanmar, international NGOs and media and the Rohingya community, itself. Only an immediate, peaceful and continuous dialogue process can help resolve the issue of exodus of Rohingyas. Countries, including India, must come together to help the Rohingyas who are in need of urgent humanitarian aid and assistance.

Keywords: dialogue process, ethnic minority, forced mass migration, impact of violence and migration, psycho-social status, Rohingya women refugees, sexual abuse

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10 The Embodiment of Violence and Liminal Space in Illegality: Rohingya Refugees

Authors: E. Xavier, B. Nandita

Abstract:

Rohingyas are an ethnic and religious minority that resides in the Rakhine State of Myanmar. Post the military coup in 1962, Rohingyas have not been recognized as one of the ethnic tribes of Burma under the legislation. They have lost citizenship, education, health care rights, and instantly became illegal immigrants. While the historicization of this conflict is crucial, this paper wants to humanize the Rohingya population’s embodiment of violence on three different levels – individual, social, and political. In addition, the study focuses on their liminal existence in refugee camps in Bangladesh and in other parts of the world, such as Malaysia and the United States of America. A multi-medium study, it includes first-hand interviews with the Rohingya community in Wisconsin and Chicago, second-hand interviews from documentaries and past ethnographies from scholars to draw meaningful conclusions about their experience as a community. In the end, it focuses on the group of Rohingyas who have managed to resettle in another country and their transitioning experience. Rohingyas embody violence on their individual, social, and political bodies in different ways. Along with rape, murder, and physical harm, the community also encounters sexually transmitted infections, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and poor mental health. On a social level, they encounter heightened gender discrimination, work industry shifting, and immense, shared emotional pain. As for their political body, the news media and journalism industry uses their bodies for purposes that benefit both parties and flirts with a tone of sensationalism in their reporting. In addition, the Rohingya community fluctuates with the concept of nationality, patriotism, citizenship, and refugee when they think about the future. This study provides a framework that future aid or health programs can use to determine the type of community need and its significance in the Rohingya community.

Keywords: embodiment, liminal, refugee, Rohingya

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9 Rohingya Refugees and Bangladesh: Balance of Human Rights and Rationalization

Authors: Kudrat-E-Khuda Babu

Abstract:

Rohingya refugees are the most marginalized and persecuted section of people in the world. The heinous brutality of Myanmar has forced the Muslim minority community to flee themselves to their neighboring country, Bangladesh for quite a few times now. The recent atrocity of the Buddhist country has added insult to injury on the existing crisis. In lieu of protection, the rights of the Rohingya community in Myanmar are being violated through exclusion from citizenship and steamroller of persecution. The mass influx of Rohingya refugees to Bangladesh basically took place in 1978, 1992, 2012, and 2017. At present, there are around one million Rohingyas staying at Teknaf, Ukhiya of Cox’s Bazar, the southern part of Bangladesh. The country, despite being a poverty-stricken one, has shown unprecedented generosity in sheltering the Rohingya people. For sheltering half of the total refugees in 2017, the Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina is now being regarded as the lighthouse of humanity or the mother of humanity. Though Bangladesh is not a ratifying state of the UN Refugee Convention, 1951 and its Additional Protocol, 1967, the country cannot escape its obligation under international human rights jurisprudence. Bangladesh is a party to eight human rights instruments out of nine core instruments, and thus, the country has an indirect obligation to protect and promote the rights of the refugees. Pressure from international bodies has also made Bangladesh bound to provide refuge to Rohingya people. Even though the demographic vulnerability and socio-economic condition of the country do not suggest taking over extra responsibility, the principle of non-refoulment as a part of customary international law reminds us to stay beside those persecuted or believed to have well-founded fear of persecution. In the case of HM Ershad v. Bangladesh and Others, 7 BLC (AD) 67, it was held that any international treaty or document after signing or ratification is not directly enforceable unless and until the parliament enacts a similar statute howsoever sweet the document is. As per Article 33(2) of the 1951 Refugee Convention, there are even exceptions for a state party in case of serious consequences like threat to national security, apprehension of serious crime and danger to safeguard state population. Bangladesh is now at a cross-road of human rights and national interest. The world community should come forward to resolve the crisis of the persecuted Rohingya people through repatriation, resettlement, and reintegration.

Keywords: Rohingya refugees, human rights, Bangladesh, Myanmar

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8 The Impact of the Constitution of Myanmar on the Political Power of Aung San Suu Kyi and the Rohingya Conflict

Authors: Nur R. Daut

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to offer an insight on how political power inequality has contributed and exacerbated the political violence towards the Rohingya ethnic group in Myanmar. In particular, this paper attempts to illustrate how power inequality in the country has prevented Myanmar’s leader Aung San Suu Kyi from taking effective measures on the issue. The research centers on the question of why Aung San Suu Kyi has been seen as not doing enough to stop the persecution of the Rohingya ethnic group ever since she was appointed the State Counsellor to the Myanmar government. As a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, Suu Kyi’s lack of action on the matter has come under severe criticism by the international community. Many have seen this as Suu Kyi’s failure to establish democracy and allowing mass killing to spread in the country. The real question that many perhaps should be asking, however, is how much power Suu Kyi actually holds within the government which is still heavily controlled by the military or Tatmadaw. This paper argues that Suu Kyi’s role within the government is limited which hinders constructive and effective measures to be taken on the Rohingya issue. Political power in this research is being measured by 3 factors: control over events such as burning of Rohingya villages, control over resources such as land ownership and media and control over actors such the Tatmadaw, police force and civil society who are greatly needed to ease and resolve the conflict. In order to illustrate which individuals or institution have control over all the 3 above factors, this paper will first study the constitution of Myanmar. The constitution will also be able to show the asymmetrical power relations as it will provide evidence as to how much political power Suu Kyi holds within the government in comparison to other political actors and institutions. Suu Kyi’s role as a state counsellor akin to a prime minister is a newly created position as the current constitution of Myanmar bars anyone with a foreign spouse from holding the post of a president in the country. This is already an indication of the inequality of political power between Suu Kyi and the military. Apart from studying the constitution of Myanmar, Suu Kyi’s speeches and various interviews are also studied in order to answer the research question. Unfortunately, Suu Kyi’s limited political power also involves the Buddhist monks in Myanmar who have held significant influence throughout the history of the country. This factor further prevents Suu Kyi from preserving the sanctity of human rights in Myanmar.

Keywords: Aung San Suu Kyi, constitution of Myanmar, inequality, political power, political violence, Rohingya, Tatmadaw

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7 National Security Threat and Fear of Rising Islamic Extremism in Bangladesh due to Influx of Rohingya Refugees

Authors: Afsana Afsar Tuly

Abstract:

The Rohingyas are a group of minority Muslimsin Myanmar who witnessed series of persecution, violence, and torture from Burmese military since 1948. In 2017, around 700,000 Rohingyas fled to the neighboring country Bangladesh and took shelter as refugees after facing clashes with Myanmar security forces. The number increased to 1.8 million in 2020, creating one of the largest refugee crises of recent times. This research focuses on the vulnerability and poverty faced by Rohingyas in refugee camps and how thelack of long-term solution and silence from international communitycan pose national security threat and increasing Islamic extremism in Bangladesh. Islamic religious and terrorist groups have used the Rohingyas position as stateless people to influence them into speaking against the secular government of Bangladesh. There has been increasing crime rates and formation of different rebel groups in refugee camps, causing clashes with Bangladeshi police and authority. Human trafficking, illegal drug dealings, prostitution, and other illicit activities have continuously gone up in the southeastern part of Bangladesh. Some economic, social, and environmental factors are studied and analyzed to show the change in Bangladesh between 2017 and 2020.

Keywords: national security threat, islamic extremism, rohingya refugees, refugee studies, Bangladesh, myanmar

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6 Association of Southeast Asian Nations Caught in between International and Regional Human Rights Frameworks: The Myanmar Rohingya Crisis

Authors: Lynamata Chhun

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Human Rights enforcement in the newly independent countries like Asian and African has always been penetrating issues. In spite, the existing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), regions like Africa and Asia where values and cultural norms far differ from the concept had formed their own Human Rights instruments to tackle Human Rights issues in their regions instead of embracing the concept of UDHR completely. ASEAN Human Rights Declaration is one of the examples. This paper aims to examine the enforcement of Human Rights in South East Asia in the context of ASEAN regional integration. Precisely, the author attempts to analyse the effectiveness in undertaking Human Rights issues in the region by applying both the existing international and regional frameworks using the Myanmar Rohingya Crisis as the case study. The methodology of the paper is qualitative analysis where cross-impact analysis is employed to examine the case study. It is anticipated that the main findings of this paper will illuminate how applicable the international instruments are in comparison to the regional instruments in apprehending the human rights issues and will shed light on how ASEAN and dialogue partners should cooperate in the future regarding with the challenging issues of Human Rights in the region.

Keywords: ASEAN Human Rights Declaration, ASEAN integration, ASEAN way, international and regional instruments, Universal Declaration of Human Rights

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5 Rohingya Problem and the Impending Crisis: Outcome of Deliberate Denial of Citizenship Status and Prejudiced Refugee Laws in South East Asia

Authors: Priyal Sepaha

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A refugee crisis is manifested by challenges, both for the refugees and the asylum giving state. The situation turns into a mega-crisis when the situation is prejudicially handled by the home state, inappropriate refugee laws, exploding refugee population, and above all, no hope of any foreseeable solution or remedy. This paper studies the impact on the capability of stateless Rohingyas to migrate and seek refuge due to the enforcement of rigid criteria of movement imposed both by Myanmar as well as the adjoining countries in the name of national security. This theoretical study identifies the issues and the key factors and players which have precipitated the crisis. It further discusses the possible ramifications in the home, asylum giving, and the adjoining countries for not discharging their roles aptly. Additionally, an attempt has been made to understand the scarce response given to the impending crisis by the regional organizations like SAARC, ASEAN and CHOGAM as well as international organizations like United Nations Human Rights Council, Security Council, Office of High Commissioner for Refugees and so on, in the name of inadequacy of monetary funds and physical resources. Based on the refugee laws and practices pertaining to the case of Rohingyas, this paper analyses that the Rohingya Crisis is in dire need of an effective action plan to curb and resolve the biggest humanitarian crisis situation of the century. This mounting human tragedy can be mitigated permanently, by strengthening existing and creating new interdependencies among all stakeholders, as further ignorance can drive the countries of the Indian Sub-continent, in particular, and South East Asia, by and large into a violent civil war for seizing long-awaited civil rights by the marginalized Rohingyas. To curb this mass crisis, it will require the application of coercive pressure and diplomatic pursuance on the home country to acknowledge the rights of its fleeing citizens. This further necessitates mustering adequate monetary funds and physical resources for the asylum providing state. Additional challenges such as devising mechanisms for the refugee’s safe return, comprehensive planning for their holistic economic development and rehabilitation plan are needed. These, however, can only come into effect with a conscious strive by the regional and international community to fulfil their assigned role.

Keywords: asylum, citizenship, crisis, humanitarian, human rights, refugee, rohingya

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4 Walls against Legal Identity: A Qualitative Study on Children of Refugees without Birth Registration in Malaysia

Authors: Rodziana M. Razali, Tamara J. Duraisingham

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Malaysia is not a signatory to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol despite receiving the largest share of refugee inflows in Southeast Asia aside from Thailand. In Peninsular Malaysia, the majority of refugees and asylum seekers are from Myanmar, with Rohingya refugees recording the highest number compared to all other ethnicities. In the eastern state of Sabah, the presence of refugees who have long established themselves in the state is connected to those who escaped military persecution in southern Philippines in the 1970’s and 1980’s. A combination of legal and non-legal factors has created and sustained an adverse atmosphere of deprivation of legal identity for children of migrants including refugees born in Malaysia. This paper aims to qualitatively analyse the barriers to birth registration as the cornerstone of every person’s legal identity for children of refugees born in this country, together with the associated human rights implications. Data obtained through semi-structured interviews with refugees in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah and Rohingya refugees in Peninsular Malaysia shall be studied alongside secondary sources. Results show that births out of medical facilities, suspension of birth records, illiteracy, lack of awareness on the importance and procedures of birth registration, inability to meet documentary requirements, as well as fear of immigration enforcement, are the key factors hindering birth registration. These challenges exist against the backdrop of restrictive integration policy to avoid destabilising demographic and racial balance, political sentiment stirring xenophobic prejudices, as well as other economic and national security considerations. With no proof of their legal identity, the affected children grow up in a legal limbo, facing multiple human rights violations across generations. This research concludes that the country’s framework and practice concerning birth registration is in need of serious reform and improvement to reflect equality and universality of access to its birth registration system. Such would contribute significantly towards meeting its commitments to the post-2015 sustainable development agenda that pledges to 'Leave no one behind', as well as its recently announced National Human Rights Action Plan.

Keywords: birth registration, children, Malaysia, refugees

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3 The Role of KontraS as Track-6 on Multi Track Diplomacy for Conflict Resolution: Case Study Human Rights Crisis in Myanmar in 2015

Authors: Hardi Alunaza, Mauidhotu Rofiq

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This research is attempted to describe the role of KontraS as track-6 on multi track diplomacy for conflict resolution in Myanmar in 2015. The researcher took the specific interest on multi track diplomacy and transnational advocacy concepts to analyze the phenomena. Furthermore, this essay is using the descriptive method with a qualitative approach. The data collection technique is literature study consisting of books, journals, and including data from the reliable website in supporting the explanation of this research. The result of this research is divided into two important points in explaining the role of KontraS in cases of human rights crisis in Myanmar. First, KontraS as human rights NGO in Indonesia was able to advocate against human rights violence that occurred in other countries by encouraging Indonesian Government to take part in the resolution of human rights issues affecting the Rohingya people in Burma. Also, KontraS take advantages of transnational advocacy networks as a form of politics and accountabilities responsibility of Non-Governmental Organization against human rights crisis in other countries.

Keywords: conflict resolution, human rights crisis, multi track diplomacy, transnational advocacy

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2 The Plight of the Rohingyas: Design Guidelines to Accommodate Displaced People in Bangladesh

Authors: Nazia Roushan, Maria Kipti

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The sensitive issue of a large-scale entry of Rohingya refugees to Bangladesh has arisen again since August of 2017. Incited by ethnic and religious conflict, the Rohingyas—an ethnic group concentrated in the north-west state of Rakhine in Myanmar—have been fleeing to what is now Bangladesh from as early as the late 1700s in four main exoduses. This long-standing persecution has recently escalated, and accommodating the recent wave of exodus has been especially challenging due to the sheer volume of a million refugees concentrated in refugee camps in two small administrative units (upazilas) in the south-east of the country: the host area. This drastic change in the host area’s social fabric is putting a lot of strain on the country’s economic, demographic and environmental stability, and security. Although Bangladesh’s long-term experience with disaster management has enabled it to respond rapidly to the crisis, the government is failing to cope with this enormous problem and has taken insufficient steps towards improving the living conditions to inhibit the inflow of more refugees. On top of that, the absence of a comprehensive national refugee policy, and the density of the structures of the camps are constricting the upgrading of the shelters to international standards. As of December 2016, the combined number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) due to conflict and violence (stock), and new displacements due to disasters (flow) in Bangladesh had exceeded 1 million. These numbers have increased dramatically in the last few months. Moreover, by 2050, Bangladesh will have as much as 25 million climate refugees just from its coastal districts. To enhance the resilience of the vulnerable, it is crucial to methodically factorize further interventions between Disaster Risk Reduction for Resilience (DRR) and the concept of Building Back Better (BBB) in the rehabilitation-reconstruction period. Considering these points, this paper provides a palette of options for design guidelines related to the living spaces and infrastructures for refugees. This will encourage the development of national standards for refugee camps, and the national and local level rehabilitation-reconstruction practices. Unhygienic living conditions, vulnerability, and the general lack of control over life are pervasive throughout the camps. This paper, therefore, proposes site-specific strategic and physical planning and design for shelters for refugees in Bangladesh that will lead to sustainable living environments through the following: a) site survey of existing two registered and one makeshift unregistered refugee camps to document and study their physical conditions, b) questionnaires and semi-structured focus group discussions carried out among the refugees and stakeholders to understand what the lived experiences and needs are; and c) combining the findings with international minimum standards for shelter and settlement from International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent (IFRC), Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). These proposals include temporary shelter solutions that balance between lived spaces and regimented, repetitive plans using readily available and cheap materials, erosion control and slope stabilization strategies, and most importantly, coping mechanisms for the refugees to be self-reliant and resilient.

Keywords: architecture, Bangladesh, refugee camp, resilience, Rohingya

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1 The Urgency of ASEAN Human Rights Court Establishment to Protect Human Rights in Southeast Asia

Authors: Tareq M. Aziz Elven

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The issue of Human Rights enforcement in Southeast Asia has become the serious problem and attract the attention of international community. Principally, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has mentioned the Human Rights as one of the focus and be a part of the ASEAN Charter in 2008. It was followed by the establishment of ASEAN Inter-Governmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR). AICHR is the commission of Human Rights enforcement in Southeast Asia which has a duty, function, and an authority to conduct dissemination and protection of Human Rights. In the end of 2016, however, the function of protection mandated to AICHR have not achieved yet. It can be proved by several cases of Human Rights violation which still exist and have not settled yet. One of case which attracts the public attention recently is human rights violation towards Rohingya in Myanmar. Using the juridical-normative method, the research aims to examine the urgency of Human Rights court establishment in Southeast Asia region which able to issue the decision that binds the ASEAN members or the violating parties. The data shows that ASEAN needs to establish a regional court which intended to settle the Human Rights violations in ASEAN region. Furthermore, the research also highlights three strong factors should be settled by ASEAN for establishing human rights court i.e. the significant distinction of democracy and human rights development among the members, the strong implementation of non-intervention principle, and the financial matter to sustain the court.

Keywords: AICHR, ASEAN, human rights, human rights court

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