Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9053

Search results for: social security

9053 Islamic Social Security: A Discourse

Authors: Safiyya A. Abba, Shehu U. R. Aliyu

Abstract:

This paper deals with Islamic social security: a discourse explores the meaning and nature of Islamic social security system. The paper reviews the social security framework and operations during the early period. The paper further identifies the instruments of Islamic social security discusses its principles and objectives. The paper discovers that Islamic social security is a personification of a comprehensive welfare approach in view of its varied instruments that are deeply rooted in the Islamic law, unique principles and realistic and achievable objectives. Furthermore, the Islamic social security system has far reaching socioeconomic implications; social justice, cohesion, equity, a catalyst for poverty eradication, income redistribution, economic growth and development.

Keywords: Islamic social security, basic needs, zakat, socioeconomic justice, equity

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
9052 Georgian Social Security System Compatibility with EU Requirements

Authors: Nino Grigolaia

Abstract:

Introduction: The article discusses the experience of the EU in the social field, analyzes the peculiarities of the functioning of the social system in Georgia, and reveals the priority and importance of social policy. Methodology: Different research methods are applied in the presented paper. There are used induction, deduction, analysis, synthesis, analogy, correlation, and statistical observation methodologies in the work. Main Findings: Based on the analysis of social security reforms in Georgia, the main systematic problems are detected, the recommendations on social security system components, integration of the social security field in the unified insurance system, the formation of the national social system, perfection of the legislative, regulatory framework of social protection, adoption of foreign experience are developed in the article. Conclusion: The article concludes that the social protection system in Georgia is at an early stage of development, with the significant impact of factors such as high level of unemployment, low pensions, a large number of families living under the poverty line, and other ones. Accordingly, it is well-established that the study of the social security problem in Georgia is still actual. Based on the analysis, appropriate suggestions in the field of social security are made, and relevant recommendations are proposed.

Keywords: social security, social system, social policy, social security models

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
9051 Legal Issues of Food Security in Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: G. T. Aigarinova

Abstract:

This article considers the legal issues of food security as a major component of national security of the republic. The problem of food security is the top priority of the economic policy strategy of any state, the effectiveness of this solution influences social, political, and ethnic stability in society. Food security and nutrition is everyone’s business. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. By analyzing the existing legislation in the area of food security, the author identifies weaknesses and gaps, suggesting ways to improve it.

Keywords: food security, national security, agriculture, public resources, economic security

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
9050 An Overview of Privacy and Security Issues in Social Networks

Authors: Mohamad Ibrahim Al Ladan

Abstract:

Social networks, such as Facebook, Myspace, LinkedIn, Google+, and Twitter have experienced exponential growth and a remarkable adoption rate in recent years. They provide attractive means of online social interactions and communications with family, friends, and colleagues from around the corner or across the globe, and they have become an important part of daily digital interactions for more than one and a half billion users around the world. The various personal information sharing practices that social network providers encourage have led to their success as innovative social interaction platforms. However, these practices have resulted in ample concerns with respect to privacy and security from different stakeholders. Addressing these privacy and security concerns in social networks is a must for these networks to be sustainable. Existing security and privacy tools may not be enough to address existing concerns. Some guidelines should be followed to protect users from the existing risks. In this paper, we have investigated and discussed the various privacy and security issues and concerns pertaining to social networks. Moreover, we have classified these privacy and security issues and presented a thorough discussion of the implications of these issues and concerns on the future of the social networks. In addition, we have presented a set of guidelines as precaution measures that users can consider to address these issues and concerns.

Keywords: social networks privacy issues, social networks security issues, social networks privacy precautions measures, social networks security precautions measures

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
9049 English Title Adaptive Comparison of Outdoor and Indoor Social Security in Damaged Area and New Residential Complex with Two-Way Anova Case Study: Qasr-Al-Dasht and Moalem District in Shiraz

Authors: Homa Parmoon, Narges Hamzeh

Abstract:

Since today's urban spaces are disposed towards behavioral disorders and lack of security, both qualitative and quantitative aspects of security especially social and physical security are considered as basic necessities in urban planning. This research focused on the variable of place of living, examined social security in the old and new textures, and investigated the amount of residents’ social security in Shiraz including safety, financial, emotional and moral security. To this end, two neighborhoods in region 1 of Shiraz- Qasr-Al-Dasht (old texture) and Moalem (new texture)- were examined through a comparative study of 60 samples lived in two neighborhoods. Data were gathered through two-way ANOVA between the variables of residential context and internal and external security. This analysis represents the significance or insignificance of the model as well as the individual effects of each independent variable on the dependent variable. It was tested by ANCOVA and F-test. Research findings indicated place of living has a significant effect on families’ social security. The safety, financial, emotional, and moral security also represented a great impact on social security. As a result, it can be concluded that social security changes with the changing in place of living.

Keywords: social security, damaged area, two-way ANOVA, Shiraz

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
9048 Psychological Security and Its Relationship with Self-Esteem among Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability

Authors: Muneera Abdul Haleem Bukhari, Maryam I. Alshirawi, Elsayed S. Elkhamisi

Abstract:

This study aimed at understanding the relationship between psychological security and self-esteem among Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability, exploring the levels of psychological security and self-esteem, as well as determining the differences between genders in psychological security and self-esteem. The sample of the study contained (60) Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability, (34) males and (26) females who are enrolled in the Vocational and Social Rehabilitation Center and Hope Institute in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Their ages are between (15-23) years old. The Psychological Security Scale and self-Esteem Scale (prepared by James Battle) were used by the researcher. Results showed that levels of psychological security and self-esteem among Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability was above average; results also showed the order of the psychological security dimensions in the following manner (future outlook – mood - family security – social security) and the order of the dimensions of self-esteem in the following manner (social self-esteem – personal self-esteem – general self-esteem) among Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability; as for the differences between genders, the study showed that there was an increased level of psychological security among males. However, there was no difference in self-esteem between both sexes.

Keywords: psychological security, self-esteem, adolescent, intellectual disability, the Kingdom of Bahrain

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
9047 Public Perception of Energy Security in Lithuania: Between Material Interest and Energy Independence

Authors: Dainius Genys, Vylius Leonavicius, Ricardas Krikstolaitis

Abstract:

Energy security problems in Lithuania are analyzed on a regular basis; however, there is no comprehensive research on the very issue of the concept of public energy security. There is a lack of attention not only to social determinants of perception of energy security, but also a lack of a deeper analysis of the public opinion. This article aims to research the Lithuanian public perception of energy security. Complex tasks were set during the sociological study. Survey questionnaire consisted of different sets of questions: view of energy security (risk perception, political orientation, and energy security; comprehensiveness and energy security); view of energy risks and threats (perception of energy safety factors; individual dependence and burden; disobedience and risk); view of the activity of responsible institutions (energy policy assessment; confidence in institutions and energy security), demographic issues. In this article, we will focus on two aspects: a) We will analyze public opinion on the most important aspects of energy security and social factors influencing them; The hypothesis is made that public perception of energy security is related to value orientations: b) We will analyze how public opinion on energy policy executed by the government and confidence in the government are intertwined with the concept of energy security. Data of the survey, conducted on May 10-19 and June 7-17, 2013, when Seimas and the government consisted of the coalition dominated by Social Democrats with Labor, Order and Justice Parties and the Electoral Action of Poles, were used in this article. It is important to note that the survey was conducted prior to Russia’s occupation of the Crimea.

Keywords: energy security, public opinion, risk, energy threat, energy security policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
9046 Policy Compliance in Information Security

Authors: R. Manjula, Kaustav Bagchi, Sushant Ramesh, Anush Baskaran

Abstract:

In the past century, the emergence of information technology has had a significant positive impact on human life. While companies tend to be more involved in the completion of projects, the turn of the century has seen importance being given to investment in information security policies. These policies are essential to protect important data from adversaries, and thus following these policies has become one of the most important attributes revolving around information security models. In this research, we have focussed on the factors affecting information security policy compliance in two models : The theory of planned behaviour and the integration of the social bond theory and the involvement theory into a single model. Finally, we have given a proposal of where these theories would be successful.

Keywords: information technology, information security, involvement theory, policies, social bond theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
9045 Developing a Systems Dynamics Model for Security Management

Authors: Kuan-Chou Chen

Abstract:

This paper will demonstrate a simulation model of an information security system by using the systems dynamic approach. The relationships in the system model are designed to be simple and functional and do not necessarily represent any particular information security environments. The purpose of the paper aims to develop a generic system dynamic information security system model with implications on information security research. The interrelated and interdependent relationships of five primary sectors in the system dynamic model will be presented in this paper. The integrated information security systems model will include (1) information security characteristics, (2) users, (3) technology, (4) business functions, and (5) policy and management. Environments, attacks, government and social culture will be defined as the external sector. The interactions within each of these sectors will be depicted by system loop map as well. The proposed system dynamic model will not only provide a conceptual framework for information security analysts and designers but also allow information security managers to remove the incongruity between the management of risk incidents and the management of knowledge and further support information security managers and decision makers the foundation for managerial actions and policy decisions.

Keywords: system thinking, information security systems, security management, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
9044 Labor Welfare and Social Security

Authors: Shoaib Alvi

Abstract:

Mahatma Gandhi was said “Man becomes great exactly in the degree in which he works for the welfare of his fellow-men”. Labor welfare is an important fact of Industrial relations. With the growth of industrialization, mechanization and computerization, labor welfare measures have got the fillip. The author believes that Labor welfare includes provisions of various facilities and amenities in and around the work place for the better life of the workers. Labor welfare is, thus, one of the major determinants of industrial relations. It comprises all human efforts the work place for the better life of the worker. The social and economic aspects of the life of the workers have the direct influence on the social and economic development of the nation. Author thinks that there could be multiple objectives in having, labor welfare programme the concern for improving the lot of the workers, a philosophy of humanitarianism or internal social responsibility, a feeling of concern, and caring by providing some of life's basic amenities, besides the basic pay packet. Such caring is supposed to build a sense of loyalty on the part of the employee towards the organization. The author thinks that Social security is the security that the State furnishes against the risks which an individual of small means cannot today, stand up to by himself even in private combination with his fellows. Social security is one of the pillars on which the structure of a welfare state rests, and it constitutes the hardcore of social policy in most countries. It is through social security measures that the state attempts to maintain every citizen at a certain prescribed level below which no one is allowed to fall. According to author, social assistance is a method according to which benefits are given to the needy persons, fulfilling the prescribed conditions, by the government out of its own resources. Author has analyzed and studied the relationship between the labor welfare social security and also studied various international conventions on provisions of social security by International Authorities like United Nations, International Labor Organization, and European Union etc. Author has also studied and analyzed concept of labor welfare and social security schemes of many countries around the globe ex:- Social security in Australia, Social security in Switzerland, Social Security (United States), Mexican Social Security Institute, Welfare in Germany, Social security schemes of India for labor welfare in both organized sector and unorganized sector. In this Research paper, Author has done the study on the Conceptual framework of the Labour Welfare. According to author, labors are highly perishable, which need constant welfare measures for their upgradation and performance in this field. At last author has studied role of trade unions and labor welfare unions and other institutions working for labor welfare, in this research paper author has also identified problems these Unions and labor welfare bodies’ face and tried to find out solutions for the problems and also analyzed various steps taken by the government of various countries around the globe.

Keywords: labor welfare, internal social responsibility, social security, international conventions

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
9043 Countering Terrorism through Social Media: Case Study in Indonesia

Authors: Mauly Budiyanti, Aisyah M. Anggiana

Abstract:

Terrorism is a threat to national security since the war on terror era after the tragedy of 9/11. The shifting of national threat from military to non-military centric leads us to recognize that military action is not the only way to face and solve terrorism. Alongside the use of military action to counter terrorism, Indonesia has another way to counter it by using the role of social media. The role of social media on spreading positivity to counter terrorism has the power to show that people now are fearless toward terrorist attack because their goal is to make sure that people are threatened enough by the way they act. This is showing the emergence of the non-state actor has a big impact on national security, as well as pluralism, said about the involving of non-state actor on international events. In this paper, we will examine the role of social media in countering terrorism based on study case in Indonesia.

Keywords: Indonesia, national security, social media, terrorism.

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
9042 The Social Perception of National Security Risks: A Comparative Perspective

Authors: Nicula Valentin, Andrei Virginia

Abstract:

Nowadays, the individual plays a central role in the state’s architecture. This is why the subjective dimension of the security represents a key concept in risk assessment. The paper’s scope is to emphasize the discrepancy between expert and lay evaluations of national security hazards, which is caused by key factors like emotions, personal experience, knowledge and media. Therefore, we have chosen to apply, using these two different groups of respondents, the Q-sort method, which reveals individual beliefs, attitudes, preferences hidden behind the subjects’ own way of prioritizing the risks they are confronted with. Our study’s conclusions are meant to unveil significant indicators needed to be taken into consideration by a state’s leadership in order to understand the social perception of national security hazards, to communicate better with the public opinion and prevent or mitigate the overestimation of the severity or probability of these dangers.

Keywords: risk perception, Q-sort method, national security hazards, individual beliefs

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
9041 Effects of Irregular Migration from Different Aspects of Security

Authors: Muzaffer Topgul, Hasan Atac

Abstract:

In case of explaining the migration concept, although it is not a new phenomenon, it is easy to understand that communities have migrated for variety of reasons such as natural disasters, famine, wars, economic problems, and several theories have been put forth to define and find solution for migration within its changing nature. Examining of migration theories denotes that the circumstances under which they appear reflect political, social, and economic conditions of the age they appear. In this day and time, security is considered not only from military perspective but also from economic, political, sociological dimensions. Based on the changing security environment new impacts of migration has occurred; the migration is proceed to be conferred as a type of war, qualified as a transnational crime because of its outcomes and interpreted in a different dimension owing to its effects on the health and education areas. Social security dimension in the context of expanding concept of security; when dealing with the safety of people and social groups with the assumption that national unity and identity are threatened, it sees immigrants as a source of threat. The human security assesses the safety of individuals in terms of survival and quality of life. Changes in the standard of living under the influence of immigrants and possible terrorist acts can be seen as a threat source in this type of security. Economic security of the individuals and the regional changes at the micro level created by the immigrants are covered issues of economic security. Due to the factors such as terrorism and civil war, the increasing numbers of displaced people who have taken refugee status affect the countries, whether it is near or far to the crisis areas, in the new and different dimensions of security day by day. In this study, the term of immigration through the eyes of national and international law will be evaluated, the place of the irregular and illegal immigration in the changing security sphere will be revealed and the effects of the irregular migration to short-term, mid-term and long-term security issues will be assessed through human and social security aspects. In order to analyze the threats for the human security; the parameters such as living conditions of the immigrants, the ratio of the genders, birth rate occasions, the education circumstances of the immigrant children and the effects of the illegal passing on the public order will be evaluated. The outcomes of the problem areas for the human security and the demographic alteration resulting from the human flow of displaced people will be discussed thorough social security extent. The fizzling economic diversity, which has shown up by irregular migration, will be presented within the scope of economic dimension of security.

Keywords: irregular migration, the changing dimensions of security, human security, social security

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
9040 An Investigation on Interactions between Social Security with Police Operation and Economics in the Field of Tourism

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Namdari, Hosein Torki

Abstract:

Security as an abstract concept, has involved human being from the beginning of creation to the present, and certainly to the future. Accordingly, battles, conflicts, challenges, legal proceedings, crimes and all issues related to human kind are associated with this concept. Today by interviewing people about their life, the security of societies and Social crimes are interviewed too. Along with the security as an infrastructure and vital concept, the economy and related issues e.g. welfare, per capita income, total government revenue, export, import and etc. is considered another infrastructure and vital concept. These two vital concepts (Security and Economic) have linked together complexly and significantly. The present study employs analytical-descriptive research method using documents and Statistics of official sources. Discovery and explanation of this mutual connection are comprising a profound and extensive research; so management, development and reform in system and relationships of the scope of this two concepts are complex and difficult. Tourism and its position in today's economy is one of the main pillars of the economy of the 21st century that maybe associate with the security and social crimes more than other pillars. Like all human activities, economy of societies and partially tourism dependent on security especially in the public and social security. On the other hand, the true economic development (generally) and the growth of the tourism industry (dedicated) are a security generating and supporting for it, because a dynamic economic infrastructure prevents the formation of centers of crime and illegal activities by providing a context for socio-economic development for all segments of society in a fair and humane. This relationship is a formula of the complexity between the two concept of economy and security. Police as a revealed or people-oriented organization in the field of security directly has linked with the economy of a community and is very effective In the face of the tourism industry. The relationship between security and national crime index, and economic indicators especially ones related to tourism is confirming above discussion that is notable. According to understanding processes about security and economic as two key and vital concepts are necessary and significant for sovereignty of governments.

Keywords: economic, police, tourism, social security

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
9039 Security of Internet of Things: Challenges, Requirements and Future Directions

Authors: Amjad F. Alharbi, Bashayer A. Alotaibi, Fahd S. Alotaibi

Abstract:

The emergence of Internet of Things (IoT) technology provides capabilities for a huge number of smart devices, services and people to be communicate with each other for exchanging data and information over existing network. While as IoT is progressing, it provides many opportunities for new ways of communications as well it introduces many security and privacy threats and challenges which need to be considered for the future of IoT development. In this survey paper, an IoT security issues as threats and current challenges are summarized. The security architecture for IoT are presented from four main layers. Based on these layers, the IoT security requirements are presented to insure security in the whole system. Furthermore, some researches initiatives related to IoT security are discussed as well as the future direction for IoT security are highlighted.

Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), IoT security challenges, IoT security requirements, IoT security architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
9038 The Impact of Human Resources Management on the Job Security of Self-Initiated Expatriates after the Brexit

Authors: Yllka Hysaj, Ylberina Hysaj Arifi

Abstract:

Recently, with BREXIT taking place, organizations and employees have been affected in the way of job and employment security. Career-oriented human resources management (HRM) practices are likely to facilitate self-initiated expatriates’ adjustment to the host country. This was related to the career security (job security and employment security), which were missing in their home country and seemed to be important elements to adjust to the host country. The aim of this study is to assess whether the perception of career security by Frances self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) have changed in the wake of the referendum result. Quantitative research method will be used, and the data will be collected through electronic questionnaires. Data will be analyzed through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The study variables will include an adjustment to the host country, HRM practices, employability, and job security. Predicted results consist that career-oriented HRM practices are positively related to the adjustment to the host country, employability, and job security. However, with Brexit, there might be a negative relationship between career-oriented HRM practices and job security.

Keywords: migration, self-initiated expatriates, Brexit, job security

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
9037 Saudi Human Awareness Needs: A Survey in How Human Causes Errors and Mistakes Leads to Leak Confidential Data with Proposed Solutions in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Amal Hussain Alkhaiwani, Ghadah Abdullah Almalki

Abstract:

Recently human errors have increasingly become a very high factor in security breaches that may affect confidential data, and most of the cyber data breaches are caused by human errors. With one individual mistake, the attacker will gain access to the entire network and bypass the implemented access controls without any immediate detection. Unaware employees will be vulnerable to any social engineering cyber-attacks. Providing security awareness to People is part of the company protection process; the cyber risks cannot be reduced by just implementing technology; the human awareness of security will significantly reduce the risks, which encourage changes in staff cyber-awareness. In this paper, we will focus on Human Awareness, human needs to continue the required security education level; we will review human errors and introduce a proposed solution to avoid the breach from occurring again. Recently Saudi Arabia faced many attacks with different methods of social engineering. As Saudi Arabia has become a target to many countries and individuals, we needed to initiate a defense mechanism that begins with awareness to keep our privacy and protect the confidential data against possible intended attacks.

Keywords: cybersecurity, human aspects, human errors, human mistakes, security awareness, Saudi Arabia, security program, security education, social engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
9036 Network Security Attacks and Defences

Authors: Ranbir Singh, Deepinder Kaur

Abstract:

Network security is an important aspect in every field like government offices, Educational Institute and any business organization. Network security consists of the policies adopted to prevent and monitor forbidden access, misuse, modification, or denial of a computer network. Network security is very complicated subject and deal by only well trained and experienced people. However, as more and more people become wired, an increasing number of people need to understand the basics of security in a networked world. The history of the network security included an introduction to the TCP/IP and interworking. Network security starts with authenticating, commonly with a username and a password. In this paper, we study about various types of attacks on network security and how to handle or prevent this attack.

Keywords: network security, attacks, denial, authenticating

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
9035 Illegal Migration and Refugee Crisis as a Threat to National Security, Economic and Social System: The Bulgarian Case

Authors: Jordan Deliversky

Abstract:

Unlike all conventional forms of migration, migration crisis and migratory processes provide pressure to governments and are being expressed as different phenomenon in relation to nature and forms. The objective of this paper is to present the migration and refugee crisis as revealing numerous challenges faced by authorities responsible for the social and economic stability in Bulgaria as well as those providing conditions for reinforcement of the high level of national security in Bulgaria. The analysis is focused on exploring the multiple origins of factors influencing migration processes in Europe, in the light of the measures provided by the Bulgarian state authorities. The main results show that the society itself is facing the challenge of integrating refugees and migrants, so to be able to comply with the principles and values associated with tolerance to social, religious and cultural differences, and not allowing migrants to become marginalized community. Migration pressure creates a number of risks and threats to the Bulgarian national security. Our country has the capacity and resources to meet these potential threats, as a main factor for minimizing the risks to national security is the improvement of coordination and coherence of actions between various actors serving to the security sector.

Keywords: legislation, migrants, refugees, security, terrorism

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
9034 Urban Security and Social Sustainability in Cities of Developing Countries

Authors: Taimaz Larimian, Negin Sadeghi

Abstract:

Very little is known about the impacts of urban security on the level of social sustainability within the cities of developing countries. Urban security is still struggling to find its position in the social sustainability agenda, despite the significant role of safety and security on different aspects of peoples’ lives. This paper argues that urban safety and security should be better integrated within the social sustainability framework. With this aim, this study investigates the hypothesized relationship between social sustainability and Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) approach at the neighborhood scale. This study proposes a model of key influential dimensions of CPTED analyzed into localized factors and sub-factors. These factors are then prioritized using pairwise comparison logic and fuzzy group Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method in order to determine the relative importance of each factor on achieving social sustainability. The proposed model then investigates social sustainability in six case study neighborhoods of Isfahan city based on residents’ perceptions of safety within their neighborhood. Mixed method of data collection is used by using a self-administered questionnaire to explore the residents’ perceptions of social sustainability in their area of residency followed by an on-site observation to measure the CPTED construct. In all, 150 respondents from selected neighborhoods were involved in this research. The model indicates that CPTED approach has a significant direct influence on increasing social sustainability in neighborhood scale. According to the findings, among different dimensions of CPTED, ‘activity support’ and ‘image/ management’ have the most influence on people’s feeling of safety within studied areas. This model represents a useful designing tool in achieving urban safety and security during the development of more socially sustainable and user-friendly urban areas.

Keywords: crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED), developing countries, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP), social sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
9033 An Assessment of the Effects of Social Conflicts on Tourism in Plateau State, Nigeria: Case Study of Jos Crisis on Hill Station Hotel

Authors: Audu Aly Fada, Adejoh Apeh Matthew

Abstract:

This research assesses the effects of social conflicts on tourism products in Plateau State. It was specifically set out to find out the major causes of social conflicts in Jos, evaluate the effects of social conflicts on the influx of tourists to Hill station hotel Jos, and the impact on revenue generation of the hotel. To achieve these objectives research questions were formulated and a sample of 30 hotel staff was selected as the respondents. Data collected were organized and analyzed using tables, percentages and mean statistics. It was found that the hospitality and tourism industry was adversely affected. The crisis brought about a decline in the number of tourist arrivals, increase in cancelled bookings, a decrease in the average length of stay of tourists and the average room occupancy. Peace is the best friend of travel and tourism, while war and insecurity are among its worst enemies. It is recommended that all stakeholders involved in tourism administration should device safer environment that supports continued patronage by providing modern security apparatus. In the same spirit, government as the main stake-holder in security provision should do more than paying lip service to guarantee security and safety of lives and properties.

Keywords: social conflict, crisis, security, tourism development

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
9032 The Influence of an Occupation as a Calling on the Value of Job Security and Its Connection with Wage Levels

Authors: Malul Miki, Rafi Bar-El, Eithan Hourie

Abstract:

In this article, we test the influence of an occupation as a calling on the value of job security and its connection with wage levels. Our sample consists of 495 workers in Israel from 10 occupations in the public sector, who are assumed to have a relatively high level of job security, and the private sector, who are assumed to have less job security or none at all. These 10 occupations are social workers, lecturers, lawyers, administration workers, accountants, high school teachers, bank workers, high-tech worker, nurses and psychologists. Using regression analysis, we find that those who have occupations that the literature has defined as a calling value job security less than those in ordinary employment. In addition, salary level has no effect on this relationship. Finally, those who work in occupations that are regarded as a calling have less status quo bias than those in ordinary employment.

Keywords: calling, loss aversion, job security, status quo bias

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9031 Enhancement of Environmental Security by the Application of Wireless Sensor Network in Nigeria

Authors: Ahmadu Girgiri, Lawan Gana Ali, Mamman M. Baba

Abstract:

Environmental security clearly articulates the perfections and developments of various communities around the world irrespective of the region, culture, religion or social inclination. Although, the present state of insecurity has become serious issue devastating the peace, unity, stability and progress of man and his physical environment particularly in developing countries. Recently, measure of security and it management in Nigeria has been a bottle-neck to the effectiveness and advancement of various sectors that include; business, education, social relations, politics and above all an economy. Several measures have been considered on mitigating environment insecurity such as surveillance, demarcation, security personnel empowerment and the likes, but still the issue remains disturbing. In this paper, we present the application of new technology that contributes to the improvement of security surveillance known as “Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)”. The system is new, smart and emerging technology that provides monitoring, detection and aggregation of information using sensor nodes and wireless network. WSN detects, monitors and stores information or activities in the deployed area such as schools, environment, business centers, public squares, industries, and outskirts and transmit to end users. This will reduce the cost of security funding and eases security surveillance depending on the nature and the requirement of the deployment.

Keywords: application, environment, insecurity, sensor, wireless sensor network

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
9030 The Benefits of Security Culture for Improving Physical Protection Systems at Detection and Radiation Measurement Laboratory

Authors: Ari S. Prabowo, Nia Febriyanti, Haryono B. Santosa

Abstract:

Security function that is called as Physical Protection Systems (PPS) has functions to detect, delay and response. Physical Protection Systems (PPS) in Detection and Radiation Measurement Laboratory needs to be improved continually by using internal resources. The nuclear security culture provides some potentials to support this research. The study starts by identifying the security function’s weaknesses and its strengths of security culture as a purpose. Secondly, the strengths of security culture are implemented in the laboratory management. Finally, a simulation was done to measure its effectiveness. Some changes were happened in laboratory personnel behaviors and procedures. All became more prudent. The results showed a good influence of nuclear security culture in laboratory security functions.

Keywords: laboratory, physical protection system, security culture, security function

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
9029 Blockchain Solutions for IoT Challenges: Overview

Authors: Amir Ali Fatoorchi

Abstract:

Regardless of the advantage of LoT devices, they have limitations like storage, compute, and security problems. In recent years, a lot of Blockchain-based research in IoT published and presented. In this paper, we present the Security issues of LoT. IoT has three levels of security issues: Low-level, Intermediate-level, and High-level. We survey and compare blockchain-based solutions for high-level security issues and show how the underlying technology of bitcoin and Ethereum could solve IoT problems.

Keywords: Blockchain, security, data security, IoT

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
9028 Political Economy of Internal Dispalcement, Migration and Human Security in Zimbabwe: 1800 to Present Day

Authors: Chupicai Manuel

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to examine the political economy and history of internal displacement, migration and human security in Zimbabwe from 1800 to present day. The article gives a timeline of major internal displacement, migration trends that took place in Zimbabwe before colonialism, through the colonial period up to the present day and examines the human security context of such periods. In view of the above, a political economy analysis will be employed to examine the different factors that promoted internal displacement and human movements from 1800 to the present day and explore the architecture of human security in Zimbabwe. The ultimate goal of this literature review is to provide a longitudinal analysis of internal displacement, migration and human security regimes that existed in Zimbabwe with the view of promoting social cohesion and nation building.

Keywords: human security, internal displacement, migration, political economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
9027 Social Media Factor in Security Environment

Authors: Cetin Arslan, Senol Tayan

Abstract:

Social media is one of the most important and effective means of social interaction among people in which they create, share and exchange their ideas via photos, videos or voice messages. Although there are lots of communication tools, social media sites are the most prominent ones that allows the users articulate themselves in a matter of seconds all around the world with almost any expenses and thus, they became very popular and widespread after its emergence. As the usage of social media increases, it becomes an effective instrument in social matters. While it is possible to use social media to emphasize basic human rights and protest some failures of any government as in “Arab Spring”, it is also possible to spread propaganda and misinformation just to cause long lasting insurgency, upheaval, turmoil or disorder as an instrument of intervention to internal affairs and state sovereignty by some hostile groups or countries. It is certain that “social media” has positive effects on democracies letting people have chance to express themselves and to organize, but it is also obvious that the misuse of it, is very common that even a five-minute-long video can cause to wage a campaign against a country. Although it looks anti-democratic, when you consider the catastrophic effects of misuse of social media, it is a kind of area that serious precautions are to be taken without limiting democratic rights while allowing constant and perpetual share but preventing the criminal events. This article begins with the current developments in social media and gives some examples on misuse of it. Second part tries to put emphasize on the legal basis that can prevent criminal activities and the upheavals and insurgencies against state security. Last part makes comparison between democratic countries and international organizations’’ actions against such activities and proposes some further actions that are compatible with democratic norms.

Keywords: democracy, disorder, security, Social Media

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9026 Enhancing Cloud Computing with Security Trust Model

Authors: John Ayoade

Abstract:

Cloud computing is a model that enables the delivery of on-demand computing resources such as networks, servers, storage, applications and services over the internet. Cloud Computing is a relatively growing concept that presents a good number of benefits for its users; however, it also raises some security challenges which may slow down its use. In this paper, we identify some of those security issues that can serve as barriers to realizing the full benefits that cloud computing can bring. One of the key security problems is security trust. A security trust model is proposed that can enhance the confidence that users need to fully trust the use of public and mobile cloud computing and maximize the potential benefits that they offer.

Keywords: cloud computing, trust, security, certificate authority, PKI

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
9025 Political Dynamics of Economic and Climatological Security in the the Middle East

Authors: Zahra Bakhtiari

Abstract:

Middle East countries confront a multitude of main environmental challenges which are inevitable. The unstable economic and political structure which dominates numerous middle East countries makes it difficult to react effectively to unfavorable climate change impacts. This study applies a qualitative methodology and relies on secondary literature aimed to investigate how countries in the Middle East are balancing economic security and climatic security in terms of budgeting, infrastructure investment, political engagement (domestically through discourses or internationally in terms of participation in international organizations or bargaining, etc.) it provide an outline of innovative measures in both economic and environmental fields that are in progress in the Middle East countries and what capacity they have for economic development and environmental adaptation, as well as what has already been performed. The primary outcome is that countries that rely more on infrastructure investment such as negative emissions technologies (NET) through green social capital enterprises and political engagement, especially nationally determined contributions (NDCs) commitments and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), experience more economic and climatological security balance in the Middle East. Since implementing these measures is not the same in all countries in the region, we see different levels of balance between climate security and economic security. The overall suggestion is that the collaboration of both the bottom-up and top-down approaches helps create strategic environmental strategies, which are in line with the economic circumstances of each country and creates the desired balance.

Keywords: climate security, economic security, middle east, negative emissions technologies, reen social capital

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9024 Alternative (In)Security: Using Photovoice Research Methodology to Explore Refugee Anxieties in Lebanon

Authors: Jessy Abouarab

Abstract:

For more than half a century, international norms related to refugee security and protection have proliferated, yet their role in alleviating war’s negative impacts on human life remains limited. The impact of refugee-security processes often manifests asymmetrically within populations. Many issues and people get silenced due to narrow security policies that focus either on abstract threat containment and refugee control or refugee protection and humanitarian aid. (In)security practices are gendered and experienced. Examining the case study of Syrian refugees in Lebanon, this study explores the gendered impact of refugee security mechanisms on local realities. A transnational feminist approach will be used to position this research in relation to existing studies in the field of security and the refugee-protection regime, highlighting the social, cultural, legal, and political barriers to gender equality in the areas of violence, rights, and social inclusion. Through Photovoice methodology, the Syrian refugees’ (in)securities in Lebanon were given visibility by enabling local volunteers to record and reflect their realities through pictures, at the same time voice the participants’ anxieties and recommendations to reach normative policy change. This Participatory Action Research approach helped participants observe the structural barriers and lack of culturally inclusive refugee services that hinder security, increase discrimination, stigma, and poverty. The findings have implications for a shift of the refugee protection mechanisms to a community-based approach in ways that extend beyond narrow security policies that hinder women empowerment and raise vulnerabilities such as gendered exploitation, abuse, and neglect.

Keywords: gender, (in)security, Lebanon, refugee, Syrian refugees, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 72