Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Bandar Ali Al-Asbahi

24 Heavy Metal Distribution in Tissues of Two Commercially Important Fish Species, Euryglossa orientalis and Psettodes erumei

Authors: Zahra Khoshnood, Reza Khoshnood, Ali Hajinajaf, Farzad Fahim, Behdokht Hajinajaf, Farhad Fahim

Abstract:

In 2013, 24 fish samples were taken from two fishery regions in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, the fishing grounds north of Hormoz Strait (Persian Gulf) near the Iranian coastline. The two flat fishes were oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and deep flounder (Psettodes erumei). Using the ROPME method (MOOPAM) for chemical digestion, Cd concentration was measured with a nonflame atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The average concentration of Cd in the edible muscle tissue of deep flounder was measured in Bandar-Abbas and was found to be 0.15±.06 µg g-1. It was 0.1±.05 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Lengeh. The corresponding values for oriental sole were 0.2±0.13 and 0.13±0.11 µg.g-1. The average concentration of Cd in the liver tissue of deep flounder in Bandar-Abbas was 0.22±.05 µg g-1 and that in Bandar-Lengeh was 0.2±0.04 µg.g-1. The values for oriental sole were 0.31±0.09 and 0.24±0.13 µg g-1 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: Trace Metal, Euryglossa orientalis, Psettodes erumei, Persian Gulf

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23 Mercury Detection in Two Fishes from the Persian Gulf

Authors: Zahra Khoshnood, Mehdi Kazaie, Sajedeh Neisi

Abstract:

In 2013, 24 fish samples were taken from two fishery regions in the north of Persian Gulf near the Iranian coastal lines. The two flatfishes were Yellofin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and Longtail tuna (Thannus tonggol). We analyzed total Hg concentration of liver and muscle tissues by Mercury Analyzer (model LECO AMA 254). The average concentration of total Hg in edible Muscle tissue of deep-Flounder was measured in Bandar-Abbas and was found to be 18.92 and it was 10.19 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Lengeh. The corresponding values for Oriental sole were 8.47 and 0.08 µg.g-1. The average concentration of Hg in liver tissue of deep-Flounder, in Bandar-Abbas was 25.49 and that in Bandar-Lengeh was 12.52 µg.g-1.the values for Oriental sole were 11.88 and 3.2 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: Mercury, Persian Gulf, Acanthopagrus latus, Thannus tonggol

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22 Health Risks Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Sea Food from Persian ‎Gulf

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami ‎, Mohsen Ehsanpour, Fatemeh Afkhami ‎

Abstract:

Heavy metals are increasingly being released into natural waters from geological and anthropogenic sources. The distribution of several heavy metals (Cd, Pb) was investigated in muscle, liver in six different fish species seasonally collected in Persian Gulf (autumn 2009-summer 2010). The concentrations of all metals were lower in flesh than those recorded in liver due to their physiological roles. The THQ index for fish was calculated. Estimation of target hazard quotients calculations for the contaminated fish consumption was calculated to evaluate the effect of pollution on health. Total metal THQs values (Pb and Cd) for adults were 0.05 and 0.04 in Bushehr and Bandar-Genaveh, respectively, and for children they were 0.08 and 0.05 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Health Risks, Persian Gulf, THQ index

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21 Measure Determination and Zoning of Oil Pollution (TPH) on ‎Costal Sediments of Bandar Abbas (Hormoz Strait) ‎

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami ‎

Abstract:

This study investigated the presence of hydrocarbon pollution in industrial waste water sediments found in west coast of Bandar Abass (northern part of Hormoz strait). Therefore, six transects from west of the city were selected. Each transect consists of three stations intervals 100, 600 and 1100 meter from the low tide were sampled in both the summer and winter season (July and January 2009). Physical and chemical parameters of water, concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and soil tissue deposition were evaluated according to standard procedures of MOOPAM. Average results of dissolved oxygen were 6.42 mg/l, temperature 26.31°C, pH 8.55, EC 54.47 ms/cm and salinity 35.98 g/l respectively. Results indicate that minimum, maximum and average concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in sediments were, 60.18, 751.83, and 229.21 µg/kg respectively which are less than comparable studies in other parts of Persian Gulf.

Keywords: Oil Pollution, Bandar Abbas, costal sediments, TPH ‎

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20 Resilience in Children: A Comparative Analysis between Children with and without Parental Supervision Bandar Abbas

Authors: N. Taghinejad, F. Dortaj, N. Khodabandeh

Abstract:

This research aimed at comparing resilience among male and female children with and without parental supervision in Bandar Abbas. The sample consists of 200 subjects selected through cluster sampling. The research method was comparative causal and Conner and Davidson’s questionnaire form resilience was used for data collection. Results indicated that there is no difference between children with and without parental supervision regarding their resilience capacity. These findings may be challenging and useful for psychologists, officials of children’s affairs and legislators.

Keywords: Children, Resilience, children with parental supervision, children without parental supervision

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19 Effects of Oil Pollution on Euryglossa orientalis and Psettodes erumei in the Persian Gulf

Authors: Zahra Khoshnood, Reza Khoshnood, Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami ‎, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Marine pollution is a global environmental problem. Different human activities on land, in the water and in the air contribute to the contamination of seawater, sediments and organisms with potentially toxic substances. Contaminants can be natural substances or artificially produced compounds. After discharge into the sea, contaminants can stay in the water in dissolved form or they can be removed from the water column through sedimentation to the bottom sediments. Histopathological alterations can be used as indicators for the effects of various anthropogenic pollutants on organisms and are a reflection of the overall health of the entire population in the ecosystem. These histo pathological biomarkers are closely related to other biomarkers of stress since many pollutants have to undergo metabolic activation in order to be able to provoke cellular change in the affected organism. In order to make evaluation of the effects of oil pollution, some heavy metals bioaccumulation and explore their histopathological effects on hepatocytes of Oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and Deep flounder (Psettodes erumei), fishes caught from two areas of north coast of the Persian Gulf: Bandar Abbass and Bandar Lengeh. Concentrations of Ni and V in liver of both species in two sampling regions were in following order: Bandar abbass Bandar lengeh; also between two species, these quantities were higher in P. erumei than E. orientalis in both sampling regions. Histopathology of the liver shows some cellular alterations including: degeneration, necrosis and tissue disruption, and histopathological effects were severe in P. erumei than E. orientalis. Results showed that Bandar Abbass region was more polluted than Bandar Lengeh, and because Ni and V were oil pollution indicators, and two flat fishes were benthic, they can receive considerable amount of oil pollution through their biological activities like feeding. Also higher amounts of heavy metal concentrations and major histopathological effects in E. orientalis showed strong relationship between benthic habitat of the fish and amounts of received pollutants from water and sediments, because E. orientalis is more related to the bottom than P. erumei.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Oil Pollution, Persian Gulf, flatfishes

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18 A Study on Effect of Almahdi Aluminium Factory of Bandar Abbas on Environment Status of the Region with an Emphasis on Measuring of Some Scarce Metals Existing in the Air (Atmosphere)

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpour, Maryam Malekpour, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Today, industry is one of the indices of growth and development of countries and is a suitable applicable criterion to compare the countries. Bandar Abbas has a high industrial centralization in term of geographical redundancy of industries in comparison with other rural and urban places of Hormozgan province. Most important and major industries of the province are located in Bandar abbas eighth refinery, power plant, zinc melting company, Almahdi Aluminium, Hormozgan steel, south steel, which are the most important of these industries. So, it is necessary to study pollution from these industries and their destructive effects on environment of region. In respect of these things, general purpose of this research is codling and presenting managing solution of Almahdi Aluminium factory in them of measuring of air (atmosphere) parameters. For gaining this purpose it is necessary to determine measure of heavy metals suspension in the air (atmosphere) in the neighborhood of industries and also in residential regions close to them as partial purposes. So, for achieving the purposes above, operation of sampling from the air in two hot and cold seasons of the year (2010-2011) was performed, after field reviews to recognize the sources of effluence and to choose place of sampling stations. Sampling and preparation way to read was based on EPA and NIOSH. Also, decreasing process was included Fe>Al>Cd>Pb>Ni respectively, in term of results gaining from sampling of ingredients existing in the air (atmosphere). Also Ni and Fe elements in samples of air were higher than permissive measure in both of cold and hot season. Average of these two metals was 34% and 33% in cold season and 44% and 34% micrograms/m3 in hot season. Finally, suitable managing solutions to improve existing situation is presented in term for all results.

Keywords: Atmosphere, Bandar Abbas, Almahdi aluminium factory, scarce metals

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17 The Impact of Road Development on the Emergence of the Commercial Area

Authors: Ida Bagus Ilham Malik, Bart Julian Dewancker

Abstract:

The road construction will affect the development of the region along the new road. With this principle, the government developed Antasari Street in order to become one of the main economic corridors for the city of Bandar Lampung. Since its construction in 1997, Antasari Street developed into one of the main economic corridors that greatly affect the economic condition of the city, in addition to other economic corridors such as Pagar Alam Street and Teuku Umar Street. The data shows that the construction of roads affects economic development in the corridor that with the advent of commercial buildings in large quantities. Among them are shops, office, restaurants, and a car showroom. This study proves that the road construction could accelerate the economic progress of the road corridor, especially in the construction and development of urban roads.

Keywords: road development, commercial area, Antasari street, Bandar Lampung

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16 Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in High School Students in Bandar Abbas, Iran: An Application of the Trans-Theoretical Model

Authors: Aghamolaei Teamur, Hosseini Zahra, Ghanbarnejad Amin

Abstract:

Introduction: A diet rich in fruits and vegetables, especially for adolescents is of a great importance due to the need for nutrients and the rapid growth of this age group. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between decisional balance and self-efficacy with stages of change for fruit and vegetable consumption in high school students in Bandar Abbas, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the data were collected from 345 students studying in 8 high schools of Bandar Abbas were selected through multistage sampling. To collect data, separate questionnaires were designed for evaluating each of the variables including the stages of change, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy of fruit and vegetable consumption. Decisional balance was estimated by subtracting the perceived benefits and barriers. The data were analyzed using SPSS19 and one-way ANOVA. Results: The results of this study indicated that individuals’ progress along the stages of change from pre-contemplation to maintenance level was associated with a significant increase in their decisional balance and self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption. (P < 0.001). The lowest level of decisional balance and self-efficacy regarding for fruit showed up in the pre-contemplation stage, and the highest level of decisional balance and self-efficacy was in the maintenance stage. The same trends were observed in the case of vegetable consumption. Conclusion: Decisional balance and self-efficacy should be considered in designing interventions to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables. There needs to be more emphasis in educational programs based on the Trans-theoretical Model (TTM) on the enhancement of perceived benefits and elimination of perceived barriers regarding consumption of fruits and vegetables.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Fruit, vegetable, trans-theoretical model, decision balance

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15 Factors Influencing Walking in Bandar Baru Bangi, Malaysia

Authors: Zeinab Aliyas

Abstract:

Walking is known as the most common type of physical activity that helps mental and physical health of people. In the recent years, promoting walking activity in neighborhood areas and cities become as one of the important issues in terms of sustainable cities. Therefore the study aimed to investigate the influence of fear of crime and personal barriers as social and personal factor respectively on neighborhood walking. 464 questionnaires in Bandar Baru Bangi in Malaysia was distributed to collect data, and finally, 424 questionnaires were qualified to be used in the study. The Smart-PLS was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that individual barriers and fear of crime both have significant influence on the level of walking behavior in the neighborhood area. It was found that fear of crime has higher influence on walking behavior in comparison to individual factors. The finding of this study can help urban researcher and planner to know the significant influence of crime safety and individual attitudes on the level of walking activity.

Keywords: fear of crime, personal barriers, neighborhood walking, residential neighborhood

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14 Comparison of Marital Conflict Resolution Procedures and Parenting Styles between Nurses with Fixed and Rotating Shifts in Public Hospitals of Bandar Abbas, Iran

Authors: S. Abdolvahab Samavi, Kobra Hajializadeh, S. Abdolhadi Samavi

Abstract:

Nursing is a critical work that that can effect on the health of the society. A parenting style is a psychological construct demonstrating standard policies that parents use in their child rearing. The quality of parenting is more critical than the quantity spend with the child. Also, marital Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict between couples. Both of these variables were affected by job status in nurses. Aim of this study was to compare the Marital Conflict Resolution and Parenting Styles between Nurses with fixed and rotating shifts in public hospitals of Bandar Abbas, Iran. Statistical population includes all married Nurses in hospitals of Bandar Abbas (900 Persons). For sample size estimation, the Morgan table was used, 270 people were selected by random sampling method. Conflict solution styles and Baumrind parenting styles questionnaire were used for collecting data about study variables. For analysis of data, descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Results showed there was significant difference between both groups in conflict solution styles. According to study results, nurses with fixed shifts had an effective conflict solution styles. Also, there was significant difference between both groups in Parenting Styles. According to study results, nurses with fixed shifts had an effective parenting style. Totally, results of this study showed that job status of nurses affected on Marital Conflict Resolution and Parenting Styles of nurses. Managers of health system should be consider these issues about work of nurses and if possible, married nurses employed at fixed day (vs. rotating) shift.

Keywords: parenting styles, public hospitals, marital conflict resolution procedures, nurses with fixed and rotating shifts

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13 The Effectiveness of Anti-Smoking Campaign towards Young Adults (A Case Study in Bandar Sunway Institution)

Authors: Intan Abida Abu Bakar

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effectiveness of anti-smoking campaign towards youth in Bandar Sunway institution. Based from the Ministry of Health, Malaysia and the national newspapers in the country reveal that the campaigns were not effective enough to curb smoking in Malaysia. In the past, from the year 2004 to 2014, the Malaysian Health Ministry were determined to curb the smoking issue that were arising in the country especially among the youths. “Tak Nak” smoking campaign was launched and broadcast on all forms of media in Malaysia. The campaigns are to educate and create an awareness to encourage people to quit smoking besides discourage non-smokers from starting to smoke. The main objective of this research is to investigate and study the concept, storyline and appeal of ‘Tak Nak Merokok’ advertisement campaigns from 2004 to 2014. Data from questionnaires and focus group discussions indicate that the advertisement contained fear and emotional appeal with good concept and storyline are more appealing and effective compared to the humour and informational rational appeal. This research could be a guideline for advertisers who want to come up with creative anti-smoking campaigns in Malaysia. In the future, the focus group can be expanded and more feedbacks and reviews could contribute to marketers and advertisers to determine the most suitable advertisements to tackle this smoking issue.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Smoking, young adults, anti-smoking campaign

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12 Forster Energy Transfer and Optoelectronic Properties of (PFO/TiO2)/Fluorol 7GA Hybrid Thin Films

Authors: Bandar Ali Al-Asbahi, Mohammad Hafizuddin Haji Jumali

Abstract:

Forster energy transfer between poly (9,9'-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO)/TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as a donor and Fluorol 7GA as an acceptor has been studied. The energy transfer parameters were calculated by using mathematical models. The dominant mechanism responsible for the energy transfer between the donor and acceptor molecules was Forster-type, as evidenced by large values of quenching rate constant, energy transfer rate constant and critical distance of energy transfer. Moreover, these composites which were used as an emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes, were investigated in terms of current density–voltage and electroluminescence spectra.

Keywords: energy transfer parameters, forster-type, electroluminescence, organic light emitting diodes

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11 Effect of Hydraulic Residence Time on Aromatic Petrochemical Wastewater Treatment Using Pilot-Scale Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Fatemeh Yousefi, Narges Fallah, Mohsen Kian, Mehrzad Pakzadeh

Abstract:

The petrochemical complex releases wastewater, which is rich in organic pollutants and could not be treated easily. Treatment of the wastewater from a petrochemical industry has been investigated using a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR). For this purpose, a pilot-scale submerged MBR with a flat-sheet ultrafiltration membrane was used for treatment of petrochemical wastewater according to Bandar Imam Petrochemical complex (BIPC) Aromatic plant. The testing system ran continuously (24-h) over 6 months. Trials on different membrane fluxes and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were conducted and the performance evaluation of the system was done. During the 167 days operation of the MBR at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18, 12, 6, and 3 and at an infinite sludge retention time (SRT), the MBR effluent quality consistently met the requirement for discharge to the environment. A fluxes of 6.51 and 13.02 L m-2 h-1 (LMH) was sustainable and HRT of 6 and 12 h corresponding to these fluxes were applicable. Membrane permeability could be fully recovered after cleaning. In addition, there was no foaming issue in the process. It was concluded that it was feasible to treat the wastewater using submersed MBR technology.

Keywords: Biological treatment, petrochemical wastewater, membrane bioreactor (MBR), COD removal

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10 Using Micropiles to Improve the Anzali's Saturated Loose Silty Sand

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. Hamidzadeh

Abstract:

Today, with the daily advancement of geotechnical engineering on soil improvement and modification of the physical properties and shear strength of soil, it is now possible to construct structures with high-volume and high service load on loose sandy soils. One of such methods is using micropiles, which are mostly used to control asymmetrical subsidence, increase bearing capacity, and prevent soil liquefaction. This study examined the improvement of Anzali's saturated loose silty sand using 192 micropiles with a length of 8 meters and diameter of 75 mm. Bandar-e Anzali is one of Iran's coastal populated cities which are located in a high-seismicity region. The effects of the insertion of micropiles on prevention of liquefaction and improvement of subsidence were examined through comparison of the results of Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Plate Load Test (PLT) before and after implementation of the micropiles. The results show that the SPT values and the ultimate bearing capacity of silty sand increased after the implementation of the micropiles. Therefore, the installation of micropiles increases the strength of silty sand improving the resistance of soil against liquefaction.

Keywords: Strength, Soil Improvement, silty sand, SPT, micropiles, PLT

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9 Study of Chlorine Gas Leak Consequences in Direct Chlorination System Failure in Cooling Towers in the Petrochemical Industry

Authors: Mahdi Goharrokhi, Mohammad H. Ruhipour, Mahsa Ghasemi, Artadokht Ostadsarayi

Abstract:

In this paper, we are aiming to study the consequences of chlorine gas leak in direct chlorine gas injection compared to using bleach (sodium hypochlorite), studying the negative effects both on the environment and individuals. This study was performed in the cooling towers of a natural fractioning unit of Bandar-e-IMAM petrochemical plant. Considering that chlorine gas is highly toxic and based on the health regulation, its release into the surrounding environment can be very dangerous for people and even fatal for individuals. We studied performing quantitative studies in the worst cases of event incidence. In addition, studying alternative methods with a lower risk was also on the agenda to select the least likely possible option causing an accident. In this paper chlorine gas release consequences have been evaluated by using PHAST software. Reaching to 10 ppm of chlorine gas concentration was basis of hazardous area determination. The results show that the full chlorine gas line rupture scenario in Pasquill category F, were worst case, and many people could be harmed around cooling towers area because of chlorine gas inhalation.

Keywords: Risk Assessment, Cooling Towers, system failure, chlorine gas, consequence modeling, direct chlorination

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8 Non-Targeted Adversarial Image Classification Attack-Region Modification Methods

Authors: Bandar Alahmadi, Lethia Jackson

Abstract:

Machine Learning model is used today in many real-life applications. The safety and security of such model is important, so the results of the model are as accurate as possible. One challenge of machine learning model security is the adversarial examples attack. Adversarial examples are designed by the attacker to cause the machine learning model to misclassify the input. We propose a method to generate adversarial examples to attack image classifiers. We are modifying the successfully classified images, so a classifier misclassifies them after the modification. In our method, we do not update the whole image, but instead we detect the important region, modify it, place it back to the original image, and then run it through a classifier. The algorithm modifies the detected region using two methods. First, it will add abstract image matrix on back of the detected image matrix. Then, it will perform a rotation attack to rotate the detected region around its axes, and embed the trace of image in image background. Finally, the attacked region is placed in its original position, from where it was removed, and a smoothing filter is applied to smooth the background with foreground. We test our method in cascade classifier, and the algorithm is efficient, the classifier confident has dropped to almost zero. We also try it in CNN (Convolutional neural network) with higher setting and the algorithm was successfully worked.

Keywords: Image Processing, Computer Vision, attack, adversarial examples

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7 Impact Study on a Load Rich Island and Development of Frequency Based Auto-Load Shedding Scheme to Improve Service Reliability of the Island

Authors: Md. Shafiullah, M. Shafiul Alam, Bandar Suliman Alsharif

Abstract:

Electrical quantities such as frequency, voltage, current are being fluctuated due to abnormalities in power system. Most of the abnormalities cause fluctuation in system frequency and sometimes extreme abnormalities lead to system blackout. To protect the system from complete blackout planned and proper islanding plays a very important role even in case of extreme abnormalities. Islanding operation not only helps stabilizing a faulted system but also supports power supplies to critical and important loads, in extreme emergency. But the islanding systems are weaker than integrated system so the stability of islands is the prime concern when an integrated system is disintegrated. In this paper, different impacts on a load rich island have been studied and a frequency based auto-load shedding scheme has been developed for sudden load addition, generation outage and combined effect of both to the island. The developed scheme has been applied to Khulna-Barisal Island to validate the effectiveness of the developed technique. Various types of abnormalities to the test system have been simulated and for the simulation purpose CYME PSAF (Power System Analysis Framework) has been used.

Keywords: auto load shedding, FS&FD relay, impact study, island, PSAF, ROCOF

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6 Cytotoxic Effect of Crude Extract of Sea Pen Virgularia gustaviana on HeLa and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Pargol Ghavam Mostafavi, Sharareh Sharifi, Ali Mashinchian Moradi, Mohammad Hadi Givianrad, Hassan Niknejad

Abstract:

Marine organisms such as soft coral, sponge, ascidians, and tunicate containing rich source of natural compound have been studied in last decades because of their special chemical compounds with anticancer properties. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-cancer property of ethyl acetate extracted from marine sea pen Virgularia gustaviana found from Persian Gulf coastal (Bandar Abbas). The extraction processes were carried out with ethyl acetate for five days. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for qualitative identification of crude extract. The viability of HeLa and MDA-Mb-231 cancer cells was investigated using MTT assay at the concentration of 25, 50, and a 100 µl/ml of ethyl acetate is extracted. The crude extract of Virgularia gustaviana demonstrated ten fractions with different Retention factor (Rf) by TLC and Retention time (Rt) evaluated by HPLC. The crude extract dose-dependently decreased cancer cell viability compared to control group. According to the results, the ethyl acetate extracted from Virgularia gustaviana inhibits the growth of cancer cells, an effect which needs to be further investigated in the future studies.

Keywords: anti-cancer, Hela cancer cell, MDA-Md-231 cancer cell, Virgularia gustavina

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5 Non-Targeted Adversarial Object Detection Attack: Fast Gradient Sign Method

Authors: Bandar Alahmadi, Lethia Jackson, Manohar Mareboyana

Abstract:

Today, there are many applications that are using computer vision models, such as face recognition, image classification, and object detection. The accuracy of these models is very important for the performance of these applications. One challenge that facing the computer vision models is the adversarial examples attack. In computer vision, the adversarial example is an image that is intentionally designed to cause the machine learning model to misclassify it. One of very well-known method that is used to attack the Convolution Neural Network (CNN) is Fast Gradient Sign Method (FGSM). The goal of this method is to find the perturbation that can fool the CNN using the gradient of the cost function of CNN. In this paper, we introduce a novel model that can attack Regional-Convolution Neural Network (R-CNN) that use FGSM. We first extract the regions that are detected by R-CNN, and then we resize these regions into the size of regular images. Then, we find the best perturbation of the regions that can fool CNN using FGSM. Next, we add the resulted perturbation to the attacked region to get a new region image that looks similar to the original image to human eyes. Finally, we placed the regions back to the original image and test the R-CNN with the attacked images. Our model could drop the accuracy of the R-CNN when we tested with Pascal VOC 2012 dataset.

Keywords: Image Processing, Computer Vision, attack, adversarial examples

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4 Risk Assessment of Oil Spill Pollution by Integration of Gnome, Aloha and Gis in Bandar Abbas Coast, Iran

Authors: Mehrnaz Farzingohar, Ahmad Savari, Mehran Yasemi

Abstract:

The oil products are imported and exported via Rajaee’s tanker terminal. Within loading and discharging in several cases the oil is released into the berths and made oil spills. The spills are distributed within short time and seriously affected Rajaee port’s environment and even extended areas. The trajectory and fate of oil spills investigated by modeling and parted by three risk levels base on the modeling results. First GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment) applied to trajectory the liquid oil. Second, ALOHA (Areal Location Of Hazardous Atmosphere) air quality model, is integrated to predict the oil evaporation path within the air. Base on the identified zones the high risk areas are signed by colored dots which their densities calculated and clarified on a map which displayed the harm places. Wind and water circulation moved the pollution to the East of Rajaee Port that accumulated about 12 km of coastline. Approximately 20 km of north east of Qeshm Island shore is covered by the three levels of risky areas. Since the main wind direction is SSW the pollution pushed to the east and the highest risk zones formed on the crests edges hence the low risk appeared on the concavities. This assessment help the management and emergency systems to monitor the exposure places base on the priority factors and find the best approaches to protect the environment.

Keywords: Modeling, Pollution, Risk Assessment, Oil Spill

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3 Personal and Social Factors as Barriers to Leisure Walking in Residential Neighborhoods

Authors: Zeinab Aliyas, Diba Mahboubi

Abstract:

Leisure walking is known as one of the most common types of physical activity that perform in purpose of recreation or health, which in turn may affect resident’s health. In the recent years, promoting leisure walking activity in neighborhood areas become as one of the important issues regarding promoting mental and physical health, however; the level of physical inactivity is rising in many societies including Iran. As it was proven that the tendency to walk out of choice is not encouraging among Iranian people. Hence; understanding the main concern of residents regarding walking activity in their neighborhoods can help in increasing the tendency to do leisure activity among residents. Built environment, social and individual factors are known as the main factors that affect decision to walk, in this regard, the study aimed to investigate the influence of personal and social factors that prevent residents to walk for recreation or exercise in their neighborhoods. Hence the fear of crime and personal barriers were examined in the current research as social and personal factors respectively. To collect the required data, 500 questionnaires by using systematic sampling were distributed from March to May 2016 in four residential neighborhoods of Bandar Abbas in Iran out which 411 questionnaire turned out to be qualified to be used in the study. The Smart-PLS was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that personal and fear of crime both have significant influence on the level of recreation and exercise walking in the neighborhood areas. The study found that fear of crime has the higher influence on exercise and recreational walking behavior in comparison to individual factors. It was revealed that social factors such as fear of crime in the neighborhoods might be more important than the personal reason for walking optionally in the surrounding environment. The finding of this study can help urban and health researcher to know the significant influence of fear of crime and individual attitudes on the level of leisure walking activity, in addition, the findings of the study suggest that urban planners and designers, as well as public health promoters, need to highly consider the contribution of neighborhoods' social environment variables as well as individual variables to promote walking behavior changes among adult population.

Keywords: Neighborhood, fear of crime, exercise walking, personal barriers, recreation walking

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2 The Development of Noctiluca scintillans Algal Bloom in Coastal Waters of Muscat, Sulanate of Oman

Authors: Aysha Al Sha'aibi

Abstract:

Algal blooms of the dinoflagellate species Noctiluca scintillans became frequent events in Omani waters. The current study aims at elucidating the abundance, size variation and observations on the feeding mechanism performed by this species during the winter bloom. An attempt was made, to relate observed biological parameters of the Noctiluca population to environmental factors. Field studies spanned the period from December 2014 to April 2015. Samples were collected from Bandar Rawdah (Muscat region) by Bongo nets, twice per week, from the surface and the integrated upper mixed layer. The measured environmental variables were: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, turbidity, nitrite, phosphate, wind speed and rainfall. During the winter bloom (from December 2014 through February 2015), the abundance exhibited the highest concentration on 17 February (640.24×106 cell.L-1) in oblique samples and 83.9x103 cell.L-1 in surface samples, with a subsequent decline up to the end of April. The average number of food vacuoles inside Noctiluca cells was 1.5 per cell; the percentage of feeding Noctiluca compared to the entire population varied from 0.01% to 0.03%. Both the surface area of the Noctiluca symbionts (Pedinomonas noctilucae) and cell diameter were maximal in December. In oblique samples the highest average cell diameter and the surface area of symbiont algae were 751.7 µm and 179.2x103 µm2 respectively. In surface samples, highest average cell diameter and the surface area of symbionts were 760 µm and 284.05x103 µm2 respectively. No significant correlations were detected between Noctiluca’s biological parameters and environmental variables except for the correlation between cell diameter and chlorophyll a, also between symbiotic algae surface area and chlorophyll a. The high correlation of chlorophyll a was as a reason of endosymbiotic algae Pedinomonas noctilucae and green Noctiluca enhanced chlorophyll during bloom. All correlations among biological parameters were significant; they are perhaps one of major factors that mediating high growth rates, generating millions of cell per liter in a short time range. The results gained from this study will provide a beneficial background for understanding deeply the development of coastal algal blooms of Noctiluca scintillans. Moreover, results could be used in different applications related to marine environment.

Keywords: abundance, oman, feeding activities, Noctiluca scintillans

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1 Multi-Criteria Decision Making Network Optimization for Green Supply Chains

Authors: Bandar A. Alkhayyal

Abstract:

Modern supply chains are typically linear, transforming virgin raw materials into products for end consumers, who then discard them after use to landfills or incinerators. Nowadays, there are major efforts underway to create a circular economy to reduce non-renewable resource use and waste. One important aspect of these efforts is the development of Green Supply Chain (GSC) systems which enables a reverse flow of used products from consumers back to manufacturers, where they can be refurbished or remanufactured, to both economic and environmental benefit. This paper develops novel multi-objective optimization models to inform GSC system design at multiple levels: (1) strategic planning of facility location and transportation logistics; (2) tactical planning of optimal pricing; and (3) policy planning to account for potential valuation of GSC emissions. First, physical linear programming was applied to evaluate GSC facility placement by determining the quantities of end-of-life products for transport from candidate collection centers to remanufacturing facilities while satisfying cost and capacity criteria. Second, disassembly and remanufacturing processes have received little attention in industrial engineering and process cost modeling literature. The increasing scale of remanufacturing operations, worth nearly $50 billion annually in the United States alone, have made GSC pricing an important subject of research. A non-linear physical programming model for optimization of pricing policy for remanufactured products that maximizes total profit and minimizes product recovery costs were examined and solved. Finally, a deterministic equilibrium model was used to determine the effects of internalizing a cost of GSC greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into optimization models. Changes in optimal facility use, transportation logistics, and pricing/profit margins were all investigated against a variable cost of carbon, using case study system created based on actual data from sites in the Boston area. As carbon costs increase, the optimal GSC system undergoes several distinct shifts in topology as it seeks new cost-minimal configurations. A comprehensive study of quantitative evaluation and performance of the model has been done using orthogonal arrays. Results were compared to top-down estimates from economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) models, to contrast remanufacturing GHG emission quantities with those from original equipment manufacturing operations. Introducing a carbon cost of $40/t CO2e increases modeled remanufacturing costs by 2.7% but also increases original equipment costs by 2.3%. The assembled work advances the theoretical modeling of optimal GSC systems and presents a rare case study of remanufactured appliances.

Keywords: Industrial Ecology, Circular economy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, extended producer responsibility, low carbon logistics, green supply chains

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