Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3308

Search results for: shear wave velocity

3308 The Evaluation of Soil Liquefaction Potential Using Shear Wave Velocity

Authors: M. Nghizaderokni, A. Janalizadechobbasty, M. Azizi, M. Naghizaderokni


The liquefaction resistance of soils can be evaluated using laboratory tests such as cyclic simple shear, cyclic triaxial, cyclic tensional shear, and field methods such as Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test (CPT), and Shear Wave Velocity (Vs). This paper outlines a great correlation between shear wave velocity and standard penetration resistance of granular soils was obtained. Using Seeds standard penetration test (SPT) based soil liquefaction charts, new charts of soil liquefaction evaluation based on shear wave velocity data were developed for various magnitude earthquakes.

Keywords: soil, liquefaction, shear wave velocity, standard penetration resistance

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3307 An Automated Bender Element System Used for S-Wave Velocity Tomography during Model Pile Installation

Authors: Yuxin Wu, Yu-Shing Wang, Zitao Zhang


A high-speed and time-lapse S-wave velocity measurement system has been built up for S-wave tomography in sand. This system is based on bender elements and applied to model pile tests in a tailor-made pressurized chamber to monitor the shear wave velocity distribution during pile installation in sand. Tactile pressure sensors are used parallel together with bender elements to monitor the stress changes during the tests. Strain gages are used to monitor the shaft resistance and toe resistance of pile. Since the shear wave velocity (Vs) is determined by the shear modulus of sand and the shaft resistance of pile is also influenced by the shear modulus of sand around the pile, the purposes of this study are to time-lapse monitor the S-wave velocity distribution change at a certain horizontal section during pile installation and to correlate the S-wave velocity distribution and shaft resistance of pile in sand.

Keywords: bender element, pile, shaft resistance, shear wave velocity, tomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
3306 Detailed Microzonation Studies around Denizli, Turkey

Authors: A. Aydin, E. Akyol, N. Soyatik


This study has been presented which is a detailed work of seismic microzonation of the city center. For seismic microzonation area of 225 km2 has been selected as the study area. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave) and seismic refraction methods have been used to generate one-dimensional shear wave velocity profile at 250 locations and two-dimensional profile at 60 locations. These shear wave velocities are used to estimate equivalent shear wave velocity in the study area at every 2 and 5 m intervals up to a depth of 60 m. Levels of equivalent shear wave velocity of soil are used the classified of the study area. After the results of the study, it must be considered as components of urban planning and building design of Denizli and the application and use of these results should be required and enforced by municipal authorities.

Keywords: seismic microzonation, liquefaction, land use management, seismic refraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
3305 Use of Statistical Correlations for the Estimation of Shear Wave Velocity from Standard Penetration Test-N-Values: Case Study of Algiers Area

Authors: Soumia Merat, Lynda Djerbal, Ramdane Bahar, Mohammed Amin Benbouras


Along with shear wave, many soil parameters are associated with the standard penetration test (SPT) as a dynamic in situ experiment. Both SPT-N data and geophysical data do not often exist in the same area. Statistical analysis of correlation between these parameters is an alternate method to estimate Vₛ conveniently and without additional investigations or data acquisition. Shear wave velocity is a basic engineering tool required to define dynamic properties of soils. In many instances, engineers opt for empirical correlations between shear wave velocity (Vₛ) and reliable static field test data like standard penetration test (SPT) N value, CPT (Cone Penetration Test) values, etc., to estimate shear wave velocity or dynamic soil parameters. The relation between Vs and SPT- N values of Algiers area is predicted using the collected data, and it is also compared with the previously suggested formulas of Vₛ determination by measuring Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of each model. Algiers area is situated in high seismic zone (Zone III [RPA 2003: réglement parasismique algerien]), therefore the study is important for this region. The principal aim of this paper is to compare the field measurements of Down-hole test and the empirical models to show which one of these proposed formulas are applicable to predict and deduce shear wave velocity values.

Keywords: empirical models, RMSE, shear wave velocity, standard penetration test

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3304 Relationship between Blow Count Number (N) and Shear Wave Velocity (Vs30) from the Specified Embankment Material: A Case Study on Three Selected Earthen Dams

Authors: Tanapon Suklim, Prachaya Intaphrom, Noppadol Poomvises, Anchalee Kongsuk


The relationship between shear wave velocity (Vs30) and blow count Number from Standard Penetration Tests (NSPT) was investigated on specified embankment dam to find the solution which can be used to estimate the value of N. Shear wave velocity, Vs30 and blow count number, NSPT were performed at three specified dam sites. At each site, Vs30 measurement was recorded by using seismic survey of MASW technique and NSPT were measured by field Standard Penetration Test. Regression analysis was used to derive statistical relation. The relation is giving a final solution to applicable calculated N-value with other earthen dam. Dam engineer can use the statistical relation to convert field Vs30 to estimated N-value instead of absolute N-value from field Standard Penetration Test. It can be noted that the formulae can be applied only in the earthen dam of specified material.

Keywords: blow count number, earthen dam, embankment, shear wave velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
3303 Application of Multilinear Regression Analysis for Prediction of Synthetic Shear Wave Velocity Logs in Upper Assam Basin

Authors: Triveni Gogoi, Rima Chatterjee


Shear wave velocity (Vs) estimation is an important approach in the seismic exploration and characterization of a hydrocarbon reservoir. There are varying methods for prediction of S-wave velocity, if recorded S-wave log is not available. But all the available methods for Vs prediction are empirical mathematical models. Shear wave velocity can be estimated using P-wave velocity by applying Castagna’s equation, which is the most common approach. The constants used in Castagna’s equation vary for different lithologies and geological set-ups. In this study, multiple regression analysis has been used for estimation of S-wave velocity. The EMERGE module from Hampson-Russel software has been used here for generation of S-wave log. Both single attribute and multi attributes analysis have been carried out for generation of synthetic S-wave log in Upper Assam basin. Upper Assam basin situated in North Eastern India is one of the most important petroleum provinces of India. The present study was carried out using four wells of the study area. Out of these wells, S-wave velocity was available for three wells. The main objective of the present study is a prediction of shear wave velocities for wells where S-wave velocity information is not available. The three wells having S-wave velocity were first used to test the reliability of the method and the generated S-wave log was compared with actual S-wave log. Single attribute analysis has been carried out for these three wells within the depth range 1700-2100m, which corresponds to Barail group of Oligocene age. The Barail Group is the main target zone in this study, which is the primary producing reservoir of the basin. A system generated list of attributes with varying degrees of correlation appeared and the attribute with the highest correlation was concerned for the single attribute analysis. Crossplot between the attributes shows the variation of points from line of best fit. The final result of the analysis was compared with the available S-wave log, which shows a good visual fit with a correlation of 72%. Next multi-attribute analysis has been carried out for the same data using all the wells within the same analysis window. A high correlation of 85% has been observed between the output log from the analysis and the recorded S-wave. The almost perfect fit between the synthetic S-wave and the recorded S-wave log validates the reliability of the method. For further authentication, the generated S-wave data from the wells have been tied to the seismic and correlated them. Synthetic share wave log has been generated for the well M2 where S-wave is not available and it shows a good correlation with the seismic. Neutron porosity, density, AI and P-wave velocity are proved to be the most significant variables in this statistical method for S-wave generation. Multilinear regression method thus can be considered as a reliable technique for generation of shear wave velocity log in this study.

Keywords: Castagna's equation, multi linear regression, multi attribute analysis, shear wave logs

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3302 Estimation of Shear Wave Velocity from Cone Penetration Test for Structured Busan Clays

Authors: Vinod K. Singh, S. G. Chung


The degree of structuration of Busan clays at the mouth of Nakdong River mouth was highly influenced by the depositional environment, i.e., flow of the river stream, marine regression, and transgression during the sedimentation process. As a result, the geotechnical properties also varies along the depth with change in degree of structuration. Thus, the in-situ tests such as cone penetration test (CPT) could not be used to predict various geotechnical properties properly by using the conventional empirical methods. In this paper, the shear wave velocity (Vs) was measured from the field using the seismic dilatometer. The Vs was also measured in the laboratory from high quality undisturbed and remolded samples using bender element method to evaluate the degree of structuration. The degree of structuration was quantitatively defined by the modulus ratio of undisturbed to remolded soil samples which is found well correlated with the normalized void ratio (e0/eL) where eL is the void ratio at the liquid limit. It is revealed that the empirical method based on laboratory results incorporating e0/eL can predict Vs from the field more accurately. Thereafter, the CPT based empirical method was developed to estimate the shear wave velocity taking the effect of structuration in the consideration. The developed method was found to predict shear wave velocity reasonably for Busan clays.

Keywords: level of structuration, normalized modulus, normalized void ratio, shear wave velocity, site characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
3301 Multichannel Analysis of the Surface Waves of Earth Materials in Some Parts of Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: R. B. Adegbola, K. F. Oyedele, L. Adeoti


We present a method that utilizes Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves, which was used to measure shear wave velocities with a view to establishing the probable causes of road failure, subsidence and weakening of structures in some Local Government Area, Lagos, Nigeria. Multi channel Analysis of Surface waves (MASW) data were acquired using 24-channel seismograph. The acquired data were processed and transformed into two-dimensional (2-D) structure reflective of depth and surface wave velocity distribution within a depth of 0–15m beneath the surface using SURFSEIS software. The shear wave velocity data were compared with other geophysical/borehole data that were acquired along the same profile. The comparison and correlation illustrates the accuracy and consistency of MASW derived-shear wave velocity profiles. Rigidity modulus and N-value were also generated. The study showed that the low velocity/very low velocity are reflective of organic clay/peat materials and thus likely responsible for the failed, subsidence/weakening of structures within the study areas.

Keywords: seismograph, road failure, rigidity modulus, N-value, subsidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
3300 The Relations between Seismic Results and Groundwater near the Gokpinar Damp Area, Denizli, Turkey

Authors: Mahmud Gungor, Ali Aydin, Erdal Akyol, Suat Tasdelen


The understanding of geotechnical characteristics of near-surface material and the effects of the groundwater is very important problem in such as site studies. For showing the relations between seismic data and groundwater we selected about 25 km2 as the study area. It has been presented which is a detailed work of seismic data and groundwater depths of Gokpinar Damp area. Seismic waves velocity (Vp and Vs) are very important parameters showing the soil properties. The seismic records were used the method of the multichannel analysis of surface waves near area of Gokpinar Damp area. Sixty sites in this area have been investigated with survey lines about 60 m in length. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave) method has been used to generate one-dimensional shear wave velocity profile at locations. These shear wave velocities are used to estimate equivalent shear wave velocity in the study area at every 2 and 5 m intervals up to a depth of 45 m. Levels of equivalent shear wave velocity of soil are used the classified of the study area. After the results of the study, it must be considered as components of urban planning and building design of Gokpinar Damp area, Denizli and the application and use of these results should be required and enforced by municipal authorities.

Keywords: seismic data, Gokpinar Damp, urban planning, Denizli

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3299 Determination of the Local Elastic Moduli of Shungite by Laser Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

Authors: Elena B. Cherepetskaya, Alexander A.Karabutov, Vladimir A. Makarov, Elena A. Mironova, Ivan A. Shibaev


In our study, the object of laser ultrasonic testing was plane-parallel plate of shungit (length 41 mm, width 31 mm, height 15 mm, medium exchange density 2247 kg/m3). We used laser-ultrasonic defectoscope with wideband opto-acoustic transducer in our investigation of the velocities of longitudinal and shear elastic ultrasound waves. The duration of arising elastic pulses was less than 100 ns. Under known material thickness, the values of the velocities were determined by the time delay of the pulses reflected from the bottom surface of the sample with respect to reference pulses. The accuracy of measurement was 0.3% in the case of longitudinal wave velocity and 0.5% in the case of shear wave velocity (scanning pitch along the surface was 2 mm). On the base of found velocities of elastic waves, local elastic moduli of shungit (Young modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio) were uniquely determined.

Keywords: laser ultrasonic testing , local elastic moduli, shear wave velocity, shungit

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3298 Ground Response Analysis at the Rukni Irrigation Project Site Located in Assam, India

Authors: Tauhidur Rahman, Kasturi Bhuyan


In the present paper, Ground Response Analysis at the Rukni irrigation project has been thoroughly investigated. Surface level seismic hazard is mainly used by the practical Engineers for designing the important structures. Surface level seismic hazard can be obtained accounting the soil factor. Structures on soft soil will show more ground shaking than the structure located on a hard soil. The Surface level ground motion depends on the type of soil. Density and shear wave velocity is different for different types of soil. The intensity of the soil amplification depends on the density and shear wave velocity of the soil. Rukni irrigation project is located in the North Eastern region of India, near the Dauki fault (550 Km length) which has already produced earthquakes of magnitude (Mw= 8.5) in the past. There is a probability of a similar type of earthquake occuring in the future. There are several faults also located around the project site. There are 765 recorded strong ground motion time histories available for the region. These data are used to determine the soil amplification factor by incorporation of the engineering properties of soil. With this in view, three of soil bore holes have been studied at the project site up to a depth of 30 m. It has been observed that in Soil bore hole 1, the shear wave velocity vary from 99.44 m/s to 239.28 m/s. For Soil Bore Hole No 2 and 3, shear wave velocity vary from 93.24 m/s to 241.39 m/s and 93.24m/s to 243.01 m/s. In the present work, surface level seismic hazard at the project site has been calculated based on the Probabilistic seismic hazard approach accounting the soil factor.

Keywords: Ground Response Analysis, shear wave velocity, soil amplification, surface level seismic hazard

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3297 Case-Wise Investigation of Body-Wave Propagation in a Cross-Anisotropic Soil Exhibiting Inhomogeneity along Depth

Authors: Sumit Kumar Vishawakarma, Tapas Ranjan Panihari


The article investigates the propagation behavior of SV-wave, SH-wave, and P-wave in a continuously inhomogeneous cross-anisotropic material, where the material properties such as Young's moduli, shear modulus, and density vary as an arbitrary continuous function of depth. In the considered model, Hook's law, strain-displacement relations along with equilibrium equations have been used to derive the governing equation. The mathematical formulation of this physical problem gives rise to an eigenvalue problem with displacement components as fundamental variables. This leads to achieving the closed-form expressions for quasi-wave velocities of SV-wave, SH-wave, and P-wave in the considered framework. These characteristics of wave propagation along with the above-stated variation have been scrutinized based on their numerical results. This parametric study reveals that wave velocity remarkably fluctuates as the magnitude of inhomogeneity parameters increases and decreases. The prominent effect has been shown depicting the dependence of wave velocity on the degree of material anisotropy. The influence of phase angle and depth of the medium has been remarkably established. The present study may facilitate the theoretical foundation and practical application in the field of earthquake source mechanisms.

Keywords: cross-anisotropic, inhomogeneity, P-wave, SH-wave, SV-wave, shear modulus, Young’s modulus

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3296 Comparison and Improvement of the Existing Cone Penetration Test Results: Shear Wave Velocity Correlations for Hungarian Soils

Authors: Ákos Wolf, Richard P. Ray


Due to the introduction of Eurocode 8, the structural design for seismic and dynamic effects has become more significant in Hungary. This has emphasized the need for more effort to describe the behavior of structures under these conditions. Soil conditions have a significant effect on the response of structures by modifying the stiffness and damping of the soil-structural system and by modifying the seismic action as it reaches the ground surface. Shear modulus (G) and shear wave velocity (vs), which are often measured in the field, are the fundamental dynamic soil properties for foundation vibration problems, liquefaction potential and earthquake site response analysis. There are several laboratory and in-situ measurement techniques to evaluate dynamic soil properties, but unfortunately, they are often too expensive for general design practice. However, a significant number of correlations have been proposed to determine shear wave velocity or shear modulus from Cone Penetration Tests (CPT), which are used more and more in geotechnical design practice in Hungary. This allows the designer to analyze and compare CPT and seismic test result in order to select the best correlation equations for Hungarian soils and to improve the recommendations for the Hungarian geologic conditions. Based on a literature review, as well as research experience in Hungary, the influence of various parameters on the accuracy of results will be shown. This study can serve as a basis for selecting and modifying correlation equations for Hungarian soils. Test data are taken from seven locations in Hungary with similar geologic conditions. The shear wave velocity values were measured by seismic CPT. Several factors are analyzed including soil type, behavior index, measurement depth, geologic age etc. for their effect on the accuracy of predictions. The final results show an improved prediction method for Hungarian soils

Keywords: CPT correlation, dynamic soil properties, seismic CPT, shear wave velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
3295 Structural Health Monitoring of Buildings–Recorded Data and Wave Method

Authors: Tzong-Ying Hao, Mohammad T. Rahmani


This article presents the structural health monitoring (SHM) method based on changes in wave traveling times (wave method) within a layered 1-D shear beam model of structure. The wave method measures the velocity of shear wave propagating in a building from the impulse response functions (IRF) obtained from recorded data at different locations inside the building. If structural damage occurs in a structure, the velocity of wave propagation through it changes. The wave method analysis is performed on the responses of Torre Central building, a 9-story shear wall structure located in Santiago, Chile. Because events of different intensity (ambient vibrations, weak and strong earthquake motions) have been recorded at this building, therefore it can serve as a full-scale benchmark to validate the structural health monitoring method utilized. The analysis of inter-story drifts and the Fourier spectra for the EW and NS motions during 2010 Chile earthquake are presented. The results for the NS motions suggest the coupling of translation and torsion responses. The system frequencies (estimated from the relative displacement response of the 8th-floor with respect to the basement from recorded data) were detected initially decreasing approximately 24% in the EW motion. Near the end of shaking, an increase of about 17% was detected. These analysis and results serve as baseline indicators of the occurrence of structural damage. The detected changes in wave velocities of the shear beam model are consistent with the observed damage. However, the 1-D shear beam model is not sufficient to simulate the coupling of translation and torsion responses in the NS motion. The wave method is proven for actual implementation in structural health monitoring systems based on carefully assessing the resolution and accuracy of the model for its effectiveness on post-earthquake damage detection in buildings.

Keywords: Chile earthquake, damage detection, earthquake response, impulse response function, shear beam model, shear wave velocity, structural health monitoring, torre central building, wave method

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3294 Non-Linear Velocity Fields in Turbulent Wave Boundary Layer

Authors: Shamsul Chowdhury


The objective of this paper is to present the detailed analysis of the turbulent wave boundary layer produced by progressive finite-amplitude waves theory. Most of the works have done for the mass transport in the turbulent boundary layer assuming the eddy viscosity is not time varying, where the sediment movement is induced by the mean velocity. Near the ocean bottom, the waves produce a thin turbulent boundary layer, where the flow is highly rotational, and shear stress associated with the fluid motion cannot be neglected. The magnitude and the predominant direction of the sediment transport near the bottom are known to be closely related to the flow in the wave induced boundary layer. The magnitude of water particle velocity at the Crest phase differs from the one of the Trough phases due to the non-linearity of the waves, which plays an important role to determine the sediment movement. The non-linearity of the waves become predominant in the surf zone area, where the sediment movement occurs vigorously. Therefore, in order to describe the flow near the bottom and relationship between the flow and the movement of the sediment, the analysis was done using the non-linear boundary layer equation and the finite amplitude wave theory was applied to represent the velocity fields in the turbulent wave boundary layer. At first, the calculation was done for turbulent wave boundary layer by two-dimensional model where throughout the calculation is non-linear. But Stokes second order wave profile is adopted at the upper boundary. The calculated profile was compared with the experimental data. Finally, the calculation is done based on various modes of the velocity and turbulent energy. The mean velocity is found to differ from condition of the relative depth and the roughness. It is also found that due to non-linearity, the absolute value for velocity and turbulent energy as well as Reynolds stress are asymmetric. The mean velocity of the laminar boundary layer is always positive but in the turbulent boundary layer plays a very complicated role.

Keywords: wave boundary, mass transport, mean velocity, shear stress

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3293 Capability of Available Seismic Soil Liquefaction Potential Assessment Models Based on Shear-Wave Velocity Using Banchu Case History

Authors: Nima Pirhadi, Yong Bo Shao, Xusheng Wa, Jianguo Lu


Several models based on the simplified method introduced by Seed and Idriss (1971) have been developed to assess the liquefaction potential of saturated sandy soils. The procedure includes determining the cyclic resistance of the soil as the cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) and comparing it with earthquake loads as cyclic stress ratio (CSR). Of all methods to determine CRR, the methods using shear-wave velocity (Vs) are common because of their low sensitivity to the penetration resistance reduction caused by fine content (FC). To evaluate the capability of the models, based on the Vs., the new data from Bachu-Jianshi earthquake case history collected, then the prediction results of the models are compared to the measured results; consequently, the accuracy of the models are discussed via three criteria and graphs. The evaluation demonstrates reasonable accuracy of the models in the Banchu region.

Keywords: seismic liquefaction, banchu-jiashi earthquake, shear-wave velocity, liquefaction potential evaluation

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3292 Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates

Authors: Bing Li, Tong Lu, Lei Qiang


Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in nth layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.

Keywords: characteristic equation, interface waves, potential function, Stoneley waves, wave structure

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3291 Computational Feasibility Study of a Torsional Wave Transducer for Tissue Stiffness Monitoring

Authors: Rafael Muñoz, Juan Melchor, Alicia Valera, Laura Peralta, Guillermo Rus


A torsional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer design is proposed to measure shear moduli in soft tissue with direct access availability, using shear wave elastography technique. The measurement of shear moduli of tissues is a challenging problem, mainly derived from a) the difficulty of isolating a pure shear wave, given the interference of multiple waves of different types (P, S, even guided) emitted by the transducers and reflected in geometric boundaries, and b) the highly attenuating nature of soft tissular materials. An immediate application, overcoming these drawbacks, is the measurement of changes in cervix stiffness to estimate the gestational age at delivery. The design has been optimized using a finite element model (FEM) and a semi-analytical estimator of the probability of detection (POD) to determine a suitable geometry, materials and generated waves. The technique is based on the time of flight measurement between emitter and receiver, to infer shear wave velocity. Current research is centered in prototype testing and validation. The geometric optimization of the transducer was able to annihilate the compressional wave emission, generating a quite pure shear torsional wave. Currently, mechanical and electromagnetic coupling between emitter and receiver signals are being the research focus. Conclusions: the design overcomes the main described problems. The almost pure shear torsional wave along with the short time of flight avoids the possibility of multiple wave interference. This short propagation distance reduce the effect of attenuation, and allow the emission of very low energies assuring a good biological security for human use.

Keywords: cervix ripening, preterm birth, shear modulus, shear wave elastography, soft tissue, torsional wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
3290 The Evaluation of Shear Modulus (Go) Consistency State of Consolidation Cohesive Soils and Seismic Reflection Survey Using Degree of Soil Consolidation

Authors: Abdul Halim Abdul, Wan Ismail Wan Yusoff


The geological formation at Limau Manis Besar area, are consist of low grade metamorphic rock and undulating mountaineers, rugged terrain and the quite steeply 45 degree slope gradient. The objectives of this paper are present the methods and devices used in measurement of P-wave velocity to estimate the initial Shear Modulus (Go) in steady state and critical state soil consolidation. The relationship between SPT-N values and the Shear Modulus (Go) at very small strain is widely considered to be evaluated. Based on the seismic reflection survey, the constant (K) poroelastic theory, mean effectives stress and primer wave velocity (Vs) increase as the soil depth increase. The steady state and critical state, Degree of Soil Consolidation(U) concept is used to interpret the behavior of Shear Modulus (Go). The relationship between Consolidation Test and Seismic Reflection Survey is also discussed.

Keywords: geological setting, shear modulus, poroelastic theory, steady state and none steady state degree of soil consolidation, consolidation test

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3289 An Investigation into Why Liquefaction Charts Work: A Necessary Step toward Integrating the States of Art and Practice

Authors: Tarek Abdoun, Ricardo Dobry


This paper is a systematic effort to clarify why field liquefaction charts based on Seed and Idriss’ Simplified Procedure work so well. This is a necessary step toward integrating the states of the art (SOA) and practice (SOP) for evaluating liquefaction and its effects. The SOA relies mostly on laboratory measurements and correlations with void ratio and relative density of the sand. The SOP is based on field measurements of penetration resistance and shear wave velocity coupled with empirical or semi-empirical correlations. This gap slows down further progress in both SOP and SOA. The paper accomplishes its objective through: a literature review of relevant aspects of the SOA including factors influencing threshold shear strain and pore pressure buildup during cyclic strain-controlled tests; a discussion of factors influencing field penetration resistance and shear wave velocity; and a discussion of the meaning of the curves in the liquefaction charts separating liquefaction from no liquefaction, helped by recent full-scale and centrifuge results. It is concluded that the charts are curves of constant cyclic strain at the lower end (Vs1 < 160 m/s), with this strain being about 0.03 to 0.05% for earthquake magnitude, Mw ≈ 7. It is also concluded, in a more speculative way, that the curves at the upper end probably correspond to a variable increasing cyclic strain and Ko, with this upper end controlled by over consolidated and preshaken sands, and with cyclic strains needed to cause liquefaction being as high as 0.1 to 0.3%. These conclusions are validated by application to case histories corresponding to Mw ≈ 7, mostly in the San Francisco Bay Area of California during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Keywords: permeability, lateral spreading, liquefaction, centrifuge modeling, shear wave velocity charts

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3288 Visco-Acoustic Full Wave Inversion in the Frequency Domain with Mixed Grids

Authors: Sheryl Avendaño, Miguel Ospina, Hebert Montegranario


Full Wave Inversion (FWI) is a variant of seismic tomography for obtaining velocity profiles by an optimization process that combine forward modelling (or solution of wave equation) with the misfit between synthetic and observed data. In this research we are modelling wave propagation in a visco-acoustic medium in the frequency domain. We apply finite differences for the numerical solution of the wave equation with a mix between usual and rotated grids, where density depends on velocity and there exists a damping function associated to a linear dissipative medium. The velocity profiles are obtained from an initial one and the data have been modeled for a frequency range 0-120 Hz. By an iterative procedure we obtain an estimated velocity profile in which are detailed the remarkable features of the velocity profile from which synthetic data were generated showing promising results for our method.

Keywords: seismic inversion, full wave inversion, visco acoustic wave equation, finite diffrence methods

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3287 Structural Health Monitoring of the 9-Story Torre Central Building Using Recorded Data and Wave Method

Authors: Tzong-Ying Hao, Mohammad T. Rahmani


The Torre Central building is a 9-story shear wall structure located in Santiago, Chile, and has been instrumented since 2009. Events of different intensity (ambient vibrations, weak and strong earthquake motions) have been recorded, and thus the building can serve as a full-scale benchmark to evaluate the structural health monitoring method developed. The first part of this article presents an analysis of inter-story drifts, and of changes in the first system frequencies (estimated from the relative displacement response of the 8th-floor with respect to the basement from recorded data) as baseline indicators of the occurrence of damage. During 2010 Chile earthquake the system frequencies were detected decreasing approximately 24% in the EW and 27% in NS motions. Near the end of shaking, an increase of about 17% in the EW motion was detected. The structural health monitoring (SHM) method based on changes in wave traveling time (wave method) within a layered shear beam model of structure is presented in the second part of this article. If structural damage occurs the velocity of wave propagated through the structure changes. The wave method measures the velocities of shear wave propagation from the impulse responses generated by recorded data at various locations inside the building. Our analysis and results show that the detected changes in wave velocities are consistent with the observed damages. On this basis, the wave method is proven for actual implementation in structural health monitoring systems.

Keywords: Chile earthquake, damage detection, earthquake response, impulse response, layered shear beam, structural health monitoring, Torre Central building, wave method, wave travel time

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
3286 Probabilistic Models to Evaluate Seismic Liquefaction In Gravelly Soil Using Dynamic Penetration Test and Shear Wave Velocity

Authors: Nima Pirhadi, Shao Yong Bo, Xusheng Wan, Jianguo Lu, Jilei Hu


Although gravels and gravelly soils are assumed to be non-liquefiable because of high conductivity and small modulus; however, the occurrence of this phenomenon in some historical earthquakes, especially recently earthquakes during 2008 Wenchuan, Mw= 7.9, 2014 Cephalonia, Greece, Mw= 6.1 and 2016, Kaikoura, New Zealand, Mw = 7.8, has been promoted the essential consideration to evaluate risk assessment and hazard analysis of seismic gravelly soil liquefaction. Due to the limitation in sampling and laboratory testing of this type of soil, in situ tests and site exploration of case histories are the most accepted procedures. Of all in situ tests, dynamic penetration test (DPT), Which is well known as the Chinese dynamic penetration test, and shear wave velocity (Vs) test, have been demonstrated high performance to evaluate seismic gravelly soil liquefaction. However, the lack of a sufficient number of case histories provides an essential limitation for developing new models. This study at first investigates recent earthquakes that caused liquefaction in gravelly soils to collect new data. Then, it adds these data to the available literature’s dataset to extend them and finally develops new models to assess seismic gravelly soil liquefaction. To validate the presented models, their results are compared to extra available models. The results show the reasonable performance of the proposed models and the critical effect of gravel content (GC)% on the assessment.

Keywords: liquefaction, gravel, dynamic penetration test, shear wave velocity

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3285 Determination of Elastic Constants for Scots Pine Grown in Turkey Using Ultrasound

Authors: Ergun Guntekin


This study investigated elastic constants of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown in Turkey by means of ultrasonic waves. Three Young’s modulus, three shear modulus and six Poisson ratios were determined at constant moisture content (12 %). Three longitudinal and six shear wave velocities propagating along the principal axes of anisotropy, and additionally, three quasi-shear wave velocities at 45° with respect to the principal axes of anisotropy were measured using EPOCH 650 ultrasonic flaw detector. The measured average longitudinal wave velocities for the sapwood in L, R, T directions were 4795, 1713 and 1117 m/s, respectively. The measured average shear wave velocities ranged from 682 to 1382 m/s. The measured quasi-shear wave velocities varied between 642 and 1280 m/s. The calculated average modulus of elasticity values for the sapwood in L, R, T directions were 11913, 1565 and 663 N/mm2, respectively. The calculated shear modulus in LR, LT and RT planes were 1031, 541, 415 N/mm2. Comparing with available literature, the predicted elastic constants are acceptable.

Keywords: elastic constants, prediction, Scots pine, ultrasound

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3284 Evaluation of Internal Friction Angle in Overconsolidated Granular Soil Deposits Using P- and S-Wave Seismic Velocities

Authors: Ehsan Pegah, Huabei Liu


Determination of the internal friction angle (φ) in natural soil deposits is an important issue in geotechnical engineering. The main objective of this study was to examine the evaluation of this parameter in overconsolidated granular soil deposits by using the P-wave velocity and the anisotropic components of S-wave velocity (i.e., both the vertical component (SV) and the horizontal component (SH) of S-wave). To this end, seventeen pairs of P-wave and S-wave seismic refraction profiles were carried out at three different granular sites in Iran using non-invasive seismic wave methods. The acquired shot gathers were processed, from which the P-wave, SV-wave and SH-wave velocities were derived. The reference values of φ and overconsolidation ratio (OCR) in the soil deposits were measured through laboratory tests. By assuming cross-anisotropy of the soils, the P-wave and S-wave velocities were utilized to develop an equation for calculating the coefficient of lateral earth pressure at-rest (K₀) based on the theory of elasticity for a cross-anisotropic medium. In addition, to develop an equation for OCR estimation in granular geomaterials in terms of SH/SV velocity ratios, a general regression analysis was performed on the resulting information from this research incorporated with the respective data published in the literature. The calculated K₀ values coupled with the estimated OCR values were finally employed in the Mayne and Kulhawy formula to evaluate φ in granular soil deposits. The results showed that reliable values of φ could be estimated based on the seismic wave velocities. The findings of this study may be used as the appropriate approaches for economic and non-invasive determination of in-situ φ in granular soil deposits using the surface seismic surveys.

Keywords: angle of internal friction, overconsolidation ratio, granular soils, P-wave velocity, SV-wave velocity, SH-wave velocity

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3283 Achieving Shear Wave Elastography by a Three-element Probe for Wearable Human-machine Interface

Authors: Jipeng Yan, Xingchen Yang, Xiaowei Zhou, Mengxing Tang, Honghai Liu


Shear elastic modulus of skeletal muscles can be obtained by shear wave elastography (SWE) and has been linearly related to muscle force. However, SWE is currently implemented using array probes. Price and volumes of these probes and their driving equipment prevent SWE from being used in wearable human-machine interfaces (HMI). Moreover, beamforming processing for array probes reduces the real-time performance. To achieve SWE by wearable HMIs, a customized three-element probe is adopted in this work, with one element for acoustic radiation force generation and the others for shear wave tracking. In-phase quadrature demodulation and 2D autocorrelation are adopted to estimate velocities of tissues on the sound beams of the latter two elements. Shear wave speeds are calculated by phase shift between the tissue velocities. Three agar phantoms with different elasticities were made by changing the weights of agar. Values of the shear elastic modulus of the phantoms were measured as 8.98, 23.06 and 36.74 kPa at a depth of 7.5 mm respectively. This work verifies the feasibility of measuring shear elastic modulus by wearable devices.

Keywords: shear elastic modulus, skeletal muscle, ultrasound, wearable human-machine interface

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3282 Flow of a Second Order Fluid through Constricted Tube with Slip Velocity at Wall Using Integral Method

Authors: Nosheen Zareen Khan, Abdul Majeed Siddiqui, Muhammad Afzal Rana


The steady flow of a second order fluid through constricted tube with slip velocity at wall is modeled and analyzed theoretically. The governing equations are simplified by implying no slip in radial direction. Based on Karman Pohlhausen procedure polynomial solution for axial velocity profile is presented. An expressions for pressure gradient, shear stress, separation and reattachment points and radial velocity are also calculated. The effect of slip and no slip velocity on velocity, shear stress, pressure gradient are discussed and depicted graphically. It is noted that when Reynolds number increases velocity of the fluid decreases in both slip and no slip conditions. It is also found that the wall shear stress, separation and reattachment points are strongly effected by Reynolds number.

Keywords: approximate solution, constricted tube, non-Newtonian fluids, Reynolds number

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3281 Determination of Dynamic Soil Properties Using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) Techniques in Earth-Filled Dam

Authors: Noppadon Sintuboon, Benjamas Sawatdipong, Anchalee Kongsuk


This study was conducted to investigate the engineering parameters: compressional wave: Vp, shear wave: Vs, and density: ρ related to the dynamically geotechnical properties of soils compaction in the core of earth-filled dam located in northern part of Thailand by using multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) techniques. The Vp, Vs, and ρ from MASW were 1,624 - 1,649 m/s, 301-323 m/s, and 1,829 kg/m3, respectively. Those parameters were calculated to Poison’s ratio: ν (0.48), shear modulus: G (1.66 x 108 - 1.92 x 108 kg/m2), Vp/Vs ratio (5.10 – 5.39) and Standard Penetration Test (SPT) showing the dynamic characteristics of soil deformation and stress resulting from dynamic loads. The results of this study will be useful in primary evaluating the current condition and foundation of the dam and can be compared to the data from the laboratory in the future.

Keywords: earth-filled dam, MASW, dynamic elastic constant, shear wave

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3280 On the Fixed Rainfall Intensity: Effects on Overland Flow Resistance, Shear Velocity and on Soil Erosion

Authors: L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef


Raindrops and overland flow both are erosive parameters but they do not act by the same way. The overland flow alone tends to shear the soil horizontally and concentrates into rills. In the presence of rain, the soil particles are removed from the soil surface in the form of a uniform sheet layer. In addition to this, raindrops falling on the flow roughen the water and soil surface depending on the flow depth, and retard the velocity, therefore influence shear velocity and Manning’s factor. To investigate this part, agricultural sandy soil, rainfall simulator and a laboratory soil tray of 0.2x1x3 m were the base of this work. Five overland flow depths of 0; 3.28; 4.28; 5.16; 5.60; 5.80 mm were generated under a rainfall intensity of 217.2 mm/h. Sediment concentration control is based on the proportionality of depth/microtopography. The soil loose is directly related to the presence of rain splash on thin sheet flow. The effect of shear velocity on sediment concentration is limited by the value of 5.28 cm/s. In addition to this, the rain splash reduces the soil roughness by breaking the soil crests. The rainfall intensity is the major factor influencing depth and soil erosion. In the presence of rainfall, the shear velocity of the flow is due to two simultaneous effects. The first, which is horizontal, comes from the flow and the second, vertical, is due to the raindrops.

Keywords: flow resistance, laboratory experiments, rainfall simulator, sediment concentration, shear velocity, soil erosion

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3279 Implication of Soil and Seismic Ground Motion Variability on Dynamic Pile Group Impedance for Bridges

Authors: Muhammad Tariq Chaudhary


Bridges constitute a vital link in a transportation system and their functionality after an earthquake is critical in reducing disruption to social and economic activities of the society. Bridges supported on pile foundations are commonly used in many earthquake-prone regions. In order to properly design or investigate the performance of such structures, it is imperative that the effect of soil-foundation-structure interaction be properly taken into account. This study focused on the influence of soil and seismic ground motion variability on the dynamic impedance of pile-group foundations typically used for medium-span (about 30 m) urban viaduct bridges. Soil profiles corresponding to various AASHTO soil classes were selected from actual data of such bridges and / or from the literature. The selected soil profiles were subjected to 1-D wave propagation analysis to determine effective values of soil shear modulus and damping ratio for a suite of properly selected actual seismic ground motions varying in PGA from 0.01g to 0.64g, and having variable velocity and frequency content. The effective values of the soil parameters were then employed to determine the dynamic impedance of pile groups in horizontal, vertical and rocking modes in various soil profiles. Pile diameter was kept constant for bridges in various soil profiles while pile length and number of piles were changed based on AASHTO design requirements for various soil profiles and earthquake ground motions. Conclusions were drawn regarding variability in effective soil shear modulus, soil damping, shear wave velocity and pile group impedance for various soil profiles and ground motions and its implications for design and evaluation of pile-supported bridges. It was found that even though the effective soil parameters underwent drastic variation with increasing PGA, the pile group impedance was not affected much in properly designed pile foundations due to the corresponding increase in pile length or increase in a number of piles or both when subjected to increasing PGA or founded in weaker soil profiles.

Keywords: bridge, pile foundation, dynamic foundation impedance, soil profile, shear wave velocity, seismic ground motion, seismic wave propagation

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