Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5388

Search results for: soil improvement

5388 An Engineering Review of Grouting in Soil Improvement Applications

Authors: Mohamad Kazem Zamani, Meldi Suhatril

Abstract:

Soil improvement is one of the main concerns of each civil engineer who is working at soil mechanics and geotechnics. Grouting has been used as a powerful treatment for soil improving. In this paper, we have tried to review the grouting application base on grouts which is used and also we have tried to give a general view of grout applications and where and when can be used.

Keywords: cementious grouting, chemical grouting, soil improvement, civil engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
5387 Improvement of Deficient Soils in Nigeria Using Bagasse Ash - A Review

Authors: Musa Alhassan, Alhaji Mohammed Mustapha

Abstract:

Review of studies carried out on the use of bagasse ash in the improvement of deficient soils in Nigeria, with emphasis on lateritic and black cotton soils is presented. Although, the bagasse ash is mostly used as additive to the conventional soil stabilizer (cement and lime), the studies generally showed improvement of geotechnical properties of the soils either modified or stabilized with the ash. This showed the potentials of using this agricultural waste (bagasse ash) in the improvement of geotechnical properties of deficient soils. Thus suggesting that using this material at large scale level, in geotechnical engineering practice could help in the provision of stable and durable structures, reduce cost of soil improvement and also reduces environmental nuisance caused by the unused waste in Nigeria

Keywords: bagasse ash, black cotton soil, deficient soil, laterite, soil improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
5386 Influence of Nanozeolite Particles on Improvement of Clayey Soil

Authors: A. Goodarzian, A. Ghasemipanah, R. Ziaie Moayed, H. Niroumand

Abstract:

The problem of soil stabilization has been one of the important issues in geotechnical engineering. Nowadays, nanomaterials have revolutionized many industries. In this research, improvement of the Kerman fine-grained soil by nanozeolite and nanobentonite additives separately has been investigated using Atterberg Limits and unconfined compression test. In unconfined compression test, the samples were prepared with 3, 5 and 7% nano additives, with 1, 7 and 28 days curing time with strain control method. Finally, the effect of different percentages of nanozeolite and nanobentonite on the geotechnical behavior and characteristics of Kerman fine-grained soil was investigated. The results showed that with increasing the amount of nanozeolite and also nanobentonite to fine-grained soil, the soil exhibits more compression strength. So that by adding 7% nanozeolite and nanobentonite with 1 day curing, the unconfined compression strength is 1.18 and 2.1 times higher than the unstabilized soil. In addition, the failure strain decreases in samples containing nanozeolite, whereas it increases in the presence of nanobentonite. Increasing the percentage of nanozeolite and nanobentonite also increased the elasticity modulus of soil.

Keywords: nanoparticles, soil improvement, clayey soil, unconfined compression stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
5385 Dynamic Compaction Assessment for Improving Pasdaran Highway

Authors: Alireza Motamadnia, Roohollah Zohdi Oliayi, Hümeyra Bolakar, Ahmet Tortum

Abstract:

Dynamic compression as a method of soil improvement in recent decades has been considered by engineers and experts. Three methods mainly, deep dynamic compaction, soil density, dynamic and rapid change have been proposed and implemented to improve subgrade conditions of highway road. Northern highway route in Tabriz (Pasdaran), Iran that was placed on the manual soil was the main concern. Engineering properties of soil have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. Among the three methods rapid dynamic compaction for highway has been suggested to improve the soil subgrade conditions.

Keywords: manual soil, subsidence, improvement, dynamic compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 473
5384 Numerical Modelling of Prestressed Geogrid Reinforced Soil System

Authors: Soukat Kumar Das

Abstract:

Rapid industrialization and increase in population has resulted in the scarcity of suitable ground conditions. It has driven the need of ground improvement by means of reinforcement with geosynthetics with the minimum possible settlement and with maximum possible safety. Prestressing the geosynthetics offers an economical yet safe method of gaining the goal. Commercially available software PLAXIS 3D has made the analysis of prestressed geosynthetics simpler with much practical simulations of the ground. Attempts have been made so far to analyse the effect of prestressing geosynthetics and the effect of interference of footing on Unreinforced (UR), Geogrid Reinforced (GR) and Prestressed Geogrid Reinforced (PGR) soil on the load bearing capacity and the settlement characteristics of prestressed geogrid reinforced soil using the numerical analysis by using the software PLAXIS 3D. The results of the numerical analysis have been validated and compared with those given in the referred paper. The results have been found to be in very good agreement with those of the actual field values with very small variation. The GR soil has been found to be improve the bearing pressure 240 % whereas the PGR soil improves it by almost 500 % for 1mm settlement. In fact, the PGR soil has enhanced the bearing pressure of the GR soil by almost 200 %. The settlement reduction has also been found to be very significant as for 100 kPa bearing pressure the settlement reduction of the PGR soil has been found to be about 88 % with respect to UR soil and it reduced to up to 67 % with respect to GR soil. The prestressing force has resulted in enhanced reinforcement mechanism, resulting in the increased bearing pressure. The deformation at the geogrid layer has been found to be 13.62 mm for GR soil whereas it decreased down to mere 3.5 mm for PGR soil which certainly ensures the effect of prestressing on the geogrid layer. The parameter Improvement factor or conventionally known as Bearing Capacity Ratio for different settlements and which depicts the improvement of the PGR with respect to UR and GR soil and the improvement of GR soil with respect to UR soil has been found to vary in the range of 1.66-2.40 in the present analysis for GR soil and was found to be vary between 3.58 and 5.12 for PGR soil with respect to UR soil. The effect of prestressing was also observed in case of two interfering square footings. The centre to centre distance between the two footings (SFD) was taken to be B, 1.5B, 2B, 2.5B and 3B where B is the width of the footing. It was found that for UR soil the improvement of the bearing pressure was up to 1.5B after which it remained almost same. But for GR soil the zone of influence rose up to 2B and for PGR it further went up to 2.5B. So the zone of interference for PGR soil has increased by 67% than Unreinforced (UR) soil and almost 25 % with respect to GR soil.

Keywords: bearing, geogrid, prestressed, reinforced

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
5383 Improvement of Bearing Capacity of Soft Clay Using Geo-Cells

Authors: Siddhartha Paul, Aman Harlalka, Ashim K. Dey

Abstract:

Soft clayey soil possesses poor bearing capacity and high compressibility because of which foundations cannot be directly placed over soft clay. Normally pile foundations are constructed to carry the load through the soft soil up to the hard stratum below. Pile construction is costly and time consuming. In order to increase the properties of soft clay, many ground improvement techniques like stone column, preloading with and without sand drains/band drains, etc. are in vogue. Time is a constraint for successful application of these improvement techniques. Another way to improve the bearing capacity of soft clay and to reduce the settlement possibility is to apply geocells below the foundation. The geocells impart rigidity to the foundation soil, reduce the net load intensity on soil and thus reduce the compressibility. A well designed geocell reinforced soil may replace the pile foundation. The present paper deals with the applicability of geocells on improvement of the bearing capacity. It is observed that a properly designed geocell may increase the bearing capacity of soft clay up to two and a half times.

Keywords: bearing capacity, geo-cell, ground improvement, soft clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
5382 Using Micropiles to Improve the Anzali's Saturated Loose Silty Sand

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. Hamidzadeh

Abstract:

Today, with the daily advancement of geotechnical engineering on soil improvement and modification of the physical properties and shear strength of soil, it is now possible to construct structures with high-volume and high service load on loose sandy soils. One of such methods is using micropiles, which are mostly used to control asymmetrical subsidence, increase bearing capacity, and prevent soil liquefaction. This study examined the improvement of Anzali's saturated loose silty sand using 192 micropiles with a length of 8 meters and diameter of 75 mm. Bandar-e Anzali is one of Iran's coastal populated cities which are located in a high-seismicity region. The effects of the insertion of micropiles on prevention of liquefaction and improvement of subsidence were examined through comparison of the results of Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Plate Load Test (PLT) before and after implementation of the micropiles. The results show that the SPT values and the ultimate bearing capacity of silty sand increased after the implementation of the micropiles. Therefore, the installation of micropiles increases the strength of silty sand improving the resistance of soil against liquefaction.

Keywords: soil improvement, silty sand, micropiles, SPT, PLT, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
5381 Effect of Waste Bottle Chips on Strength Parameters of Silty Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Hamidreza Rahmani

Abstract:

Laboratory consolidated undrained triaxial (CU) tests were carried out to study the strength behavior of silty soil reinforced with randomly plastic waste bottle chips. Specimens mixed with plastic waste chips in triaxial compression tests with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25% by dry weight of soil and tree different length including 4, 8, and 12 mm. In all of the samples, the width and thickness of plastic chips were kept constant. According to the results, the amount and size of plastic waste bottle chips played an important role in the increasing of the strength parameters of reinforced silt compared to the pure soil. Because of good results, the suggested method of soil improvement can be used in many engineering problems such as increasing the bearing capacity and settlement reduction in foundations.

Keywords: reinforcement, silt, soil improvement, triaxial test, waste bottle chips

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
5380 A Review on New Additives in Deep Soil Mixing Method

Authors: Meysam Mousakhani, Reza Ziaie Moayed

Abstract:

Considering the population growth and the needs of society, the improvement of problematic soils and the study of the application of different improvement methods have been considered. One of these methods is deep soil mixing, which has been developed in the past decade, especially in soft soils due to economic efficiency, simple implementation, and other benefits. The use of cement is criticized for its cost and the damaging environmental effects, so these factors lead us to use other additives along with cement in the deep soil mixing. Additives that are used today include fly ash, blast-furnace slag, glass powder, and potassium hydroxide. The present study provides a literature review on the application of different additives in deep soil mixing so that the best additives can be introduced from strength, economic, environmental and other perspectives. The results show that by replacing fly ash and slag with about 40 to 50% of cement, not only economic and environmental benefits but also a long-term strength comparable to cement would be achieved. The use of glass powder, especially in 3% mixing, results in desirable strength. In addition to the other benefits of these additives, potassium hydroxide can also be transported over longer distances, leading to wider soil improvement. Finally, this paper suggests further studies in terms of using other additives such as nanomaterials and zeolite, with different ratios, in different conditions and soils (silty sand, clayey sand, carbonate sand, sandy clay and etc.) in the deep mixing method.

Keywords: deep soil mix, soil stabilization, fly ash, ground improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
5379 Sustainable Improvement in Soil Properties and Maize Performance by Organic Fertilizers at Different Levels

Authors: Shahid Iqbal, Haroon Z. Khan, Muhammad Arif

Abstract:

A sustainable agricultural system involving the improvement in soil properties and crop performance cannot be developed without organic fertilizer use. The effects of poultry manure compost (PMC) and pressmud compost (PrMC) at different levels on improving the soil properties and maize performance has not been yet described by any study comprehensively. Thus, field experiments (2011 and 2012) were conducted at Agronomy Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad (31°26'5" N and 73°4'6" E) in sandy loam soil to determine the improvement in soil properties and maize performance due to application of PMC and PrMC each at five different levels (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 t ha-1). A control (unamended) treatment was also included for comparison. The results indicated that performance of PMC levels was superior to PrMC levels. Increasing both composts levels improved soil properties, maize growth, and stover yield. Results showed that during both years’ highest rates of PMC i.e. 10 and 8 t ha-1 improved the soil properties: ECe, pH, inorganic N, OM, and WHC higher than other treatments. While, 10 and 8 t PMC ha-1 also significantly increased leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR), and stover yield. Similarly, 10 and 8 t PMC ha-1 also improved the grain protein content, but contrarily, grain oil was lowest for 10 and 8 t ha-1 PMC during both years. Moreover, in both years highest gross and net income, and benefit cost ratio was also achieved by 10 and 8 t ha-1 PMC. It is concluded that PMC at rate of 10 and 8 t ha-1 sustainably improved soil properties and maize performance.

Keywords: compost, soil, maize, growth, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
5378 Evaluation of Numerical Modeling of Jet Grouting Design Using in situ Loading Test

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Ehsan Azini

Abstract:

Jet grouting (JG) is one of the methods of improving and increasing the strength and bearing of soil in which the high pressure water or grout is injected through the nozzles into the soil. During this process, a part of the soil and grout particles comes out of the drill borehole, and the other part is mixed up with the grout in place, as a result of this process, a mass of modified soil is created. The purpose of this method is to change the soil into a mixture of soil and cement, commonly known as "soil-cement". In this paper, first, the principles of high pressure injection and then the effective parameters in the JG method are described. Then, the tests on the samples taken from the columns formed from the excavation around the soil-cement columns, as well as the static loading test on the created column, are discussed. In the other part of this paper, the soil behavior models for numerical modeling in PLAXIS software are mentioned. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the results of numerical modeling based on in-situ static loading tests. The results indicate an acceptable agreement between the results of the tests mentioned and the modeling results. Also, modeling with this software as an appropriate option for technical feasibility can be used to soil improvement using JG.

Keywords: jet grouting column, soil improvement, numerical modeling, in-situ loading test

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
5377 Applicability of Soybean as Bio-Catalyst in Calcite Precipitated Method for Soil Improvement

Authors: Heriansyah Putra, Erizal Erizal, Sutoyo Sutoyo, Hideaki Yasuhara

Abstract:

This paper discusses the possibility of organic waste material, i.e., soybean, as the bio-catalyst agent on the calcite precipitation method. Several combinations of soybean powder and jack bean extract are used as the bio-catalyst and mixed with the reagent composed of calcium chloride and urea. Its productivity in promoting calcite crystal is evaluated through a transparent test-tube experiment. The morphological and mineralogical aspects of precipitated calcite are also investigated using scanning electromagnetic (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The applicability of this material to improve the engineering properties of soil are examined using the direct shear and unconfined compressive test. The result of this study shows that the utilization of soybean powder brings about a significant effect on soil strength. In addition, the use of soybean powder as a substitution material of urease enzyme also increases the efficacy of calcite crystal as the binder materials. The low calcite content promotes the high strength of the soil. The strength of 300 kPa is obtained in the presence of 2% of calcite content within the soil. The result of this study elucidated that substitution of soybean to jack bean extract is the potential and valuable alternative to improve the applicability of calcite precipitation method as soil improvement technique.

Keywords: calcite precipitation, jack bean, soil improvement, soybean

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
5376 Geotechnical Investigation of Soil Foundation for Ramps of Dawar El-Tawheed Bridge in Jizan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ali H. Mahfouz, Hossam E. M. Sallam, Abdulwali Wazir, Hamod H. Kharezi

Abstract:

The soil profile at site of the bridge project includes soft fine grained soil layer located between 5.0 m to 11.0 m in depth, it has high water content, low SPT no., and low bearing capacity. The clay layer induces high settlement due to surcharge application of earth embankment at ramp T1, ramp T2, and ramp T3 especially at heights from 9m right 3m. Calculated settlement for embankment heights less than 3m may be accepted regarding Saudi Code for soil and foundation. The soil and groundwater at the project site comprise high contents of sulfates and chlorides of high aggressively on concrete and steel bars, respectively. Regarding results of the study, it has been recommended to use stone column piles or new technology named PCC piles as soil improvement to improve the bearing capacity of the weak layer. The new technology is cast in-situ thin wall concrete pipe piles (PCC piles), it has economically advantageous and high workability. The technology can save time of implementation and cost of application is almost 30% of other types of piles.

Keywords: soft foundation soil, bearing capacity, bridge ramps, soil improvement, geogrid, PCC piles

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
5375 Experimental Study on Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation of Industrial By-Products

Authors: Mohammadjavad Yaghoubi, Arul Arulrajah, Mahdi M. Disfani, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Myint W. Bo, Stephen P. Darmawan

Abstract:

Utilising waste materials, such as fly ash (FA) and slag (S) stockpiled in landfills, has drawn the attention of researchers and engineers in the recent years. There is a great potential for usage of these wastes in ground improvement projects, especially where deep deposits of soft compressible soils exist. This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activated FA and S, termed as geopolymer binder, to use in deep soil mixing technology. The strength improvement and the changes in the microstructure of the mixtures have been studied. The results show that using FA and S-based geopolymers can increases the strength significantly. Furthermore, utilising FA and S in ground improvement projects, where large amounts of binders are required, can be a solution to the disposal of these wastes.

Keywords: alkaline activation, fly ash, geopolymer, slag, strength development

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
5374 Comparison of Improvement with Bored Piling and Stone Column in a Selected Area in Kocaeli

Authors: Utkan Mutman, Omer Ayhan

Abstract:

In highway work in a field that is selected in Kocaeli/TURKEY district to the ground improvement and piling is done. In this study, the degree of improvement was observed on the ground after the columns made of stone and bored piles in the field and compared. In this context, improving the ground before and after analysis and solution analysis made with values obtained by the finite element method, which was made Plaxis program. On the improved ground, in order to control of manufactured bored piles, continuity of bored piles and pile load tests were carried out. In addition, the test of load capacity specified in the project is made of stone columns. Test results of the soil improvement were observed to be successful, the results obtained in the field and the results obtained from Plaxis program were compared.

Keywords: bored piling, stone columns, plaxis, soil improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
5373 Design of Soil Replacement under Axial Centric Load Isolated Footing by Limit State Method

Authors: Emad A. M. Osman, Ahmed M. Abu-Bakr

Abstract:

Compacted granular fill under shallow foundation is one of the oldest, cheapest, and easiest techniques to improve the soil characteristics to increase the bearing capacity and decrease settlement under footing. There are three main factors affecting the design of soil replacement to gain these advantages. These factors are the type of replaced soil, characteristics, and thickness. The first two factors can be easily determined by laboratory and field control. This paper emphasizes on how to determine the thickness accurately for footing under centric axial load by limit state design method. The advantages of the method are the way of determining the thickness (independent of experience) and it takes into account the replaced and original or underneath soil characteristics and reaches the goals of replaced soils economically.

Keywords: design of soil replacement, LSD method, soil replacement, soil improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
5372 Effect of Bamboo Chips in Cemented Sand Soil on Permeability and Mechanical Properties in Triaxial Compression

Authors: Sito Ismanti, Noriyuki Yasufuku

Abstract:

Cement utilization to improve the properties of soil is a well-known method applied in field. However, its addition in large quantity must be controlled. This study presents utilization of natural and environmental-friendly material mixed with small amount of cement content in soil improvement, i.e. bamboo chips. Absorbability, elongation, and flatness ratio of bamboo chips were examined to investigate and understand the influence of its characteristics in the mixture. Improvement of dilation behavior as a problem of loose and poorly graded sand soil is discussed. Bamboo chips are able to improve the permeability value that affects the dilation behavior of cemented sand soil. It is proved by the stress path as the result of triaxial compression test in the undrained condition. The effect of size and content variation of bamboo chips, as well as the curing time variation are presented and discussed.  

Keywords: bamboo chips, permeability, mechanical properties, triaxial compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
5371 Using Electro-Biogrouting to Stabilize of Soft Soil

Authors: Hamed A. Keykha, Hadi Miri

Abstract:

This paper describes a new method of soil stabilisation, electro-biogrouting (EBM), for improvement of soft soil with low hydraulic conductivity. This method uses an applied voltage gradient across the soil to induce the ions and bacteria cells through the soil matrix, resulting in CaCO3 precipitation and an increase of the soil shear strength in the process. The EBM were used effectively with two injection methods; bacteria injection and products of bacteria injection. The bacteria cells, calcium ions and urea were moved across the soil by electromigration and electro osmotic flow respectively. The products of bacteria (CO3-2) were moved by electromigration. The results showed that the undrained shear strength of the soil increased from 6 to 65 and 70 kPa for first and second injection method respectively. The injection of carbonate solution and calcium could be effectively flowed in the clay soil compare to injection of bacteria cells. The detection of CaCO3 percentage and its corresponding water content across the specimen showed that the increase of undrained shear strength relates to the deposit of calcite crystals between soil particles.

Keywords: Sporosarcina pasteurii, electrophoresis, electromigration, electroosmosis, biocement

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
5370 Stabilization of Clay Soil Using A-3 Soil

Authors: Mohammed Mustapha Alhaji, Sadiku Salawu

Abstract:

A clay soil which classified under A-7-6 soil according to AASHTO soil classification system and CH according to the unified soil classification system was stabilized using A-3 soil (AASHTO soil classification system). The clay soil was replaced with 0%, 10%, 20% to 100% A-3 soil, compacted at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy level and using unconfined compressive strength as evaluation criteria. The MDD of the compactions at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy levels showed increase in MDD from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The trend of the OMC with varied A-3 soil replacement is similar to that of MDD but in a reversed order. The OMC reduced from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. This trend was attributed to the observed reduction in the void ratio from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the void ratio increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The maximum UCS for clay at varied A-3 soil replacement increased from 272 and 770kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level at 0% A-3 soil replacement to 295 and 795kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 10% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 22 and 60kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 70% A-3 soil replacement. Beyond 70% A-3 soil replacement, the mixture cannot be moulded for UCS test.

Keywords: A-3 soil, clay minerals, pozzolanic action, stabilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
5369 Numerical Investigation on Load Bearing Capacity of Pervious Concrete Piles as an Alternative to Granular Columns

Authors: Ashkan Shafee, Masoud Ghodrati, Ahmad Fahimifar

Abstract:

Pervious concrete combines considerable permeability with adequate strength, which makes it very beneficial in pavement construction and also in ground improvement projects. In this paper, a single pervious concrete pile subjected to vertical and lateral loading is analysed using a verified three dimensional finite element code. A parametric study was carried out in order to investigate load bearing capacity of a single unreinforced pervious concrete pile in saturated soft soil and also gain insight into the failure mechanism of this rather new soil improvement technique. The results show that concrete damaged plasticity constitutive model can perfectly simulate the highly brittle nature of the pervious concrete material and considering the computed vertical and horizontal load bearing capacities, some suggestions have been made for ground improvement projects.

Keywords: concrete damaged plasticity, ground improvement, load-bearing capacity, pervious concrete pile

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
5368 Effect of Deep Mixing Columns and Geogrid on Embankment Settlement on the Soft Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi

Abstract:

Embankment settlement on soft clays has always been problematic due to the high compaction and low shear strength of the soil. Deep soil mixing and geosynthetics are two soil improvement methods in such fields. Here, a numerical study is conducted on the embankment performance on the soft ground improved by deep soil mixing columns and geosynthetics based on the data of a real project. For this purpose, the finite element method is used in the Plaxis 2D software. The Soft Soil Creep model considers the creep phenomenon in the soft clay layer while the Mohr-Columb model simulates other soil layers. Results are verified using the data of an experimental embankment built on deep mixing columns. The effect of depth and diameter of deep mixing columns and the stiffness of geogrid on the vertical and horizontal movements of embankment on clay subsoil will be investigated in the following.

Keywords: PLAXIS 2D, embankment settlement, horizontal movement, deep soil mixing column, geogrid

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
5367 Review in Role of Geotextile on Soil Improvement

Authors: Sandra Ghavam Shirazi, Mohsen Ramezan Shirazi, Mohammadreza Golhashem

Abstract:

Nowadays by development of construction in modern world new techniques are introduced to civil engineering. As for geotechnical problems and demands of soil improvement, engineers are searching for decisive methods to ensure the safety of projects. As a popular material Geotextiles are used in almost every aspect of civil engineering. There is a vast variety of geotextiles and each kind has their own unique characteristics therefor to select the proper geotextile for a specific project their properties must be carefully examined. This review gathers and evaluates different parameters of geotextiles that are used in geotechnical field.

Keywords: geotextile, soft soils, fabric, stabilization, fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
5366 Physicochemistry of Pozzolanic Stabilization of a Class A-2-7 Lateritic Soil

Authors: Ahmed O. Apampa, Yinusa A. Jimoh

Abstract:

The paper examines the mechanism of pozzolan-soil reactions, using a recent study on the chemical stabilization of a Class A-2-7 (3) lateritic soil, with corn cob ash (CCA) as case study. The objectives are to establish a nexus between cation exchange capacity of the soil, the alkaline forming compounds in CCA and percentage CCA addition to soil beyond which no more improvement in strength properties can be achieved; and to propose feasible chemical reactions to explain the chemical stabilization of the lateritic soil with CCA alone. The lateritic soil, as well as CCA of pozzolanic quality Class C were separately analysed for their metallic oxide composition using the X-Ray Fluorescence technique. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil and the CCA were computed theoretically using the percentage composition of the base cations Ca2+, Mg2+ K+ and Na2+ as 1.48 meq/100 g and 61.67 meq/100 g respectively, thus indicating a ratio of 0.024 or 2.4%. This figure, taken as the theoretical amount required to just fill up the exchangeable sites of the clay molecules, compares well with the laboratory observation of 1.5% for the optimum level of CCA addition to lateritic soil. The paper went on to present chemical reaction equations between the alkaline earth metals in the CCA and the silica in the lateritic soil to form silicates, thereby proposing an extension of the theory of mechanism of soil stabilization to cover chemical stabilization with pozzolanic ash only. The paper concluded by recommending further research on the molecular structure of soils stabilized with pozzolanic waste ash alone, with a view to confirming the chemical equations advanced in the study.

Keywords: cation exchange capacity, corn cob ash, lateritic soil, soil stabilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
5365 Performance Analysis of Encased Sand Columns in Different Clayey Soils Using 3D Numerical Method

Authors: Enayatallah Najari, Ali Noorzad, Mehdi Siavoshnia

Abstract:

One of the most decent and low-cost options in soft clayey soil improvement is using stone columns to reduce the settlement and increase the bearing capacity which is used for different ways to do this in various projects with diverse conditions. In the current study, it is tried to evaluate this improvement method in 4 different weak soils with diverse properties like specific gravity, permeability coefficient, over consolidation ratio (OCR), poison’s ratio, internal friction angle and bulk modulus by using ABAQUS 3D finite element software. Increment and decrement impacts of each mentioned factor on settlement and lateral displacement of weak soil beds are analyzed. In analyzed models, the properties related to sand columns and geosynthetic cover are assumed to be constant with their optimum values, and just soft clayey soil parameters are considered to be variable. It’s also demonstrated that OCR value can play a determinant role in soil resistance.

Keywords: stone columns, geosynthetic, finite element, 3D analysis, soft soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
5364 A Study of Soft Soil Improvement by Using Lime Grit

Authors: Ashim Kanti Dey, Briti Sundar Bhowmik

Abstract:

This paper presents an idea to improve the soft soil by using lime grits which are normally produced as waste product in the paper manufacturing industries. This waste material cannot be used as a construction material because of its light weight, uniform size and poor compaction control. With scarcity in land, effective disposal of lime grit is a major concern of all paper manufacturing industries. Considering its non-plasticity and high permeability characteristics the lime grit may suitably be used as a drainage material for speedy consolidation of cohesive soil. It can also be used to improve the bearing capacity of soft clay. An attempt has been made in this paper to show the usefulness of lime grit in improving the bearing capacity of shallow foundation resting on soft clayey soil. A series of undrained unconsolidated cyclic triaxial tests performed at different area ratios and at three different water contents shows that dynamic shear modulus and damping ratio can be substantially improved with lime grit. Improvement is observed to be more in case of higher area ratio and higher water content. Static triaxial tests were also conducted on lime grit reinforced clayey soil after application of 50 load cycles to determine the effect of lime grit columns on cyclically loaded clayey soils. It is observed that the degradation is less for lime grit stabilized soil. A study of model test with different area ratio of lime column installation is also included to see the field behaviour of lime grit reinforced soil.

Keywords: lime grit column, area ratio, shear modulus, damping ratio, strength ratio, improvement factor, degradation factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
5363 Improving the Strength Characteristics of Soil Using Cotton Fibers

Authors: Bindhu Lal, Karnika Kochal

Abstract:

Clayey soil contains clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter, which exhibits properties like low drainage, high plasticity, and shrinkage. To overcome these issues, various soil reinforcement techniques are used to elevate the stiffness, water tightness, and bearing capacity of the soil. Such techniques include cementation, bituminization, freezing, fiber inclusion, geo-synthetics, nailing, etc. Reinforcement of soil with fibers has been a cost-effective solution to soil improvement problems. An experimental study was undertaken involving the inclusion of cotton waste fibers in clayey soil as reinforcement with different fiber contents (1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% by weight) and analyzing its effects on the unconfined compressive strength of the soil. Two categories of soil were taken, comprising of natural clay and clay mixed with 5% sodium bentonite by weight. The soil specimens were subjected to proctor compaction and unconfined compression tests. The validated outcome shows that fiber inclusion has a strikingly positive impact on the compressive strength and axial strain at failure of the soil. Based on the commendatory results procured, compressive strength was found to be directly proportional to the fiber content, with the effect being more pronounced at lower water content.

Keywords: bentonite clay, clay, cotton fibers, unconfined compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
5362 Effect of Nanobentonite Particles on Geotechnical Properties of Kerman Clay

Authors: A. Ghasemipanah, R. Ziaie Moayed, H. Niroumand

Abstract:

Improving the geotechnical properties of soil has always been one of the issues in geotechnical engineering. Traditional materials have been used to improve and stabilize soils to date, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Although the soil stabilization by adding materials such as cement, lime, bitumen, etc. is one of the effective methods to improve the geotechnical properties of soil, but nanoparticles are one of the newest additives which can improve the loose soils. This research is intended to study the effect of adding nanobentonite on soil engineering properties, especially the unconfined compression strength and maximum dry unit weight, using clayey soil with low liquid limit (CL) from Kerman (Iran). Nanobentonite was mixed with soil in three different percentages (i.e. 3, 5, 7% by weight of the parent soil) with different curing time (1, 7 and 28 days). The unconfined compression strength, liquid and plastic limits and plasticity index of treated specimens were measured by unconfined compression and Atterberg limits test. It was found that increase in nanobentonite content resulted in increase in the unconfined compression strength, liquid and plastic limits of the clayey soil and reduce in plasticity index.

Keywords: nanobentonite particles, clayey soil, unconfined compression stress, soil improvement.

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
5361 Improvement of Sandy Clay Soils with the Addition of Rice Husk Ash and Expanded Polystyrene Beads

Authors: Alvaro Quino, Roger Trejo, Gary Duran, Jordy Viso

Abstract:

This article presents a study on the lightening and improvement of properties of soil extracted in the province of Talara in the department of Piura -Peru, to be used in filling in the construction of embankments for roads. This soft soil has a high percentage of elastic settlement and consolidation settlement. Currently, there are different methods that seek to mitigate the impact of this problem, which have achieved favorable results. As a contribution to these investigations, we propose the use of two lightening materials to be used in the filling of embankments; these materials are expanded polystyrene beads (EPS) and rice husk ash (RHA). Favorable results were obtained, such as a reduction of 14.34% of the volumetric weight, so the settlement will be reduced. In addition, it is observed that as the RHA dosage increases, the shear resistance increases. In this article, soil mechanics tests were performed to determine the effectiveness of this method in lightening and improving properties for the soil under study.

Keywords: sandy clay soils, rice husk ash, expanded polystyrene, soft soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
5360 Laboratory Studies to Assess the Effect of Recron Fiber on Soil Subgrade Characteristics

Authors: Lokesh Gupta, Rakesh Kumar

Abstract:

Stabilization of weak subgrade soil is mainly aimed for the improvement of soil strength and its durability. Highway engineers are concerned to get the soil material or system that will hold under the design use conditions and for the designed life of the engineering project. The present study envisages the effect of Recron fibres mixed in different proportion (up to 1% by weight of dry soil) on Atterberg limits, Compaction of the soil, California bearing ratio (CBR) values and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the soil. The present study deals with the influence of varying in length (20 mm, 30mm, 40mm and 50mm) and percentage (0.25 %, 0.50 %, 0.75 % and 1.0 %) of fibre added to the soil samples. The aim of study is to determine the reinforcing effect of randomly distributed fibres on the Compaction characteristics, penetration resistance and unconfined compressive strength of soils. The addition of fibres leads to an increase in the optimum moisture content and decrease in maximum dry density. With the addition of the fibres, the increases in CBR and UCS values are observed. The test result shows higher CBR and unconfined compressive strength value for the soil reinforced with 0.5% Recron fibre, once keeping aspect ratio as 160.

Keywords: soil, recron fiber, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), California bearing ratio (CBR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
5359 Numerical Investigation of Embankment Settlement Improved by Method of Preloading by Vertical Drains

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi

Abstract:

Time dependent settlement due to loading on soft saturated soils produces many problems such as high consolidation settlements and low consolidation rates. Also, long term consolidation settlement of soft soil underlying the embankment leads to unpredicted settlements and cracks on soil surface. Preloading method is an effective improvement method to solve this problem. Using vertical drains in preloading method is an effective method for improving soft soils. Applying deep soil mixing method on soft soils is another effective method for improving soft soils. There are little studies on using two methods of preloading and deep soil mixing simultaneously. In this paper, the concurrent effect of preloading with deep soil mixing by vertical drains is investigated through a finite element code, Plaxis2D. The influence of parameters such as deep soil mixing columns spacing, existence of vertical drains and distance between them, on settlement and stability factor of safety of embankment embedded on soft soil is investigated in this research.

Keywords: preloading, soft soil, vertical drains, deep soil mixing, consolidation settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 97