Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Rastin Afkhami

12 Screening for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Cytotoxic Agents in Three Hard Coral Species from Persian Gulf

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpou, Majid Afkhami, Flora Mohammadizadeh, Amirhoushang Bahri, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Within the frame of a biodiversity and bioactivity study of marine macro organisms from the Persian Gulf, three hard coral species extracts were investigated for cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activities against five human pathogenic microorganisms. All concentrations of extracts from three hard corals showed no antifungal activity towards the tested strains. In antibacterial assays, the hard coral extracts showed significant activity solely against Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 3 to 9 μg/ml. The highest antibacterial activity was found in the aqueous methanol extract of Porites compressa with an inhibition zone of 22 mm against Staphylococcus aureus at 18 μg/ml extract concentration. Methanol extracts from Porites harrisoi and Porites compressa exhibited only weak cytotoxic activities. It is important for future research to concentrate on finding the mechanisms employed by corals to defend themselves against invasion, the mechanism of infections and the type of chemical compounds in coral extracts that inhibit antibacterial growth or proliferation in underexplored areas such as the Persian Gulf.

Keywords: antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, hard corals, Persian Gulf

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11 The Survey of Sea Cucumber Fisheries in QESHM Island Coasts: Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Sea cucumbers are aquatic animals with a wide variety useful for human health. Sea cucumbers are from the aquatic creatures that have many important and useful properties known for human health. Increasing demand for beche-de-mer along with steady price increases have led to worldwide intensification of sea cucumber harvesting. The rearing of sea cucumber with shrimp controls the environmental pollution results from extra enriched nutritious built on the pond bottom. These animals eat detritus and with devouring of organic materials on the surface, not only do they make the environment clean, but also they cause the fast growth of shrimp and themselves. Holothuria scabra is a main species for producing of Beche-de-mer and more exploited in tropical region of the world. The wall of body is used in the process of beche-de-mer production that forms the 56% of the whole body. Holothuria scabra (sandfish) is an aspidochirote holothurian widely distributed in coastal regions throughout the Indo-Pacific region. H. scabra is often found on inner reef flats and near estuaries, half buried in the silt sand during the day and emerging at night to feed. In this study upon to information from local fishermen's in Qeshm island, we Providing some data about fishing methods, processing and distribution in the Qeshm island coastline. Comparative study of fishing status with another part of the world determined that the status of sea cucumber stocks in Qeshm Island is suitable. For preventing of over exploited of sandy sea cucumber capture prohibition should be continue. In this study, 7 explotide sites are recognized, the target size for fishermen's was more than 20 cm and sandy cucumber was the target species in Qeshm Island. In this area the fishing operation was only done by scuba diving and has been done only by men's. Although in another countries women's have an important role in sea cucumber fishing operation. In the coast around Qeshm island it is found in Hmoon, Tolla, kovei, Ramchah, Messen, and Hengam. The maximum length and weight was recorded 35 cm and 1080 gr, respectively.

Keywords: sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, fishing status, Qeshm Island

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10 Effects of Oil Pollution on Euryglossa orientalis and Psettodes erumei in the Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour, Reza Khoshnood, Zahra Khoshnood, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Marine pollution is a global environmental problem. Different human activities on land, in the water and in the air contribute to the contamination of seawater, sediments and organisms with potentially toxic substances. Contaminants can be natural substances or artificially produced compounds. After discharge into the sea, contaminants can stay in the water in dissolved form or they can be removed from the water column through sedimentation to the bottom sediments. Histopathological alterations can be used as indicators for the effects of various anthropogenic pollutants on organisms and are a reflection of the overall health of the entire population in the ecosystem. These histo pathological biomarkers are closely related to other biomarkers of stress since many pollutants have to undergo metabolic activation in order to be able to provoke cellular change in the affected organism. In order to make evaluation of the effects of oil pollution, some heavy metals bioaccumulation and explore their histopathological effects on hepatocytes of Oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and Deep flounder (Psettodes erumei), fishes caught from two areas of north coast of the Persian Gulf: Bandar Abbass and Bandar Lengeh. Concentrations of Ni and V in liver of both species in two sampling regions were in following order: Bandar abbass Bandar lengeh; also between two species, these quantities were higher in P. erumei than E. orientalis in both sampling regions. Histopathology of the liver shows some cellular alterations including: degeneration, necrosis and tissue disruption, and histopathological effects were severe in P. erumei than E. orientalis. Results showed that Bandar Abbass region was more polluted than Bandar Lengeh, and because Ni and V were oil pollution indicators, and two flat fishes were benthic, they can receive considerable amount of oil pollution through their biological activities like feeding. Also higher amounts of heavy metal concentrations and major histopathological effects in E. orientalis showed strong relationship between benthic habitat of the fish and amounts of received pollutants from water and sediments, because E. orientalis is more related to the bottom than P. erumei.

Keywords: heavy metals, flatfishes, Persian Gulf, oil pollution

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9 Health Risks Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Sea Food from Persian ‎Gulf

Authors: Mohsen Ehsanpour, Maryam Ehsanpour, ‎Majid Afkhami, Fatemeh Afkhami ‎

Abstract:

Heavy metals are increasingly being released into natural waters from geological and anthropogenic sources. The distribution of several heavy metals (Cd, Pb) was investigated in muscle, liver in six different fish species seasonally collected in Persian Gulf (autumn 2009-summer 2010). The concentrations of all metals were lower in flesh than those recorded in liver due to their physiological roles. The THQ index for fish was calculated. Estimation of target hazard quotients calculations for the contaminated fish consumption was calculated to evaluate the effect of pollution on health. Total metal THQs values (Pb and Cd) for adults were 0.05 and 0.04 in Bushehr and Bandar-Genaveh, respectively, and for children they were 0.08 and 0.05 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: Persian Gulf, heavy metals, health risks, THQ index

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8 Effects of PAHs on Blood Thyroidal Hormones of Liza klunzingeri in the Northern Part of Hormuz Strait (Persian Gulf)

Authors: Fateme Afkhami, Mohsen Ehsanpour, Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on thyroidal hormones of Liza klunzingeri and to monitor marine pollution from northern part of Hormuz strait (Persian Gulf). Results showed the highest total PAHs levels (268.56 µg/kg) were in the fish samples and the lowest are obtained from water samples (3.12 µg/kg). Also, highest of PAHs levels in fish, sediment and water were found in St3. There was a positive correlation between T3 and T4, with PAHs results. T4 had a significant positive correlation (P<0.05).

Keywords: PAHs, thyroidal hormones, Liza klunzingeri, Hormuz Strait, Persian Gulf

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7 A Study on Effect of Almahdi Aluminium Factory of Bandar Abbas on Environment Status of the Region with an Emphasis on Measuring of Some Scarce Metals Existing in the Air (Atmosphere)

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpour, Maryam Malekpour, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Today, industry is one of the indices of growth and development of countries and is a suitable applicable criterion to compare the countries. Bandar Abbas has a high industrial centralization in term of geographical redundancy of industries in comparison with other rural and urban places of Hormozgan province. Most important and major industries of the province are located in Bandar abbas eighth refinery, power plant, zinc melting company, Almahdi Aluminium, Hormozgan steel, south steel, which are the most important of these industries. So, it is necessary to study pollution from these industries and their destructive effects on environment of region. In respect of these things, general purpose of this research is codling and presenting managing solution of Almahdi Aluminium factory in them of measuring of air (atmosphere) parameters. For gaining this purpose it is necessary to determine measure of heavy metals suspension in the air (atmosphere) in the neighborhood of industries and also in residential regions close to them as partial purposes. So, for achieving the purposes above, operation of sampling from the air in two hot and cold seasons of the year (2010-2011) was performed, after field reviews to recognize the sources of effluence and to choose place of sampling stations. Sampling and preparation way to read was based on EPA and NIOSH. Also, decreasing process was included Fe>Al>Cd>Pb>Ni respectively, in term of results gaining from sampling of ingredients existing in the air (atmosphere). Also Ni and Fe elements in samples of air were higher than permissive measure in both of cold and hot season. Average of these two metals was 34% and 33% in cold season and 44% and 34% micrograms/m3 in hot season. Finally, suitable managing solutions to improve existing situation is presented in term for all results.

Keywords: Almahdi aluminium factory, Bandar Abbas, scarce metals, atmosphere

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6 Plasma Biochemistry Values in Wild Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) during Nesting and Foraging Seasons in Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf

Authors: Fateme Afkhami, Mohsen Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour

Abstract:

Normal reference ranges of biochemical parameters are considered important for assessing and monitoring the health status of sea turtles. For this means, serum biochemistry determinations were analyzed in normal adult nesting and foraging hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata). Blood samples were collected in March–April during nesting season and December-November in the foraging season. Plasma biochemistry values, except for creatinine and lipase were significant between the two periods. FBS, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), bilirubin, total protein, LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), CK (creatine kinase) and amylase were significantly higher in nesting season than foraging season (P<0.05). On the other hand urea, ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and albumin in the nesting season were significantly lower than foraging season (P<0.05). It was concluded that the nesting E. imbricata showed significant variation in their biochemical profile due to reproductive output. This study has produced working reference intervals useful for hawksbill turtles for future conservation and rehabilitation projects in the Persian Gulf and may be of assistance in similar programs worldwide.

Keywords: plasma biochemistry, nesting, foraging, hawksbill turtles, Persian Gulf

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5 Determination of Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Ni and Zn) in 6 Important Commercial Fish Species in North of Hormoz Strait

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour, Zahra Khoshnood

Abstract:

The concentrations of 10 heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Ni, Zn) were measured in muscle, gill and liver of 6 species from Hormoz Strait in north coast of Persian Gulf in 12 months (April 2009 – March 2010). All samples were analyzed three times for Cd, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Ni, Zn by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and for Hg by LECO AMA254 Advanced Mercury Analyzer. Results of this study showed that iron had the highest concentration (total mean concentration) in all species, followed by Zn, Cu, Ni, Al, Pb, Mn, Cd, Hg and lowest concentration in three tissues was As. In addition, the accumulation of metals was species-dependent, and was higher in Scomberomorous commerson and Scomberomorous guttatus (p<0.05) and the lowest concentration was record in Pampus argenteus (p<0.05).

Keywords: Persian Gulf, heavy metals, Hormoz strait, Scomberomorous guttatus, Scomberomorous commerson, Pampus argenteus

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4 Measure Determination and Zoning of Oil Pollution (TPH) on ‎Costal Sediments of Bandar Abbas (Hormoz Strait) ‎

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami ‎

Abstract:

This study investigated the presence of hydrocarbon pollution in industrial waste water sediments found in west coast of Bandar Abass (northern part of Hormoz strait). Therefore, six transects from west of the city were selected. Each transect consists of three stations intervals 100, 600 and 1100 meter from the low tide were sampled in both the summer and winter season (July and January 2009). Physical and chemical parameters of water, concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and soil tissue deposition were evaluated according to standard procedures of MOOPAM. Average results of dissolved oxygen were 6.42 mg/l, temperature 26.31°C, pH 8.55, EC 54.47 ms/cm and salinity 35.98 g/l respectively. Results indicate that minimum, maximum and average concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in sediments were, 60.18, 751.83, and 229.21 µg/kg respectively which are less than comparable studies in other parts of Persian Gulf.

Keywords: oil pollution, Bandar Abbas, costal sediments, TPH ‎

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3 Determination of Some Biochemical Values for the Liza klunzingeri in Coastal Water of Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour

Abstract:

Serum biochemical can be used for monitoring any changes in the physiological condition of fish and quality of waters. The aim of this paper was to determine of plasma sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, iron, ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) levels of Liza klunzingeri in Persian Gulf. Blood sample was collected from the caudal vessel with syringes coated with sodium heparin. Biochemical values were: sugar 110.37±28.46 mg/di, triglycerides 96.82±23.40 mg/di, cholesterol 177.28 ±40.75 mg/di, iron 104.74± 19.08 mg/di, ALP 117.62±34.49 u/l, LDH 1613.00±345.34 u/l. A significant positive correlation (P<0.01) was found between triglycerides and sugar. Triglycerides had a significant and positive relationship with cholesterol (P<0.01). ALP also had a significant and positive relationship with sugar (P<0.01) and triglycerides (P<0.05). LDH correlated positively with sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides (P<0.01) and ALP (P<0.05). The results revealed reverse correlation between iron with cholesterol, sugar, triglycerides, ALP, and LDH (P<0.01). This study represents a contribution to the referential biochemical values of the L. klunzingeri. In further studies, the established reference ranges might be useful for the health assessment of this species.

Keywords: Liza klunzingeri, blood, ALP, LDH

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2 Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Pollution Effects on Blood Metabolic Factors of Periophthalmus waltoni from Northern Coast of the Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour

Abstract:

The present study provides information about the nature of adverse effects on fish and the ecological impact that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollutant are having in the northern coast of Hormuz Strait. The glucose and cholesterol levels were higher in fish from the St3 than in Walton's mudskipper from other stations however St3 samples had lowest total proteins levels. There was a significant positive correlation between glucose and cholesterol with PAHs concentrations in sediment and tissue samples (P<0.05). However, total proteins had adverse significant correlation with PAHs concentrations (P>0.05). The adverse correlation was seen between length and body weight of fish samples with PAHs concentrations. According to the results of this study, the monitoring of contaminants bioaccumulation in the northern part of Hormuz Strait is necessary, because this will give an indication of the temporal and spatial extent of the process, as well as an assessment of the potential impact on aquatic organisms health.

Keywords: PAHs, blood metabolic factors, Periophthalmus waltoni, Hormuz Strait

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1 Insights into Particle Dispersion, Agglomeration and Deposition in Turbulent Channel Flow

Authors: Mohammad Afkhami, Ali Hassanpour, Michael Fairweather

Abstract:

The work described in this paper was undertaken to gain insight into fundamental aspects of turbulent gas-particle flows with relevance to processes employed in a wide range of applications, such as oil and gas flow assurance in pipes, powder dispersion from dry powder inhalers, and particle resuspension in nuclear waste ponds, to name but a few. In particular, the influence of particle interaction and fluid phase behavior in turbulent flow on particle dispersion in a horizontal channel is investigated. The mathematical modeling technique used is based on the large eddy simulation (LES) methodology embodied in the commercial CFD code FLUENT, with flow solutions provided by this approach coupled to a second commercial code, EDEM, based on the discrete element method (DEM) which is used for the prediction of particle motion and interaction. The results generated by LES for the fluid phase have been validated against direct numerical simulations (DNS) for three different channel flows with shear Reynolds numbers, Reτ = 150, 300 and 590. Overall, the LES shows good agreement, with mean velocities and normal and shear stresses matching those of the DNS in both magnitude and position. The research work has focused on the prediction of those conditions favoring particle aggregation and deposition within turbulent flows. Simulations have been carried out to investigate the effects of particle size, density and concentration on particle agglomeration. Furthermore, particles with different surface properties have been simulated in three channel flows with different levels of flow turbulence, achieved by increasing the Reynolds number of the flow. The simulations mimic the conditions of two-phase, fluid-solid flows frequently encountered in domestic, commercial and industrial applications, for example, air conditioning and refrigeration units, heat exchangers, oil and gas suction and pressure lines. The particle size, density, surface energy and volume fractions selected are 45.6, 102 and 150 µm, 250, 1000 and 2159 kg m-3, 50, 500, and 5000 mJ m-2 and 7.84 × 10-6, 2.8 × 10-5, and 1 × 10-4, respectively; such particle properties are associated with particles found in soil, as well as metals and oxides prevalent in turbulent bounded fluid-solid flows due to erosion and corrosion of inner pipe walls. It has been found that the turbulence structure of the flow dominates the motion of the particles, creating particle-particle interactions, with most of these interactions taking place at locations close to the channel walls and in regions of high turbulence where their agglomeration is aided both by the high levels of turbulence and the high concentration of particles. A positive relationship between particle surface energy, concentration, size and density, and agglomeration was observed. Moreover, the results derived for the three Reynolds numbers considered show that the rate of agglomeration is strongly influenced for high surface energy particles by, and increases with, the intensity of the flow turbulence. In contrast, for lower surface energy particles, the rate of agglomeration diminishes with an increase in flow turbulence intensity.

Keywords: agglomeration, channel flow, DEM, LES, turbulence

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