Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: geophysics

30 Integral Form Solutions of the Linearized Navier-Stokes Equations without Deviatoric Stress Tensor Term in the Forward Modeling for FWI

Authors: Anyeres N. Atehortua Jimenez, J. David Lambraño, Juan Carlos Muñoz


Navier-Stokes equations (NSE), which describe the dynamics of a fluid, have an important application on modeling waves used for data inversion techniques as full waveform inversion (FWI). In this work a linearized version of NSE and its variables, neglecting deviatoric terms of stress tensor, is presented. In order to get a theoretical modeling of pressure p(x,t) and wave velocity profile c(x,t), a wave equation of visco-acoustic medium (VAE) is written. A change of variables p(x,t)=q(x,t)h(ρ), is made on the equation for the VAE leading to a well known Klein-Gordon equation (KGE) describing waves propagating in variable density medium (ρ) with dispersive term α^2(x). KGE is reduced to a Poisson equation and solved by proposing a specific function for α^2(x) accounting for the energy dissipation and dispersion. Finally, an integral form solution is derived for p(x,t), c(x,t) and kinematics variables like particle velocity v(x,t), displacement u(x,t) and bulk modulus function k_b(x,t). Further, it is compared this visco-acoustic formulation with another form broadly used in the geophysics; it is argued that this formalism is more general and, given its integral form, it may offer several advantages from the modern parallel computing point of view. Applications to minimize the errors in modeling for FWI applied to oils resources in geophysics are discussed.

Keywords: Navier-Stokes equations, modeling, visco-acoustic, inversion FWI

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29 An Adaptive Decomposition for the Variability Analysis of Observation Time Series in Geophysics

Authors: Olivier Delage, Thierry Portafaix, Hassan Bencherif, Guillaume Guimbretiere


Most observation data sequences in geophysics can be interpreted as resulting from the interaction of several physical processes at several time and space scales. As a consequence, measurements time series in geophysics have often characteristics of non-linearity and non-stationarity and thereby exhibit strong fluctuations at all time-scales and require a time-frequency representation to analyze their variability. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is a relatively new technic as part of a more general signal processing method called the Hilbert-Huang transform. This analysis method turns out to be particularly suitable for non-linear and non-stationary signals and consists in decomposing a signal in an auto adaptive way into a sum of oscillating components named IMFs (Intrinsic Mode Functions), and thereby acts as a bank of bandpass filters. The advantages of the EMD technic are to be entirely data driven and to provide the principal variability modes of the dynamics represented by the original time series. However, the main limiting factor is the frequency resolution that may give rise to the mode mixing phenomenon where the spectral contents of some IMFs overlap each other. To overcome this problem, J. Gilles proposed an alternative entitled “Empirical Wavelet Transform” (EWT) which consists in building from the segmentation of the original signal Fourier spectrum, a bank of filters. The method used is based on the idea utilized in the construction of both Littlewood-Paley and Meyer’s wavelets. The heart of the method lies in the segmentation of the Fourier spectrum based on the local maxima detection in order to obtain a set of non-overlapping segments. Because linked to the Fourier spectrum, the frequency resolution provided by EWT is higher than that provided by EMD and therefore allows to overcome the mode-mixing problem. On the other hand, if the EWT technique is able to detect the frequencies involved in the original time series fluctuations, EWT does not allow to associate the detected frequencies to a specific mode of variability as in the EMD technic. Because EMD is closer to the observation of physical phenomena than EWT, we propose here a new technic called EAWD (Empirical Adaptive Wavelet Decomposition) based on the coupling of the EMD and EWT technics by using the IMFs density spectral content to optimize the segmentation of the Fourier spectrum required by EWT. In this study, EMD and EWT technics are described, then EAWD technic is presented. Comparison of results obtained respectively by EMD, EWT and EAWD technics on time series of ozone total columns recorded at Reunion island over [1978-2019] period is discussed. This study was carried out as part of the SOLSTYCE project dedicated to the characterization and modeling of the underlying dynamics of time series issued from complex systems in atmospheric sciences

Keywords: adaptive filtering, empirical mode decomposition, empirical wavelet transform, filter banks, mode-mixing, non-linear and non-stationary time series, wavelet

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28 Simulation of Performance of LaBr₃ (Ce) Using GEANT4

Authors: Zarana Dave


Cerium-doped lanthanum bromide, LaBr₃ (Ce), scintillator shows attracting properties for spectroscopy that makes it a suitable solution for security, medical, geophysics and high energy physics applications. Here, the performance parameters of a cylindrical LaBr₃ (Ce) scintillator was investigated. The first aspect is the determination of the efficiency for γ - ray detection, measured with GEANT4 simulation toolkit from 10keV to 10MeV energy range. The second is the detailed study of background radiation of LaBr₃ (Ce). It has relatively high intrinsic radiation background due to naturally occurring ¹³⁸La and ²²⁷Ac radioisotopes.

Keywords: LaBr₃(Ce), GEANT4, efficiency, background radiation

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27 Forecasting the Volatility of Geophysical Time Series with Stochastic Volatility Models

Authors: Maria C. Mariani, Md Al Masum Bhuiyan, Osei K. Tweneboah, Hector G. Huizar


This work is devoted to the study of modeling geophysical time series. A stochastic technique with time-varying parameters is used to forecast the volatility of data arising in geophysics. In this study, the volatility is defined as a logarithmic first-order autoregressive process. We observe that the inclusion of log-volatility into the time-varying parameter estimation significantly improves forecasting which is facilitated via maximum likelihood estimation. This allows us to conclude that the estimation algorithm for the corresponding one-step-ahead suggested volatility (with ±2 standard prediction errors) is very feasible since it possesses good convergence properties.

Keywords: Augmented Dickey Fuller Test, geophysical time series, maximum likelihood estimation, stochastic volatility model

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26 ERP Implementation in Iran: A Successful Experience in DGC

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ostad Ali Naghi Kashani


Nowadays, the amounts of companies which tend to have an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) application are increasing. Although ERP projects are expensive, time consuming, and complex, there are some successful experiences. These days, developing countries are striving to implement ERP projects successfully; however, there are many obstacles. Therefore, these projects would be failed or partially failed. This paper concerns the implementation of a successful ERP implementation, IFS, in Iran at Dana Geophysics Company (DGC). After a short review of ERP and ERP market in Iran, we propose a three phases deployment methodology (phase 1: Preparation and Business Process Management (BPM) phase 2: implementation and phase 3: testing, golive-1 (pilot) and golive-2 (final)). Then, we present five guidelines (Project Management, Change Management, Business Process Management (BPM), Training& Knowledge Management, and Technical Management), which were chose as work streams. In this case study we present lessons learned in Project management and Business process Management.

Keywords: business process management, critical success factors, ERP, project management

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25 Application of the Seismic Reflection Survey to an Active Fault Imaging

Authors: Nomin-Erdene Erdenetsogt, Tseedulam Khuut, Batsaikhan Tserenpil, Bayarsaikhan Enkhee


As the framework of 60 years of development of Astronomical and Geophysical science in modern Mongolia, various geophysical methods (electrical tomography, ground-penetrating radar, and high-resolution reflection seismic profiles) were used to image an active fault in-depth range between few decimeters to few tens meters. An active fault was fractured by an earthquake magnitude 7.6 during 1967. After geophysical investigations, trench excavations were done at the sites to expose the fault surfaces. The complex geophysical survey in the Mogod fault, Bulgan region of central Mongolia shows an interpretable reflection arrivals range of < 5 m to 50 m with the potential for increased resolution. Reflection profiles were used to help interpret the significance of neotectonic surface deformation at earthquake active fault. The interpreted profiles show a range of shallow fault structures and provide subsurface evidence with support of paleoseismologic trenching photos, electrical surveys.

Keywords: Mogod fault, geophysics, seismic processing, seismic reflection survey

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24 The Use of Hec Ras One-Dimensional Model and Geophysics for the Determination of Flood Zones

Authors: Ayoub El Bourtali, Abdessamed Najine, Amrou Moussa Benmoussa


It is becoming more and more necessary to manage flood risk, and it must include all stakeholders and all possible means available. The goal of this work is to map the vulnerability of the Oued Derna-region Tagzirt flood zone in the semi-arid region. This is about implementing predictive models and flood control. This allows for the development of flood risk prevention plans. In this study, A resistivity survey was conducted over the area to locate and evaluate soil characteristics in order to calculate discharges and prevent flooding for the study area. The development of a one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic model of the Derna River was carried out in HEC-RAS 5.0.4 using a combination of survey data and spatially extracted cross-sections and recorded river flows. The study area was hit by several extreme floods, causing a lot of property loss and loss of life. This research focuses on the most recent flood events, based on the collected data, the water level, river flow and river cross-section were analyzed. A set of flood levels were obtained as the outputs of the hydraulic model and the accuracy of the simulated flood levels and velocity.

Keywords: derna river, 1D hydrodynamic model, flood modelling, HEC-RAS 5.0.4

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23 Adomian’s Decomposition Method to Generalized Magneto-Thermoelasticity

Authors: Hamdy M. Youssef, Eman A. Al-Lehaibi


Due to many applications and problems in the fields of plasma physics, geophysics, and other many topics, the interaction between the strain field and the magnetic field has to be considered. Adomian introduced the decomposition method for solving linear and nonlinear functional equations. This method leads to accurate, computable, approximately convergent solutions of linear and nonlinear partial and ordinary differential equations even the equations with variable coefficients. This paper is dealing with a mathematical model of generalized thermoelasticity of a half-space conducting medium. A magnetic field with constant intensity acts normal to the bounding plane has been assumed. Adomian’s decomposition method has been used to solve the model when the bounding plane is taken to be traction free and thermally loaded by harmonic heating. The numerical results for the temperature increment, the stress, the strain, the displacement, the induced magnetic, and the electric fields have been represented in figures. The magnetic field, the relaxation time, and the angular thermal load have significant effects on all the studied fields.

Keywords: Adomian’s decomposition method, magneto-thermoelasticity, finite conductivity, iteration method, thermal load

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22 Geographical Data Visualization Using Video Games Technologies

Authors: Nizar Karim Uribe-Orihuela, Fernando Brambila-Paz, Ivette Caldelas, Rodrigo Montufar-Chaveznava


In this paper, we present the advances corresponding to the implementation of a strategy to visualize geographical data using a Software Development Kit (SDK) for video games. We use multispectral images from Landsat 7 platform and Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data from The National Institute of Geography and Statistics of Mexican (INEGI). We select a place of interest to visualize from Landsat platform and make some processing to the image (rotations, atmospheric correction and enhancement). The resulting image will be our gray scale color-map to fusion with the LIDAR data, which was selected using the same coordinates than in Landsat. The LIDAR data is translated to 8-bit raw data. Both images are fused in a software developed using Unity (an SDK employed for video games). The resulting image is then displayed and can be explored moving around. The idea is the software could be used for students of geology and geophysics at the Engineering School of the National University of Mexico. They will download the software and images corresponding to a geological place of interest to a smartphone and could virtually visit and explore the site with a virtual reality visor such as Google cardboard.

Keywords: virtual reality, interactive technologies, geographical data visualization, video games technologies, educational material

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21 The Use of the TRIGRS Model and Geophysics Methodologies to Identify Landslides Susceptible Areas: Case Study of Campos do Jordao-SP, Brazil

Authors: Tehrrie Konig, Cassiano Bortolozo, Daniel Metodiev, Rodolfo Mendes, Marcio Andrade, Marcio Moraes


Gravitational mass movements are recurrent events in Brazil, usually triggered by intense rainfall. When these events occur in urban areas, they end up becoming disasters due to the economic damage, social impact, and loss of human life. To identify the landslide-susceptible areas, it is important to know the geotechnical parameters of the soil, such as cohesion, internal friction angle, unit weight, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic diffusivity. The measurement of these parameters is made by collecting soil samples to analyze in the laboratory and by using geophysical methodologies, such as Vertical Electrical Survey (VES). The geophysical surveys analyze the soil properties with minimal impact in its initial structure. Statistical analysis and mathematical models of physical basis are used to model and calculate the Factor of Safety for steep slope areas. In general, such mathematical models work from the combination of slope stability models and hydrological models. One example is the mathematical model TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Regional Slope- Stability Model) which calculates the variation of the Factor of Safety of a determined study area. The model relies on changes in pore-pressure and soil moisture during a rainfall event. TRIGRS was written in the Fortran programming language and associates the hydrological model, which is based on the Richards Equation, with the stability model based on the principle of equilibrium limit. Therefore, the aims of this work are modeling the slope stability of Campos do Jordão with TRIGRS, using geotechnical and geophysical methodologies to acquire the soil properties. The study area is located at southern-east of Sao Paulo State in the Mantiqueira Mountains and has a historic landslide register. During the fieldwork, soil samples were collected, and the VES method applied. These procedures provide the soil properties, which were used as input data in the TRIGRS model. The hydrological data (infiltration rate and initial water table height) and rainfall duration and intensity, were acquired from the eight rain gauges installed by Cemaden in the study area. A very high spatial resolution digital terrain model was used to identify the slopes declivity. The analyzed period is from March 6th to March 8th of 2017. As results, the TRIGRS model calculates the variation of the Factor of Safety within a 72-hour period in which two heavy rainfall events stroke the area and six landslides were registered. After each rainfall, the Factor of Safety declined, as expected. The landslides happened in areas identified by the model with low values of Factor of Safety, proving its efficiency on the identification of landslides susceptible areas. This study presents a critical threshold for landslides, in which an accumulated rainfall higher than 80mm/m² in 72 hours might trigger landslides in urban and natural slopes. The geotechnical and geophysics methods are shown to be very useful to identify the soil properties and provide the geological characteristics of the area. Therefore, the combine geotechnical and geophysical methods for soil characterization and the modeling of landslides susceptible areas with TRIGRS are useful for urban planning. Furthermore, early warning systems can be developed by combining the TRIGRS model and weather forecast, to prevent disasters in urban slopes.

Keywords: landslides, susceptibility, TRIGRS, vertical electrical survey

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20 Sustainable Use of Fresh Groundwater Lens of Pleistocene Aquifer in Nam Dinh, Vietnam

Authors: Tran Thanh Le, Pham Trong Duc


The fresh groundwater lens of the Pleistocene aquifer in Nam Dinh was formed since 12,900 years ago. Currently, the Pleistocene aquifer has been continuously exploited on average of 154,163m3/day, distributed mainly in the districts of Nghia Hung, Hai Hau, a part of Truc Ninh, Y Yen, Nam Truc and Giao Thuy. The groundwater level is still on a declining trend, saltwater intrusion in this freshwater lens can occur if the growth rate in exploitation is maintained. This study focused on groundwater sustainable use by means of 4 groups of criteria including: Groundwater quality and pollution; Aquifers’ productivity and capacity; Environment impacts due to exploitation (groundwater level decline, land subsidence due to water exploitation); Social and economic impacts. Using a combination of methods including field surveys, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, isotope and numerical models to determine safe groundwater exploitation thresholds for the whole study area has been determined to be 544,314m3/day and the actual exploitation amount is currently about 30% compared to the safe exploitation threshold. However, it should also be noted that the current groundwater exploitation threshold and level of its exploitation compared to the safe exploitation threshold of each locality are not the same. From this result, the groundwater exploitation threshold map of the study area was established to serve the management, licensing and orientation of groundwater exploitation.

Keywords: criteria, groundwater, fresh groundwater lens, pleistocene, Nam Dinh

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19 Robotic Logging Technology: The Future of Oil Well Logging

Authors: Nitin Lahkar, Rishiraj Goswami


“Oil Well Logging” or the practice of making a detailed record (a well log) of the geologic formations penetrated by a borehole is an important practice in the Oil and Gas industry. Although a lot of research has been undertaken in this field, some basic limitations still exist. One of the main arenas or venues where plethora of problems arises is in logistically challenged areas. Accessibility and availability of efficient manpower, resources and technology is very time consuming, restricted and often costly in these areas. So, in this regard, the main challenge is to decrease the Non Productive Time (NPT) involved in the conventional logging process. The thought for the solution to this problem has given rise to a revolutionary concept called the “Robotic Logging Technology”. Robotic logging technology promises the advent of successful logging in all kinds of wells and trajectories. It consists of a wireless logging tool controlled from the surface. This eliminates the need for the logging truck to be summoned which in turn saves precious rig time. The robotic logging tool here, is designed such that it can move inside the well by different proposed mechanisms and models listed in the full paper as TYPE A, TYPE B and TYPE C. These types are classified on the basis of their operational technology, movement and conditions/wells in which the tool is to be used. Thus, depending on subsurface conditions, energy sources available and convenience the TYPE of Robotic model will be selected. Advantages over Conventional Logging Techniques: Reduction in Non-Productive time, lesser energy requirements, very fast action as compared to all other forms of logging, can perform well in all kinds of well trajectories (vertical/horizontal/inclined).

Keywords: robotic logging technology, innovation, geology, geophysics

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18 Tourism Area Development Optimation Based on Solar-Generated Renewable Energy Technology at Karimunjawa, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Yanuar Tri Wahyu Saputra, Ramadhani Pamapta Putra


Karimunjawa is one among Indonesian islands which is lacking of electricity supply. Despite condition above, Karimunjawa is an important tourism object in Indonesia's Central Java Province. Solar Power Plant is a potential technology to be applied in Karimunjawa, in order to fulfill the island's electrical supply need and to increase daily life and tourism quality among tourists and local population. This optimation modeling of Karimunjawa uses HOMER software program. The data we uses include wind speed data in Karimunjawa from BMKG (Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics), annual weather data in Karimunjawa from NASA, electricity requirements assumption data based on number of houses and business infrastructures in Karimunjawa. This modeling aims to choose which three system categories offer the highest financial profit with the lowest total Net Present Cost (NPC). The first category uses only PV with 8000 kW of electrical power and NPC value of $6.830.701. The second category uses hybrid system which involves both 1000 kW PV and 100 kW generator which results in total NPC of $6.865.590. The last category uses only generator with 750 kW of electrical power that results in total NPC of $ 16.368.197, the highest total NPC among the three categories. Based on the analysis above, we can conclude that the most optimal way to fulfill the electricity needs in Karimunjawa is to use 8000 kW PV with lower maintenance cost.

Keywords: Karimunjawa, renewable energy, solar power plant, HOMER

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17 Hidrothermal Alteration Study of Tangkuban Perahu Craters, and Its Implication to Geothermal Conceptual Model

Authors: Afy Syahidan Achmad


Tangkuban Perahu is located in West Java, Indonesia. It is active stratovolcano type and still showing hidrothermal activity. The main purpose of this study is to find correlation between subsurface structure and hidrothermal activity on the surface. Using topographic map, SRTM images, and field observation, geological condition and alteration area was mapped. Alteration sample analyzed trough petrographic analysis and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Altered rock in study area showing white-yellowish white colour, and texture changing variation from softening to hardening because of alteration by sillica and sulphur. Alteration mineral which can be observed in petrographic analysis and XRD analysis consist of crystobalite, anatase, alunite, and pyrite. This mineral assemblage showing advanced argillic alteration type with West-East alteration area orientation. Alteration area have correlation with manifestation occurance such as steam vents, solfatara, and warm to hot pools. Most of manifestation occured in main crater like Ratu Crater and Upas crater, and parasitic crater like Domas Crater and Jarian Crater. This manifestation indicates permeability in subsurface which can be created trough structural process with same orientation. For further study geophysics method such as Magneto Telluric (MT) and resistivity can be required to find permeability zone pattern in Tangkuban Perahu subsurface.

Keywords: alteration, advanced argillic, Tangkuban Perahu, XRD, crystobalite, anatase, alunite, pyrite

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16 Application of Bayesian Model Averaging and Geostatistical Output Perturbation to Generate Calibrated Ensemble Weather Forecast

Authors: Muhammad Luthfi, Sutikno Sutikno, Purhadi Purhadi


Weather forecast has necessarily been improved to provide the communities an accurate and objective prediction as well. To overcome such issue, the numerical-based weather forecast was extensively developed to reduce the subjectivity of forecast. Yet the Numerical Weather Predictions (NWPs) outputs are unfortunately issued without taking dynamical weather behavior and local terrain features into account. Thus, NWPs outputs are not able to accurately forecast the weather quantities, particularly for medium and long range forecast. The aim of this research is to aid and extend the development of ensemble forecast for Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics Agency of Indonesia. Ensemble method is an approach combining various deterministic forecast to produce more reliable one. However, such forecast is biased and uncalibrated due to its underdispersive or overdispersive nature. As one of the parametric methods, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) generates the calibrated ensemble forecast and constructs predictive PDF for specified period. Such method is able to utilize ensemble of any size but does not take spatial correlation into account. Whereas space dependencies involve the site of interest and nearby site, influenced by dynamic weather behavior. Meanwhile, Geostatistical Output Perturbation (GOP) reckons the spatial correlation to generate future weather quantities, though merely built by a single deterministic forecast, and is able to generate an ensemble of any size as well. This research conducts both BMA and GOP to generate the calibrated ensemble forecast for the daily temperature at few meteorological sites nearby Indonesia international airport.

Keywords: Bayesian Model Averaging, ensemble forecast, geostatistical output perturbation, numerical weather prediction, temperature

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15 An Active Subsurface Geological Structure Pattern of Mud Volcano Phenomenon as an Environmental Impact of Petroleum Withdrawal in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

Authors: M. M. S. Prahastomi, M. Muhajir Saputra, Axel Derian


Lapindo mud (LUSI ) phenomenon which occurred in Sidoarjo 2006 is a national scale of the geological phenomenon. This mudflow forms a mud volcano that spreads by time is in the need of serious treatment. Some further research has been conducted either by the application method of geodesy, geophysics, and subsurface geology, but still remains a mystery to this phenomenon. Sidoarjo Physiographic regions are included in the Kendeng zone flanked by Rembang zones in northern and Solo zones in southern. In this region revealed Kabuh formation, Jombang formation, and alluvium. In general, in the northern part of the area is composed of sedimentary rocks Sidoarjo klastika, epiklastic, pyroclastics, and older alluvium of the Early Pleistocene to Resen. The study was conducted with the literature study of the stratigraphy and regional geology as well as secondary data from observations coupled gravity method (Anomaly Bouger). The aim of the study is to reveal the subsurface geology structure pattern and the changes in mass flow. Gravity anomaly data were obtained from the calculation of the value of gravity and altitude, then processed into gravity anomaly contours which reflect changes in density of each group observed gravity. The gravity data could indicate a bottom surface which deformation occur the stronger or more intense to the south. Deformation in the form of gravity impairment was associated with a decrease in future density which is indicated by the presence of gas, water and gas bursts. Sectional analysis of changes in the measured value of gravity at different times indicates a change in the value of gravity caused by the presence of subsurface subsidence. While the gravity anomaly section describes the fault zone causes the zone to be unstable.

Keywords: mud volcano, Lumpur Sidoarjo, Bouger anomaly, Indonesia

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14 Nonlinear Internal Waves in Rotating Ocean

Authors: L. A. Ostrovsky, Yu. A. Stepanyants


Effect of Earth rotation on nonlinear waves is a practically important and theoretically challenging problem of fluid mechanics and geophysics. Whereas the large-scale, geostrophic processes such as Rossby waves are a classical object of oceanic and atmospheric physics, rotation effects on mesoscale waves are not well studied. In particular, the Coriolis force can radically modify the behavior of nonlinear internal gravity waves in the ocean having spatial scales of 1-10 kilometers and time durations of few hours. In the last decade, such a non-trivial behavior was observed more than once. Similar effects are possible for magnetic sound in the ionosphere. Here we outline the main physical peculiarities in the behavior of nonlinear internal waves due to the rotation effect and present some results of our recent studies. The consideration is based on the fourth-order equation derived by one of the authors as a rotation-modified Korteweg–de Vries (rKdV) equation which includes two types of dispersion: one is responsible for the finiteness of depth as in the classical KdV equation; another is due to the Coriolis effect. This equation is, in general, non-integrable; moreover, under the conditions typical of oceanic waves (positive dispersion parameter), it does not allow solitary solutions at all. In the opposite case (negative dispersion) which is possible for, e.g., magnetic sound, solitary solutions do exist and can form complex bound states (multisoliton). Another non-trivial properties of nonlinear internal waves with rotation include, to name a few, the ‘terminal’ damping of the initial KdV soliton disappearing in a finite time due to radiation losses caused by Earth’s rotation, and eventual transformation of a KdV soliton into a wave packet (an envelope soliton). The new results to be discussed refer to the interaction of a soliton with a long background wave. It is shown, in particular, that in this case internal solitons can exist since the radiation losses are compensated by energy pumping from the background wave. Finally, the relevant oceanic observations of rotation effect on internal waves are briefly described.

Keywords: Earth rotation, internal waves, nonlinear waves, solitons

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13 Diagnosis of the Hydrological and Hydrogeological Potential in the Mancomojan Basin for Estimations of Offer and Demand

Authors: J. M. Alzate, J. Baena


This work presents the final results of the ‘Diagnosis of the hydrological and hydrogeological potential in the Mancomojan basin for estimations of offer and demand’ with the purpose of obtaining solutions of domestic supply for the communities of the zone of study. There was realized the projection of population of the paths by three different scenes. The highest water total demand appears with the considerations of the scene 3, with a total demand for the year 2050 of 59.275 m3/year (1,88 l/s), being the path San Francisco the one that exercises a major pressure on the resource with a demand for the same year of the order of 31.189 m3/year (0,99 l/s). As for the hydrogeological potential of the zone and as alternative of supply of the studied communities, the stratigraphic columns obtained of the geophysical polls do not show strata saturated with water that could be considered to be a potential source of supply for the communities. The water registered in the geophysics tests presents very low resistances what indicates that he presents ions, this water meets in the rock interstices very thin granulometries which indicates that it is a water of constitution, and the flow of this one towards more permeable granulometries is void or limited. The underground resource that is registered so much in electrical vertical polls (SEV) as in tomography and that is saturating rocks of thin granulometry (clays and slimes), was demonstrated by content of ions, which is consistent with the abundant presence of plaster and the genesis marinades with transition to continental of the geological units in the zone. Predominant rocks are sedimentary, sandy rocks of grain I die principally, in minor proportion were observed also sandstones of thick grain to conglomerate with clastic rock of quartz, chert and siltstone of the Formation Mess and sandstones (of thin, average and thick grain) alternating with caps conglomerate whose thickness is, in general, between 5 and 15 cm, the nodules of sandstones are frequent with the same composition of the sandstones that contain them, in some cases with calcareous and crossed stratification of the formation Sincelejo Miembro Morroa.

Keywords: hydrological, hydrogeological potential, geotomography, vertical electrical sounding (VES)

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12 Application of Seismic Refraction Method in Geotechnical Study

Authors: Abdalla Mohamed M. Musbahi


The study area lies in Al-Falah area on Airport-Tripoli in Zone (16) Where planned establishment of complex multi-floors for residential and commercial, this part was divided into seven subzone. In each sup zone, were collected Orthogonal profiles by using Seismic refraction method. The overall aim with this project is to investigate the applicability of Seismic refraction method is a commonly used traditional geophysical technique to determine depth-to-bedrock, competence of bedrock, depth to the water table, or depth to other seismic velocity boundaries The purpose of the work is to make engineers and decision makers recognize the importance of planning and execution of a pre-investigation program including geophysics and in particular seismic refraction method. The overall aim with this thesis is achieved by evaluation of seismic refraction method in different scales, determine the depth and velocity of the base layer (bed-rock). Calculate the elastic property in each layer in the region by using the Seismic refraction method. The orthogonal profiles was carried out in every subzones of (zone 16). The layout of the seismic refraction set up is schematically, the geophones are placed on the linear imaginary line whit a 5 m spacing, the three shot points (in beginning of layout–mid and end of layout) was used, in order to generate the P and S waves. The 1st and last shot point is placed about 5 meters from the geophones and the middle shot point is put in between 12th to 13th geophone, from time-distance curve the P and S waves was calculated and the thickness was estimated up to three-layers. As we know any change in values of physical properties of medium (shear modulus, bulk modulus, density) leads to change waves velocity which passing through medium where any change in properties of rocks cause change in velocity of waves. because the change in properties of rocks cause change in parameters of medium density (ρ), bulk modulus (κ), shear modulus (μ). Therefore, the velocity of waves which travel in rocks have close relationship with these parameters. Therefore we can estimate theses parameters by knowing primary and secondary velocity (p-wave, s-wave).

Keywords: application of seismic, geotechnical study, physical properties, seismic refraction

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11 The Concentration of Selected Cosmogenic and Anthropogenic Radionuclides in the Ground Layer of the Atmosphere (Polar and Mid-Latitudes Regions)

Authors: A. Burakowska, M. Piotrowski, M. Kubicki, H. Trzaskowska, R. Sosnowiec, B. Myslek-Laurikainen


The most important source of atmospheric radioactivity are radionuclides generated as a result of the impact of primary and secondary cosmic radiation, with the nuclei of nitrogen oxygen and carbon in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. This creates about thirty radioisotopes of more than twenty elements. For organisms, the four of them are most important: ³H, ⁷Be, ²²Na, ¹⁴C. The natural radionuclides, which are present in Earth crust, also settle on dust and particles of water vapor. By this means, the derivatives of uranium and thorium, and long-life 40K get into the air. ¹³⁷Cs is the most widespread isotope, that is implemented by humans into the environment. To determine the concentration of radionuclides in the atmosphere, high volume air samplers were used, where the aerosol collection took place on a special filter fabric (Petrianov filter tissue FPP-15-1.5). In 2002 the high volume air sampler AZA-1000 was installed at the Polish Polar Observatory of the Polish Academy of Science in Hornsund, Spitsbergen (77°00’N, 15°33’E), designed to operate in all weather conditions of the cold polar region. Since 1991 (with short breaks) the ASS-500 air sampler has been working, which is located in Swider at the Kalinowski Geophysical Observatory of Geophysics Institute of the Polish Academy of Science (52°07’N, 21°15’E). The following results of radionuclides concentrations were obtained from both stations using gamma spectroscopy analysis: ⁷Be, ¹³⁷Cs, ¹³⁴Cs, ²¹⁰Pb, ⁴⁰K. For gamma spectroscopy analysis HPGe (High Purity Germanium) detector were used. These data were compared with each other. The preliminary results gave evidence that radioactivity measured in aerosols is not proportional to the amount of dust for both studied regions. Furthermore, the results indicate annual variability (seasonal fluctuations) as well as a decrease in the average activity of ⁷Be with increasing latitude. The content of ⁷Be in surface air also indicates the relationship with solar activity cycles.

Keywords: aerosols, air filters, atmospheric beryllium, environmental radionuclides, gamma spectroscopy, mid-latitude regions radionuclides, polar regions radionuclides, solar cycles

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10 The Scientific Phenomenon Revealed in the Holy Quran - an Update

Authors: Arjumand Warsy


The Holy Quran was revealed to Prophet Mohammad (May Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon Him) over fourteen hundred years ago, at a time when majority of the people in Arabia were illiterate and very few could read or write. Any knowledge about medicine, anatomy, biology, astronomy, physics, geology, geophysics or other sciences were almost non-existent. Many superstitious and groundless believes were prevalent and these believes were passed down through past generations. At that time, the Holy Quran was revealed and it presented several phenomenon that have been only currently unveiled, as scientists have worked endlessly to provide explanation for these physical and biological phenomenon applying scientific technologies. Many important discoveries were made during the 20th century and it is interesting to note that many of these discoveries were already present in the Holy Quran fourteen hundred years ago. The Scientific phenomenon, mentioned in the Holy Quran, cover many different fields in biological and physical sciences and have been the source of guidance for a number of scientists. A perfect description of the creation of the universe, the orbits in space, the development process, development of hearing process prior to sight, importance of the skin in sensing pain, uniqueness of fingerprints, role of males in selection of the sex of the baby, are just a few of the many facts present in the Quran that have astonished many scientists. The Quran in Chapter 20, verse 50 states: قَالَ رَبُّنَا الَّذِيۤ اَعْطٰى كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلْقَهٗ ثُمَّ هَدٰى ۰۰ (He said "Our Lord is He, Who has given a distinctive form to everything and then guided it aright”). Explaining this brief statement in the light of the modern day Molecular Genetics unveils the entire genetic basis of life and how guidance is stored in the genetic material (DNA) present in the nucleus. This thread like structure, made of only six molecules (sugar, phosphate, adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine), is so brilliantly structured by the Creator that it holds all the information about each and every living thing, whether it is viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, animals or humans or any other living being. This paper will present an update on some of the physical and biological phenomena’ presented in the Holy Quran, unveiled using advanced technologies during the last century and will discuss how the need to incorporate this information in the curricula.

Keywords: The Holy Quran, scientific facts, curriculum, Muslims

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9 Coulomb-Explosion Driven Proton Focusing in an Arched CH Target

Authors: W. Q. Wang, Y. Yin, D. B. Zou, T. P. Yu, J. M. Ouyang, F. Q. Shao


High-energy-density state, i.e., matter and radiation at energy densities in excess of 10^11 J/m^3, is related to material, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and geophysics. Laser-driven particle beams are better suited to heat the matter as a trigger due to their unique properties of ultrashort duration and low emittance. Compared to X-ray and electron sources, it is easier to generate uniformly heated large-volume material for the proton and ion beams because of highly localized energy deposition. With the construction of state-of-art high power laser facilities, creating of extremely conditions of high-temperature and high-density in laboratories becomes possible. It has been demonstrated that on a picosecond time scale the solid density material can be isochorically heated to over 20 eV by the ultrafast proton beam generated from spherically shaped targets. For the above-mentioned technique, the proton energy density plays a crucial role in the formation of warm dense matter states. Recently, several methods have devoted to realize the focusing of the accelerated protons, involving externally exerted static-fields or specially designed targets interacting with a single or multi-pile laser pulses. In previous works, two co-propagating or opposite direction laser pulses are employed to strike a submicron plasma-shell. However, ultra-high pulse intensities, accurately temporal synchronization and undesirable transverse instabilities for a long time are still intractable for currently experimental implementations. A mechanism of the focusing of laser-driven proton beams from two-ion-species arched targets is investigated by multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When an intense linearly-polarized laser pulse impinges on the thin arched target, all electrons are completely evacuated, leading to a Coulomb-explosive electric-field mostly originated from the heavier carbon ions. The lighter protons in the moving reference frame by the ionic sound speed will be accelerated and effectively focused because of this radially isotropic field. At a 2.42×10^21 W/cm^2 laser intensity, a ballistic proton bunch with its energy-density as high as 2.15×10^17 J/m^3 is produced, and the highest proton energy and the focusing position agree well with that from the theory.

Keywords: Coulomb explosion, focusing, high-energy-density, ion acceleration

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8 Exploration Tools for Tantalum-Bearing Pegmatites along Kibara Belt, Central and Southwestern Uganda

Authors: Sadat Sembatya


Tantalum metal is used in addressing capacitance challenge in the 21st-century technology growth. Tantalum is rarely found in its elemental form. Hence it’s often found with niobium and the radioactive elements of thorium and uranium. Industrial processes are required to extract pure tantalum. Its deposits are mainly oxide associated and exist in Ta-Nb oxides such as tapiolite, wodginite, ixiolite, rutile and pyrochlore-supergroup minerals are of minor importance. The stability and chemical inertness of tantalum makes it a valuable substance for laboratory equipment and a substitute for platinum. Each period of Tantalum ore formation is characterized by specific mineralogical and geochemical features. Compositions of Columbite-Group Minerals (CGM) are variable: Fe-rich types predominate in the Man Shield (Sierra Leone), the Congo Craton (DR Congo), the Kamativi Belt (Zimbabwe) and the Jos Plateau (Nigeria). Mn-rich columbite-tantalite is typical of the Alto Ligonha Province (Mozambique), the Arabian-Nubian Shield (Egypt, Ethiopia) and the Tantalite Valley pegmatites (southern Namibia). There are large compositional variations through Fe-Mn fractionation, followed by Nb-Ta fractionation. These are typical for pegmatites usually associated with very coarse quartz-feldspar-mica granites. They are young granitic systems of the Kibara Belt of Central Africa and the Older Granites of Nigeria. Unlike ‘simple’ Be-pegmatites, most Ta-Nb rich pegmatites have the most complex zoning. Hence we need systematic exploration tools to find and rapidly assess the potential of different pegmatites. The pegmatites exist as known deposits (e.g., abandoned mines) and the exposed or buried pegmatites. We investigate rocks and minerals to trace for the possibility of the effect of hydrothermal alteration mainly for exposed pegmatites, do mineralogical study to prove evidence of gradual replacement and geochemistry to report the availability of trace elements which are good indicators of mineralisation. Pegmatites are not good geophysical responders resulting to the exclusion of the geophysics option. As for more advanced prospecting, we bulk samples from different zones first to establish their grades and characteristics, then make a pilot test plant because of big samples to aid in the quantitative characterization of zones, and then drill to reveal distribution and extent of different zones but not necessarily grade due to nugget effect. Rapid assessment tools are needed to assess grade and degree of fractionation in order to ‘rule in’ or ‘rule out’ a given pegmatite for future work. Pegmatite exploration is also unique, high risk and expensive hence right traceability system and certification for 3Ts are highly needed.

Keywords: exploration, mineralogy, pegmatites, tantalum

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7 Seismotectonics and Seismology the North of Algeria

Authors: Djeddi Mabrouk


The slow coming together between the Afro-Eurasia plates seems to be the main cause of the active deformation in the whole of North Africa which in consequence come true in Algeria with a large zone of deformation in an enough large limited band, southern through Saharan atlas and northern through tell atlas. Maghrebin and Atlassian Chain along North Africa are the consequence of this convergence. In junction zone, we have noticed a compressive regime NW-SE with a creases-faults structure and structured overthrust. From a geological point of view the north part of Algeria is younger then Saharan platform, it’s changing so unstable and constantly in movement, it’s characterized by creases openly reversed, overthrusts and reversed faults, and undergo perpetually complex movement vertically and horizontally. On structural level the north of Algeria it's a part of erogenous alpine peri-Mediterranean and essentially the tertiary age It’s spread from east to the west of Algeria over 1200 km.This oogenesis is extended from east to west on broadband of 100 km.The alpine chain is shaped by 3 domains: tell atlas in north, high plateaus in mid and Saharan atlas in the south In extreme south we find the Saharan platform which is made of Precambrian bedrock recovered by Paleozoic practically not deformed. The Algerian north and the Saharan platform are separated by an important accident along of 2000km from Agadir (Morocco) to Gabes (Tunisian). The seismic activity is localized essentially in a coastal band in the north of Algeria shaped by tell atlas, high plateaus, Saharan atlas. Earthquakes are limited in the first 20km of the earth's crust; they are caused by movements along faults of inverted orientation NE-SW or sliding tectonic plates. The center region characterizes Strong Earthquake Activity who locates mainly in the basin of Mitidja (age Neogene).The southern periphery (Atlas Blidéen) constitutes the June, more Important seism genic sources in the city of Algiers and east (Boumerdes region). The North East Region is also part of the tellian area, but it is characterized by a different strain in other parts of northern Algeria. The deformation is slow and low to moderate seismic activity. Seismic activity is related to the tectonic-slip earthquake. The most pronounced is that of 27 October 1985 (Constantine) of seismic moment magnitude Mw = 5.9. North-West region is quite active and also artificial seismic hypocenters which do not exceed 20km. The deep seismicity is concentrated mainly a narrow strip along the edge of Quaternary and Neogene basins Intra Mountains along the coast. The most violent earthquakes in this region are the earthquake of Oran in 1790 and earthquakes Orléansville (El Asnam in 1954 and 1980).

Keywords: alpine chain, seismicity north Algeria, earthquakes in Algeria, geophysics, Earth

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6 4D Monitoring of Subsurface Conditions in Concrete Infrastructure Prior to Failure Using Ground Penetrating Radar

Authors: Lee Tasker, Ali Karrech, Jeffrey Shragge, Matthew Josh


Monitoring for the deterioration of concrete infrastructure is an important assessment tool for an engineer and difficulties can be experienced with monitoring for deterioration within an infrastructure. If a failure crack, or fluid seepage through such a crack, is observed from the surface often the source location of the deterioration is not known. Geophysical methods are used to assist engineers with assessing the subsurface conditions of materials. Techniques such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) provide information on the location of buried infrastructure such as pipes and conduits, positions of reinforcements within concrete blocks, and regions of voids/cavities behind tunnel lining. This experiment underlines the application of GPR as an infrastructure-monitoring tool to highlight and monitor regions of possible deterioration within a concrete test wall due to an increase in the generation of fractures; in particular, during a time period of applied load to a concrete wall up to and including structural failure. A three-point load was applied to a concrete test wall of dimensions 1700 x 600 x 300 mm³ in increments of 10 kN, until the wall structurally failed at 107.6 kN. At each increment of applied load, the load was kept constant and the wall was scanned using GPR along profile lines across the wall surface. The measured radar amplitude responses of the GPR profiles, at each applied load interval, were reconstructed into depth-slice grids and presented at fixed depth-slice intervals. The corresponding depth-slices were subtracted from each data set to compare the radar amplitude response between datasets and monitor for changes in the radar amplitude response. At lower values of applied load (i.e., 0-60 kN), few changes were observed in the difference of radar amplitude responses between data sets. At higher values of applied load (i.e., 100 kN), closer to structural failure, larger differences in radar amplitude response between data sets were highlighted in the GPR data; up to 300% increase in radar amplitude response at some locations between the 0 kN and 100 kN radar datasets. Distinct regions were observed in the 100 kN difference dataset (i.e., 100 kN-0 kN) close to the location of the final failure crack. The key regions observed were a conical feature located between approximately 3.0-12.0 cm depth from surface and a vertical linear feature located approximately 12.1-21.0 cm depth from surface. These key regions have been interpreted as locations exhibiting an increased change in pore-space due to increased mechanical loading, or locations displaying an increase in volume of micro-cracks, or locations showing the development of a larger macro-crack. The experiment showed that GPR is a useful geophysical monitoring tool to assist engineers with highlighting and monitoring regions of large changes of radar amplitude response that may be associated with locations of significant internal structural change (e.g. crack development). GPR is a non-destructive technique that is fast to deploy in a production setting. GPR can assist with reducing risk and costs in future infrastructure maintenance programs by highlighting and monitoring locations within the structure exhibiting large changes in radar amplitude over calendar-time.

Keywords: 4D GPR, engineering geophysics, ground penetrating radar, infrastructure monitoring

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5 Localized Recharge Modeling of a Coastal Aquifer from a Dam Reservoir (Korba, Tunisia)

Authors: Nejmeddine Ouhichi, Fethi Lachaal, Radhouane Hamdi, Olivier Grunberger


Located in Cap Bon peninsula (Tunisia), the Lebna dam was built in 1987 to balance local water salt intrusion taking place in the coastal aquifer of Korba. The first intention was to reduce coastal groundwater over-pumping by supplying surface water to a large irrigation system. The unpredicted beneficial effect was recorded with the occurrence of a direct localized recharge to the coastal aquifer by leakage through the geological material of the southern bank of the lake. The hydrological balance of the reservoir dam gave an estimation of the annual leakage volume, but dynamic processes and sound quantification of recharge inputs are still required to understand the localized effect of the recharge in terms of piezometry and quality. Present work focused on simulating the recharge process to confirm the hypothesis, and established a sound quantification of the water supply to the coastal aquifer and extend it to multi-annual effects. A spatial frame of 30km² was used for modeling. Intensive outcrops and geophysical surveys based on 68 electrical resistivity soundings were used to characterize the aquifer 3D geometry and the limit of the Plio-quaternary geological material concerned by the underground flow paths. Permeabilities were determined using 17 pumping tests on wells and piezometers. Six seasonal piezometric surveys on 71 wells around southern reservoir dam banks were performed during the 2019-2021 period. Eight monitoring boreholes of high frequency (15min) piezometric data were used to examine dynamical aspects. Model boundary conditions were specified using the geophysics interpretations coupled with the piezometric maps. The dam-groundwater flow model was performed using Visual MODFLOW software. Firstly, permanent state calibration based on the first piezometric map of February 2019 was established to estimate the permanent flow related to the different reservoir levels. Secondly, piezometric data for the 2019-2021 period were used for transient state calibration and to confirm the robustness of the model. Preliminary results confirmed the temporal link between the reservoir level and the localized recharge flow with a strong threshold effect for levels below 16 m.a.s.l. The good agreement of computed flow through recharge cells on the southern banks and hydrological budget of the reservoir open the path to future simulation scenarios of the dilution plume imposed by the localized recharge. The dam reservoir-groundwater flow-model simulation results approve a potential for storage of up to 17mm/year in existing wells, under gravity-feed conditions during level increases on the reservoir into the three years of operation. The Lebna dam groundwater flow model characterized a spatiotemporal relation between groundwater and surface water.

Keywords: leakage, MODFLOW, saltwater intrusion, surface water-groundwater interaction

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4 Stochastic Matrices and Lp Norms for Ill-Conditioned Linear Systems

Authors: Riadh Zorgati, Thomas Triboulet


In quite diverse application areas such as astronomy, medical imaging, geophysics or nondestructive evaluation, many problems related to calibration, fitting or estimation of a large number of input parameters of a model from a small amount of output noisy data, can be cast as inverse problems. Due to noisy data corruption, insufficient data and model errors, most inverse problems are ill-posed in a Hadamard sense, i.e. existence, uniqueness and stability of the solution are not guaranteed. A wide class of inverse problems in physics relates to the Fredholm equation of the first kind. The ill-posedness of such inverse problem results, after discretization, in a very ill-conditioned linear system of equations, the condition number of the associated matrix can typically range from 109 to 1018. This condition number plays the role of an amplifier of uncertainties on data during inversion and then, renders the inverse problem difficult to handle numerically. Similar problems appear in other areas such as numerical optimization when using interior points algorithms for solving linear programs leads to face ill-conditioned systems of linear equations. Devising efficient solution approaches for such system of equations is therefore of great practical interest. Efficient iterative algorithms are proposed for solving a system of linear equations. The approach is based on a preconditioning of the initial matrix of the system with an approximation of a generalized inverse leading to a stochastic preconditioned matrix. This approach, valid for non-negative matrices, is first extended to hermitian, semi-definite positive matrices and then generalized to any complex rectangular matrices. The main results obtained are as follows: 1) We are able to build a generalized inverse of any complex rectangular matrix which satisfies the convergence condition requested in iterative algorithms for solving a system of linear equations. This completes the (short) list of generalized inverse having this property, after Kaczmarz and Cimmino matrices. Theoretical results on both the characterization of the type of generalized inverse obtained and the convergence are derived. 2) Thanks to its properties, this matrix can be efficiently used in different solving schemes as Richardson-Tanabe or preconditioned conjugate gradients. 3) By using Lp norms, we propose generalized Kaczmarz’s type matrices. We also show how Cimmino's matrix can be considered as a particular case consisting in choosing the Euclidian norm in an asymmetrical structure. 4) Regarding numerical results obtained on some pathological well-known test-cases (Hilbert, Nakasaka, …), some of the proposed algorithms are empirically shown to be more efficient on ill-conditioned problems and more robust to error propagation than the known classical techniques we have tested (Gauss, Moore-Penrose inverse, minimum residue, conjugate gradients, Kaczmarz, Cimmino). We end on a very early prospective application of our approach based on stochastic matrices aiming at computing some parameters (such as the extreme values, the mean, the variance, …) of the solution of a linear system prior to its resolution. Such an approach, if it were to be efficient, would be a source of information on the solution of a system of linear equations.

Keywords: conditioning, generalized inverse, linear system, norms, stochastic matrix

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3 Inverse Problem Method for Microwave Intrabody Medical Imaging

Authors: J. Chamorro-Servent, S. Tassani, M. A. Gonzalez-Ballester, L. J. Roca, J. Romeu, O. Camara


Electromagnetic and microwave imaging (MWI) have been used in medical imaging in the last years, being the most common applications of breast cancer and stroke detection or monitoring. In those applications, the subject or zone to observe is surrounded by a number of antennas, and the Nyquist criterium can be satisfied. Additionally, the space between the antennas (transmitting and receiving the electromagnetic fields) and the zone to study can be prepared in a homogeneous scenario. However, this may differ in other cases as could be intracardiac catheters, stomach monitoring devices, pelvic organ systems, liver ablation monitoring devices, or uterine fibroids’ ablation systems. In this work, we analyzed different MWI algorithms to find the most suitable method for dealing with an intrabody scenario. Due to the space limitations usually confronted on those applications, the device would have a cylindrical configuration of a maximum of eight transmitters and eight receiver antennas. This together with the positioning of the supposed device inside a body tract impose additional constraints in order to choose a reconstruction method; for instance, it inhabitants the use of well-known algorithms such as filtered backpropagation for diffraction tomography (due to the unusual configuration with probes enclosed by the imaging region). Finally, the difficulty of simulating a realistic non-homogeneous background inside the body (due to the incomplete knowledge of the dielectric properties of other tissues between the antennas’ position and the zone to observe), also prevents the use of Born and Rytov algorithms due to their limitations with a heterogeneous background. Instead, we decided to use a time-reversed algorithm (mostly used in geophysics) due to its characteristics of ignoring heterogeneities in the background medium, and of focusing its generated field onto the scatters. Therefore, a 2D time-reversed finite difference time domain was developed based on the time-reversed approach for microwave breast cancer detection. Simultaneously an in-silico testbed was also developed to compare ground-truth dielectric properties with corresponding microwave imaging reconstruction. Forward and inverse problems were computed varying: the frequency used related to a small zone to observe (7, 7.5 and 8 GHz); a small polyp diameter (5, 7 and 10 mm); two polyp positions with respect to the closest antenna (aligned or disaligned); and the (transmitters-to-receivers) antenna combination used for the reconstruction (1-1, 8-1, 8-8 or 8-3). Results indicate that when using the existent time-reversed method for breast cancer here for the different combinations of transmitters and receivers, we found false positives due to the high degrees of freedom and unusual configuration (and the possible violation of Nyquist criterium). Those false positives founded in 8-1 and 8-8 combinations, highly reduced with the 1-1 and 8-3 combination, being the 8-3 configuration de most suitable (three neighboring receivers at each time). The 8-3 configuration creates a region-of-interest reduced problem, decreasing the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. To conclude, the proposed algorithm solves the main limitations of the described intrabody application, successfully detecting the angular position of targets inside the body tract.

Keywords: FDTD, time-reversed, medical imaging, microwave imaging

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2 Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Oysters (Bivalvia, Ostreoidea) from Siberia: Taxonomy and Variations of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes

Authors: Igor N. Kosenko


The present contribution is an analysis of more than 300 specimens of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous oysters collected by V.A. Zakharov during the 1960s and currently stored in the Trofimuk Institute of Geology and Geophysics SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia). They were sampled in the northwestern bounder of Western Siberia (Yatriya, Maurynia, Tol’ya and Lopsiya rivers) and the north of Eastern Siberia (Boyarka, Bolshaya Romanikha and Dyabaka-Tari rivers). During the last five years, they were examined with taxonomical and palaeoecological purposes. Based on carbonate material of oyster’s shells were performed isotopic analyses and associated palaeotemperatures. Taxonomical study consists on classical morphofunctional and biometrical analyses. It is completed by another large amount of Cretaceous oysters from Crimea as well as modern Pacific oyster - Crassostrea gigas. Those were studied to understand the range of modification variability between different species. Oysters previously identified as Liostrea are attributed now to four genera: Praeexogyra and Helvetostrea (Flemingostreidae), Pernostrea (Gryphaeidae) and one new genus (Gryphaeidae), including one species “Liostrea” roemeri (Quenstedt). This last is characterized by peculiar ethology, being attached to floating ammonites and morphology, outlined by a beak-shaped umbo on the right (!) valve. Endemic Siberian species from the Pernostrea genus have been included into the subgenus Boreiodeltoideum subgen. nov. Pernostrea and Deltoideum genera have been included into the tribe Pernostreini n. trib. from the Gryphaeinae subfamily. Model of phylogenetic relationships between species of this tribe has been proposed. Siberian oyster complexes were compared with complexes from Western Europe, Poland and East European Platform. In western Boreal and Subboreal Realm (England, northern France and Poland) two stages of oyster’s development were recognized: Jurassic-type and Cretaceous-type. In Siberia, Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous oysters formed a unique complex. It may be due to the isolation of the Siberian Basin toward the West during the Early Cretaceous. Seven oyster’s shells of Pernostrea (Pernostrea) uralensis (Zakharov) from the Jurassic/Cretaceous Boundary Interval (Upper Volgian – Lower Ryazanian) of Maurynia river were used to perform δ13C and δ18O isotopic analyses. The preservation of the carbonate material was controlled by: cathodoluminescence analyses; content of Fe, Mn, Sr; absence of correlation between δ13C and δ18O and content of Fe and Mn. The obtained δ13C and δ18O data were compared with isotopic data based on belemnites from the same stratigraphical interval of the same section and were used to trace palaeotemperatures. A general trend towards negative δ18O values is recorded in the Maurynia section, from the lower part of the Upper Volgian to the middle part of the Ryazanian Chetaites sibiricus ammonite zone. This trend was previously recorded in the Nordvik section. The higher palaeotemperatures (2°C in average) determined from oyster’s shells indicate that belemnites likely migrated laterally and lived part of their lives in cooler waters. This work financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grant no. 16-35-00003).

Keywords: isotopes, oysters, Siberia, taxonomy

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1 Determination of Aquifer Geometry Using Geophysical Methods: A Case Study from Sidi Bouzid Basin, Central Tunisia

Authors: Dhekra Khazri, Hakim Gabtni


Because of Sidi Bouzid water table overexploitation, this study aims at integrating geophysical methods to determinate aquifers geometry assessing their geological situation and geophysical characteristics. However in highly tectonic zones controlled by Atlassic structural features with NE-SW major directions (central Tunisia), Bouguer gravimetric responses of some areas can be as much dominated by the regional structural tendency, as being non-identified or either defectively interpreted such as the case of Sidi Bouzid basin. This issue required a residual gravity anomaly elaboration isolating the Sidi Bouzid basin gravity response ranging between -8 and -14 mGal and crucial for its aquifers geometry characterization. Several gravity techniques helped constructing the Sidi Bouzid basin's residual gravity anomaly, such as Upwards continuation compared to polynomial regression trends and power spectrum analysis detecting deep basement sources at (3km), intermediate (2km) and shallow sources (1km). A 3D Euler Deconvolution was also performed detecting deepest accidents trending NE-SW, N-S and E-W with depth values reaching 5500 m and delineating the main outcropping structures of the study area. Further gravity treatments highlighted the subsurface geometry and structural features of Sidi Bouzid basin over Horizontal and vertical gradient, and also filters based on them such as Tilt angle and Source Edge detector locating rooted edges or peaks from potential field data detecting a new E-W lineament compartmentalizing the Sidi Bouzid gutter into two unequally residual anomaly and subsiding domains. This subsurface morphology is also detected by the used 2D seismic reflection sections defining the Sidi Bouzid basin as a deep gutter within a tectonic set of negative flower structures, and collapsed and tilted blocks. Furthermore, these structural features were confirmed by forward gravity modeling process over several modeled residual gravity profiles crossing the main area. Sidi Bouzid basin (central Tunisia) is also of a big interest cause of the unknown total thickness and the undefined substratum of its siliciclastic Tertiary package, and its aquifers unbounded structural subsurface features and deep accidents. The Combination of geological, hydrogeological and geophysical methods is then of an ultimate need. Therefore, a geophysical methods integration based on gravity survey supporting available seismic data through forward gravity modeling, enhanced lateral and vertical extent definition of the basin's complex sedimentary fill via 3D gravity models, improved depth estimation by a depth to basement modeling approach, and provided 3D isochronous seismic mapping visualization of the basin's Tertiary complex refining its geostructural schema. A subsurface basin geomorphology mapping, over an ultimate matching between the basin's residual gravity map and the calculated theoretical signature map, was also displayed over the modeled residual gravity profiles. An ultimate multidisciplinary geophysical study of the Sidi Bouzid basin aquifers can be accomplished via an aeromagnetic survey and a 4D Microgravity reservoir monitoring offering temporal tracking of the target aquifer's subsurface fluid dynamics enhancing and rationalizing future groundwater exploitation in this arid area of central Tunisia.

Keywords: aquifer geometry, geophysics, 3D gravity modeling, improved depths, source edge detector

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