Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Mehrnaz Farzingohar

14 Catch Composition and Amount of Illegal and Unreported Fishing in Iranian Coastal Waters - Hormozgan Province

Authors: Yasemi Mehran, Parsa Mehran, Farzingohar Mehrnaz

Abstract:

Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing has been identified as one of the most serious threats to the sustainability of the world’s fisheries. In the present study, illegal and unreported fishing of different species in waters of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea (Hormozgan province) were evaluated. Among 47 species of 33 families identified in this study, with 39 species belong to teleosts, 4 species belong to elasmobranchs and 4 species belong to invertebrate. The total weight of illegal and unreported catch were 78525.22 tonnes. Maximum and minimum values were found for Dussumiera acuta (20640.74 tonnes) and Tenualosa ilisha (0.733 tonnes), respectively. The most commercial species group was scombridae, carangidae and clupeidae, respectively. Teleosts with 91.15%, elasmobranchs with 4.82 and invertebrates with 4.03% constituted total weight of illegal and unreported fishing. Results of this study provide valuable information in order to access a sustainable management on fish resources.

Keywords: catch composition, illegal, unreported fishing, Hormozgan province

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13 Sensitivity Analysis of Oil Spills Modeling with ADIOS II for Iranian Fields in Persian Gulf

Authors: Farzingohar Mehrnaz, Yasemi Mehran, Esmaili Zinat, Baharlouian Maedeh

Abstract:

Aboozar (Ardeshir) and Bahregansar are the two important Iranian oilfields in Persian Gulf waters. The operation activities cause to create spills which impacted on the marine environment. Assumed spills are molded by ADIOS II (Automated Data Inquiry for Oil Spills) which is NOAA’s weathering oil software. Various atmospheric and marine data with different oil types are used for the modeling. Numerous scenarios for 100 bbls with mean daily air temperature and wind speed are input for 5 days. To find the model sensitivity in each setting, one parameter is changed, but the others stayed constant. In both fields, the evaporated and dispersed output values increased hence the remaining rate is reduced. The results clarified that wind speed first, second air temperature and finally oil type respectively were the most effective factors on the oil weathering process. The obtained results can help the emergency systems to predict the floating (dispersed and remained) volume spill in order to find the suitable cleanup tools and methods.

Keywords: ADIOS, modeling, oil spill, sensitivity analysis

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12 Risk Assessment of Oil Spill Pollution by Integration of Gnome, Aloha and Gis in Bandar Abbas Coast, Iran

Authors: Mehrnaz Farzingohar, Mehran Yasemi, Ahmad Savari

Abstract:

The oil products are imported and exported via Rajaee’s tanker terminal. Within loading and discharging in several cases the oil is released into the berths and made oil spills. The spills are distributed within short time and seriously affected Rajaee port’s environment and even extended areas. The trajectory and fate of oil spills investigated by modeling and parted by three risk levels base on the modeling results. First GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment) applied to trajectory the liquid oil. Second, ALOHA (Areal Location Of Hazardous Atmosphere) air quality model, is integrated to predict the oil evaporation path within the air. Base on the identified zones the high risk areas are signed by colored dots which their densities calculated and clarified on a map which displayed the harm places. Wind and water circulation moved the pollution to the East of Rajaee Port that accumulated about 12 km of coastline. Approximately 20 km of north east of Qeshm Island shore is covered by the three levels of risky areas. Since the main wind direction is SSW the pollution pushed to the east and the highest risk zones formed on the crests edges hence the low risk appeared on the concavities. This assessment help the management and emergency systems to monitor the exposure places base on the priority factors and find the best approaches to protect the environment.

Keywords: oil spill, modeling, pollution, risk assessment

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11 The Relation Between Protein-Protein and Polysaccharide-Protein Interaction on Aroma Release from Brined Cheese Model

Authors: Mehrnaz Aminifar

Abstract:

The relation between textural parameters and casein network on release of aromatic compounds was investigated over 90-days of ripening. Low DE maltodextrin and WPI were used to modify the textural properties of low fat brined cheese. Hardness, brittleness and compaction of casein network were affected by addition of maltodextrin and WPI. Textural properties and aroma release from cheese texture were affected by interaction of WPI protein-cheese protein and maltodexterin-cheese protein.

Keywords: aroma release, brined cheese, maltodexterin, WPI

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10 Effect of Preloading on Long-Term Settlement of Closed Landfills: A Numerical Analysis

Authors: Mehrnaz Alibeikloo, Hajar Share Isfahani, Hadi Khabbaz

Abstract:

In recent years, by developing cities and increasing population, reconstructing on closed landfill sites in some regions is unavoidable. Long-term settlement is one of the major concerns associated with reconstruction on landfills after closure. The purpose of this research is evaluating the effect of preloading in various patterns of height and time on long-term settlements of closed landfills. In this regard, five scenarios of surcharge from 1 to 3 m high within 3, 4.5 and 6 months of preloading time have been modeled using PLAXIS 2D software. Moreover, the numerical results have been compared to those obtained from analytical methods, and a good agreement has been achieved. The findings indicate that there is a linear relationship between settlement and surcharge height. Although, long-term settlement decreased by applying a longer and higher preloading, the time of preloading was found to be a more effective factor compared to preloading height.

Keywords: preloading, long-term settlement, landfill, PLAXIS 2D

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9 Genomic Diversity of Clostridium perfringens Strains in Food and Human Sources

Authors: Asma Afshari, Abdollah Jamshidi, Jamshid Razmyar, Mehrnaz Rad

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Clostridium perfringens is a serious pathogen which causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. Spores can survive cooking processes and play an important role in the possible onset of disease. In this study RAPD-PCR and REP-PCR were used to examine the genetic diversity of 49isolates ofC. Perfringens type A from 3 different sources. The results of RAPD-PCR revealed the most genetic diversity among poultry isolates, while human isolates showed the least genetic diversity. Cluster analysis obtained from RAPD_PCR and based on the genetic distances split the 49 strains into five distinct major clusters (A, B, C, D, and E). Cluster A and C were composed of isolates from poultry meat, cluster B was composed of isolates from human feces, cluster D was composed of isolates from minced meat, poultry meat and human feces and cluster E was composed of isolates from minced meat. Further characterization of these strains by using (GTG) 5 fingerprint repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis did not show further differentiation between various types of strains. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which the genetic diversity of C. perfringens isolates from different types of meats and human feces has been investigated.

Keywords: C. perfringens, genetic diversity, RAPD-PCR, REP-PCR

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8 Evaluation of Spatial Correlation Length and Karhunen-Loeve Expansion Terms for Predicting Reliability Level of Long-Term Settlement in Soft Soils

Authors: Mehrnaz Alibeikloo, Hadi Khabbaz, Behzad Fatahi

Abstract:

The spectral random field method is one of the widely used methods to obtain more reliable and accurate results in geotechnical problems involving material variability. Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) expansion method was applied to perform random field discretization of cross-correlated creep parameters. Karhunen-Loeve expansion method is based on eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of covariance function adopting Kernel integral solution. In this paper, the accuracy of Karhunen-Loeve expansion was investigated to predict long-term settlement of soft soils adopting elastic visco-plastic creep model. For this purpose, a parametric study was carried to evaluate the effect of K-L expansion terms and spatial correlation length on the reliability of results. The results indicate that small values of spatial correlation length require more K-L expansion terms. Moreover, by increasing spatial correlation length, the coefficient of variation (COV) of creep settlement increases, confirming more conservative and safer prediction.

Keywords: Karhunen-Loeve expansion, long-term settlement, reliability analysis, spatial correlation length

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7 Finite Difference Based Probabilistic Analysis to Evaluate the Impact of Correlation Length on Long-Term Settlement of Soft Soils

Authors: Mehrnaz Alibeikloo, Hadi Khabbaz, Behzad Fatahi

Abstract:

Probabilistic analysis has become one of the most popular methods to quantify and manage geotechnical risks due to the spatial variability of soil input parameters. The correlation length is one of the key factors of quantifying spatial variability of soil parameters which is defined as a distance within which the random variables are correlated strongly. This paper aims to assess the impact of correlation length on the long-term settlement of soft soils improved with preloading. The concept of 'worst-case' spatial correlation length was evaluated by determining the probability of failure of a real case study of Vasby test fill. For this purpose, a finite difference code was developed based on axisymmetric consolidation equations incorporating the non-linear elastic visco-plastic model and the Karhunen-Loeve expansion method. The results show that correlation length has a significant impact on the post-construction settlement of soft soils in a way that by increasing correlation length, probability of failure increases and the approach to asymptote.

Keywords: Karhunen-Loeve expansion, probability of failure, soft soil settlement, 'worst case' spatial correlation length

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6 Hepatitis B Prevalence in Institutionalized Intellectually Disabled Children

Authors: Maryam Vaezjalali, Foad Davoodbeglou, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Hossein Goudarzi, Fariba Shojaei, Hourieh Aram

Abstract:

Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes chronic infection in human population, with high mortality. Some people are more susceptible to this infection. One of the high risk communities is mentally retarded children, who are institutionalized. Special conditions in these centers predispose children for HBV infection and transmission to healthy people. In this study our objective was to determine the prevalence of HBV infection among institutionalized mentally retarded children and study its associated risk factors. Materials and methods: In this study, 250 mentally retarded children (younger than 14 years old) were included. They were living in 5 nursing institutions, located in different parts of Tehran. HBsAg was measured in the sera of these patients by ELISA method. Results: Among 250 children, 20 children (8%) were HBsAg positive. HBV infection in girls was more than boys (11% to 5.6%). Among the types of mental retardation, children with cerebral palsy had the highest positive result for HBsAg. The most HBV infection (28.5%) was seen in children with longest duration of being institutionalized (10 to 11 years). Vaccinated children were more HBsAg positive (8.7%) than non-vaccinated children (5.3%). However, no significant relationship was observed between any of these factors and HBsAg positivity. Conclusion: Despite improvement of people’s health condition and implementation of HBV vaccination, the prevalence of HBV infection is high in institutionalized mentally retarded children, which highlights the need for active measures to reduce this infection among this high risk population.

Keywords: hepatitis B virus, HBV vaccine, intellectually disabled children, mentally retarded

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5 Clinical, Bacteriological and Histopathological Aspects of First-Time Pyoderma in a Population of Iranian Domestic Dogs: A Retrospective Study (2012-2017)

Authors: Shaghayegh Rafatpanah, Mehrnaz Rad, Ahmad Reza Movassaghi, Javad Khoshnegah

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of isolation, antimicrobial susceptibility and ERIC-PCR typing of staphylococci species from dogs with pyoderma. The study animals were 61 clinical cases of Iranian domestic dogs with the first-time pyoderma. The prevalence of pyoderma was significantly higher amongst adult (odds Ratio: 0.21; p=0.001) large breed (odds Ratio: 2.42; p=0.002)dogs. There was no difference in prevalence of pyoderma in male and females (odds Ratio: 1.27; p= 0.337). The 'head, face and pinna' and 'trunk' were the most affected lesion regions, each with 19 cases (26.76%). An identifiable underlying disease was present in 52 (85.24%) of the dogs. Bacterial species were recovered from 43 of the 61 (70.49%) studied animals. No isolates were recovered from 18 studied dogs. The most frequently recovered bacterial genus was Staphylococcus (32/43 isolates, 74.41%) including S. epidermidis (22/43 isolates, 51.16%), S. aureus (7/43 isolates, 16.27%) and S. pseudintermedius (3/43 isolates, 6.97%). Staphylococci species resistance was most commonly seen against amoxicillin (94.11%), penicillin (83.35%), and ampicillin (76.47%). Resistant to cephalexin and cefoxitin was 5.88% and 2.94%, respectively. A total of 27 of the staphylococci isolated (84.37 %) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, and 19 isolates (59.37%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobial drugs. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of resistance between the staphylococci isolated from cases of superficial and deep pyoderma. ERIC-PCR results revealed 19 different patterns among 22 isolates of S. epidermidis and 7 isolates of S. aureus.

Keywords: dog, pyoderma, Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Iran

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4 Phenotypic Characterization of Listeria Spp Isolated from Chicken Carcasses Marketed in Northeast of Iran

Authors: Abdollah Jamshidi, Tayebeh Zeinali, Mehrnaz Rad, Jamshid Razmyar

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Listeria infections occur worldwide in variety of animals and man. Listeriae are widely distributed in nature. The organism has been isolated from the feces of humans and several animals, different soils, plants, aquatic environments and food of animal and vegetable origin. Listeria monocytogenes is recognized as important food-borne pathogens due to its high mortality rate. This organism is able to growth at refrigeration temperature, and high osmotic pressure. Poultry can become contaminated environmentally or through healthy carrier birds. In recent decades, prophylactic use of antimicrobial agents may be lead to emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms, which can be transmitted to human through consumption of contaminated foods. In this study, from 200 fresh chicken carcasses samples which were collected randomly from different supermarkets and butcheries, 80 samples were detected as contaminate with Listeria spp. and 19% of the isolates identified as Listeria monocytogene using multiplex PCR assay. Conventional methods were used to differentiate other species of the listeria genus. The results showed the most prevalent isolates as L. monocytogenes (48.75%). Other isolates were detected as Listeria innocua (28.75%), Listeria murrayi (20%), Listeria grayi (3.75%) and Listeria welshimeri (2.5%).The Majority of the isolates had multidrug resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Most of them were resistant to erythromycin (50%), followed by Tetracycline (44.44%), Clindamycin (41.66%), and Trimethoprim (25%). Some of them showed resistance to chloramphenicol (17.65%). The results indicate the resistance of the isolates to antimicrobials commonly used to treat human listeriosis, which could be a potential health hazard for consumers.

Keywords: listeria species, L. monocytogenes, antibiotic resistance, chicken carcass

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3 Synthesis and in vitro Characterization of a Gel-Derived SiO2-CaO-P2O5-SrO-Li2O Bioactive Glass

Authors: Mehrnaz Aminitabar, Moghan Amirhosseinian, Morteza Elsa

Abstract:

Bioactive glasses (BGs) are a group of surface-reactive biomaterials used in clinical applications as implants or filler materials in the human body to repair and replace diseased or damaged bone. Sol-gel technique was employed to prepare a SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glass with nominal composition of 58S BG with the addition of Sr and Li modifiers which imparts special properties to the BG. The effect of simultaneous addition of Sr and Li on bioactivity and biocompatibility, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 and antibacterial property against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria were examined. BGs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy before and after soaking the samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for different time intervals to characterize the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) formed on the surface of BGs. Structural characterization indicated that the simultaneous presence of 5% Sr and 5% Li in 58S-BG composition not only did not retard HA formation because of opposite effect of Sr and Li of the dissolution of BG in the SBF but also, stimulated the differentiation and proliferation of MC3T3-E1s. Moreover, the presence of Sr and Li on dissolution of the ions resulted in an increase in the mean number of DAPI-labeled nuclei which was in good agreement with live/dead assay. The result of antibacterial tests revealed that Sr and Li-substituted 58S BG exhibited a potential antibacterial effect against MRSA bacteria. Because of optimal proliferation and ALP activity of MC3T3-E1cells, proper bioactivity and high antibacterial potential against MRSA, BG-5/5 is suggested as a multifunctional candidate for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, bioactive glass, sol-gel, strontium

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2 Comparative Evaluation on in vitro Bioactivity, Proliferation and Antibacterial Efficiency of Sol-Gel Derived Bioactive Glass Substituted by Li and Mg

Authors: Amirhossein Moghanian, Morteza Elsa, Mehrnaz Aminitabar

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Modified bioactive glass has been considered as a promising multifunctional candidate in bone repair and regeneration due to its attractive properties. The present study mainly aims to evaluate how the individual substitution of lithium (L-BG) and magnesium (M-BG) for calcium can affect the in vitro bioactivity of sol-gel derived substituted 58S bioactive glass (BG); and to present one composition in both of the 60SiO2–(36-x)CaO–4P₂O₅–(x)Li₂O and 60SiO₂ –(36-x)CaO–4P₂O₅–(x)MgO quaternary systems (where x= 0, 5, 10 mol.%) with improved biocompatibility, enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the most efficient antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus bacteria. To address these aims, and study the effect of CaO/Li₂O and CaO/MgO substitution up to 10 mol % in 58S-BGs, the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy after immersion in simulated body fluid up to 14 days. Results indicated that substitution of either CaO/ Li₂O and CaO/ MgO had a retarding effect on in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) formation due to the lower supersaturation degree for nucleation of HA compared with 58s-BG. Meanwhile, magnesium had a more pronounced effect. The 3-(4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assays showed that both substitutions of CaO/ Li₂O and CaO/ MgO up to 5mol % in 58s-BGs led to increased biocompatibility and stimulated proliferation of the pre-osteoblast MC3T3 cells with respect to the control. On the other hand, the substitution of either Li or Mg for Ca in the 58s BG composition resulted in improved bactericidal efficiency against MRSA bacteria. Taken together, sample 58s-BG with 5 mol % CaO/Li₂O substitution (BG-5L) was considered as a multifunctional biomaterial in bone repair/regeneration with improved biocompatibility, enhanced ALP activity as well as significant antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria.

Keywords: alkaline, alkaline earth, bioactivity, biomedical applications, sol-gel processes

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1 Application of Gold Nanorods in Cancer Photothermaltherapy

Authors: Mehrnaz Mostafavi

Abstract:

Lung cancer is one of the most harmful forms of cancer. The long-term survival rate of lung cancer patients treated by conventional modalities such as surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy remains far from satisfactory. Systemic drug delivery is rarely successful because only a limited amount of the chemotherapeutic drug targets lung tumor sites, even when administered at a high dose. Targeted delivery of drug molecules to organs or special sites is one of the most challenging research areas in pharmaceutical sciences. By developing colloidal delivery systems such as liposomes, micelles and nanoparticles a new frontier was opened for improving drug delivery. Nanoparticles with their special characteristics such as small particle size, large surface area and the capability of changing their surface properties have numerous advantages compared with other delivery systems. Targeted nanoparticle delivery to the lungs is an emerging area of interest.Multimodal or combination therapy represents a promising new method to fight disease. Therefore, a combination of different therapeutic strategies may be the best alternative to improve treatment outcomes for lung cancer. Photothermal therapy was proposed as a novel approach to treatment. In this work, photothermal therapy with gold nanoparticles and near infrared laser (NIR) irradiation was investigated.Four types of small (<100nm), NIR absorbing gold nanoparticles (nanospheres, nanorods) were synthesized using wet chemical methods and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and UV-vis spectroscopy. Their synthesis and properties were evaluated, to determine their feasibility as a photothermal agent for clinical applications. In vitro cellular uptake studies of the nanoparticles into lung cancer cell lines was measured using light scattering microscopy.Small gold nanorods had good photothermal properties and the greatest cellular uptake, and were used in photothermal studies. Under 4W laser irradiation, an increase in temperature of 10°C and decrease in cell viability of up to 80% were obtained.

Keywords: photothermal, therapy, cancer, gold nanorods

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