Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 267

Search results for: anti-cancer

267 The Marker Active Compound Identification of Calotropis gigantea Roots Extract as an Anticancer

Authors: Roihatul Mutiah, Sukardiman, Aty Widyawaruyanti

Abstract:

Calotropis gigantiea (L.) R. Br (Apocynaceae) commonly called as “Biduri” or “giant milk weed” is a well-known weed to many cultures for treating various disorders. Several studies reported that C.gigantea roots has anticancer activity. The main aim of this research was to isolate and identify an active marker compound of C.gigantea roots for quality control purpose of its extract in the development as anticancer natural product. The isolation methods was bioactivity guided column chromatography, TLC, and HPLC. Evaluated anticancer activity of there substances using MTT assay methods. Identification structure active compound by UV, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, HMBC, HMQC spectral and other references. The result showed that the marker active compound was identical as Calotropin.

Keywords: calotropin, Calotropis gigantea, anticancer, marker active

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266 Prediction of Anticancer Potential of Curcumin Nanoparticles by Means of Quasi-Qsar Analysis Using Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Ruchika Goyal, Ashwani Kumar, Sandeep Jain

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The experimental data for anticancer potential of curcumin nanoparticles was calculated by means of eclectic data. The optimal descriptors were examined using Monte Carlo method based CORAL SEA software. The statistical quality of the model is following: n = 14, R² = 0.6809, Q² = 0.5943, s = 0.175, MAE = 0.114, F = 26 (sub-training set), n =5, R²= 0.9529, Q² = 0.7982, s = 0.086, MAE = 0.068, F = 61, Av Rm² = 0.7601, ∆R²m = 0.0840, k = 0.9856 and kk = 1.0146 (test set) and n = 5, R² = 0.6075 (validation set). This data can be used to build predictive QSAR models for anticancer activity.

Keywords: anticancer potential, curcumin, model, nanoparticles, optimal descriptors, QSAR

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265 Isolation, Characterization and Quantitation of Anticancer Constituent from Chloroform Extract of N. arbortristis L. Leaves

Authors: Parul Grover, K. A. Suri, Raj Kumar, Gulshan Bansal

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Background: Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn is traditionally used as anticancer herb in Indian system of medicine, but its introduction into modern system of medicine is still awaited due to lack of systematic scientific studies. Objective: The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize anticancer phytoconstituents from N. arbortristis L. leaves based on bioactivity guided fractionation. Method: Different extracts of the leaves of the plant were prepared by Soxhlet extractor. Each extract was evaluated for anticancer activity against HL-60 cell lines. Chloroform and HA extract showed potent anticancer activity and hence were selected for fractionation. Fraction C1 from chloroform extract was found to be most potent amongst all when tested against three cell lines (HL-60, A-549, and HCT-116) and thus was selected for further fractionation and a pure compound CP-01 was isolated. RP-HPLC method has been developed for quantification of isolated compound by using Kinetex C-18 column with gradient elution at 0.7 mL/min using mobile phase containing potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.01 M, pH 3.0) with acetonitrile. The wavelength of maximum absorption (λₘₐₓ) selected was 210 nm. Results: The structure of potent anticancer CP-01 was determined on the basis spectroscopic methods like IR, 1H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR and Mass Spectrometry and it was characterized as 1,1,2-tris(2’,4’-di-tert-butylbenzene)-4,4-dimethyl-pent-1-ene. The content of CP-01 was found to be 0.88 %w/w of chloroform extract and 0.08 %w/w of N.arbortristis leaves. Conclusion: The study supports the traditional use of N. arbortristis as anticancer herb & the identified compound CP-01 can serve as an excellent lead to develop potent and safe anticancer drugs.

Keywords: anticancer, HL-60 cell lines, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, RP-HPLC

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264 Anti-cancer Activity of Cassava Leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) Against Colon Cancer (WiDr) Cells in vitro

Authors: Fatma Zuhrotun Nisa, Aprilina Ratriany, Agus Wijanarka

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Background: Cassava leaves are widely used by the people of Indonesia as a vegetable and treat various diseases, including anticancer believed as food. However, not much research on the anticancer activity of cassava leaves, especially in colon cancer. Objectives: the aim of this study is to investigate anti-cancer activity of cassava leaves (Manihot esculanta C.) against colon cancer (WiDr) cells in vitro. Methods: effect of crude aqueous extract of leaves of cassava and cassava leaves boiled tested in colon cancer cells widr. Determination of Anticancer uses the MTT method with parameters such as the percentage of deaths. Results: raw cassava leaf water extract gave IC50 of 63.1 mg / ml. While the water extract of boiled cassava leaves gave IC50 of 79.4 mg/ml. However, there is no difference anticancer activity of raw cassava leaves or cancer (p> 0.05). Conclusion: Cassava leaves contain a variety of compounds that have previously been reported to have anticancer activity. Linamarin, β-carotene, vitamin C, and fiber were thought to affect the IC50 cassava leaf extract against colon cancer cells WiDr.

Keywords: boiled cassava leaves, cassava leaves raw, anticancer activity, colon cancer, IC50

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263 Anticancer Activity of Gnidia glauca Extracts in Human Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Vandana Gawande, Chandani Satija

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Gnidia glauca is a semi-woody herb of thymelaeaceae family traditionally used as fish poison in India. It is also found in Sri lanka and Africa. In the present study, potential anticancer effect of n-hexane and ethanolic extracts of Gnidia glauca in human breast cancer cells was investigated. Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were cultured as monolayers in RPMI 1640 medium. The cells were cultured for 48 hours to allow growth and achieve about 80% confluence in 96-well culture plates. The cells were treated with various concentrations of Gnidia glauca (0.1-100 mg/mL) for 72 hours. Percentage of viable cells after treatment was assessed using a sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay. Both n-hexane and ethanolic extract showed significant cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 cancer cells. This study supports the notion of using Gnidia glauca as a novel anticancer agent for breast cancer.

Keywords: 96 well plate, anticancer activity, Gnidia glauca, MCF-7

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
262 Hexane Extract of Thymus serpyllum L.: GC-MS Profile, Antioxidant Potential and Anticancer Impact on HepG2 (Liver Carcinoma) Cell Line

Authors: Salma Baig, Bakrudeen Ali Ahmad, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah Azizan, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Elham Rouhollahi, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla

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Free radical damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to etiology of many chronic diseases, cancer being one of them. Recent studies have been successful in ROS targeted therapies via antioxidants using mouse models in cancer therapeutics. The present study was designed to scrutinize anticancer activity, antioxidant activity of 5 different extracts of Thymus serpyllum in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, HepG2, HCT-116, PC3, and A549. Identification of the phytochemicals present in the most active extract of Thymus serpyllum was conducted using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrophotometry and antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay. Anticancer impact of the extract in terms of IC50 was evaluated using MTT cell viability assay. Results revealed that the hexane extract showed the best anticancer activity in HepG2 (Liver Carcinoma Cell Line) with an IC50 value of 23 ± 0.14 µg/ml followed by 25 µg/ml in HCT-116 (Colon Cancer Cell Line), 30 µm/ml in MCF-7 (Breast Cancer Cell Line), 35 µg/ml in MDA-MB-231 (Breast Cancer Cell Line), 57 µg/ml in PC3 (Prostate Cancer Cell Line) and 60 µg/ml in A549 (Lung Carcinoma Cell Line). GC-MS profile of the hexane extract showed the presence of 31 compounds with carvacrol, thymol and thymoquione being the major compounds. Phenolics such as Vitamin E, terpinen-4-ol, borneol and phytol were also identified. Hence, here we present the first report on cytotoxicity of hexane extract of Thymus serpyllum extract in HepG2 cell line with a robust anticancer activity with an IC50 of 23 ± 0.14 µg/ml.

Keywords: Thymus serpyllum L., hexane extract, GC-MS profile, antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, HepG2 cell line

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261 Binding Studies of Complexes of Anticancer Drugs with DNA and Enzymes Involved in DNA Replication Using Molecular Docking and Cell Culture Techniques

Authors: Fouzia Perveen, Rumana Qureshi

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The presently studied twelve anticancer drugs are the cytotoxic agents which inhibit the replication of DNA and activity of enzymes involved in DNA replication namely topoisomerase-II, polymerase and helicase and have shown remarkable anticancer activity in clinical trials. In this study, we performed molecular docking studies of twelve antitumor drugs against DNA and DNA enzymes in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA) and developed the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for anticancer activity screening. A number of electronic and steric descriptors were calculated using MOE software package. QSAR was established showing a correlation of binding strength with various physicochemical descriptors. Out of these twelve, eight cytotoxic drugs were tested on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cell lines (H-157 and H-1299) in the absence and presence of ascorbic acid and experimental IC50 values were calculated. From the docking studies, binding constants were calculated indicating the strength of drug-DNA and drug-enzyme complex formation and it was correlated to the IC50 values (both experimental and theoretical). These results can offer useful references for directing the molecular design of DNA enzyme inhibitor with improved anticancer activity.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, binding constant, cytotoxic agents, cell culture, DNA, DNA enzymes, molecular docking

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260 Development of Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) of Anticancer Agents Used in AYUSH System of Medicine for Improved Oral Bioavailability Followed by Their Pharmacological Evaluation Using Biotechnological Techniques

Authors: Meenu Mehta, Munish Garg

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The use of oral anticancer drugs from AYUSH system of medicine is widely increased among the society due to their low cost, enhanced efficacy, increased patient preference, lack of inconveniences related to infusion and they provide an opportunity to develop chronic treatment regimens. However, oral delivery of these drugs usually laid down by the limited bioavailability of the drug, which is associated with a wide variation. As most of the cytotoxic agents have a narrow therapeutic window and are dosed at or near the maximum tolerated dose, a wide variability in the bioavailability can negatively affect treatment result. It is estimated that 40% of active substances are poorly soluble in water. The improvement of bio-availability of drugs with such properties presents one of the greatest challenges in drug formulations. There are several techniques reported in literature. Among all these Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) has gained more attention due to enhanced oral bio-availability enabling a reduction in dose. Thus, SEDDS anticancer drugs will have the increased bioavailability and efficacy. These dosage form will provide societal benefit in a cost-effective manner as compared to other oral dosage forms. Present study reflects on the formulation strategies as SEDDS for oral anticancer agents of AYUSH system for enhanced bioavailability with proven efficacy by cancer cell lines.

Keywords: anticancer agents, AYUSH system, bioavailability, SEDDS

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259 Metal-Based Anticancer Agents: In vitro DNA Binding, Cleavage and Cytotoxicity

Authors: Mala Nath, Nagamani Kompelli, Partha Roy, Snehasish Das

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Two new metal-based anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, [(Ph2Sn)2(HGuO)2(phen)Cl2] 1 and [(Ph3Sn)(HGuO)(phen)]- Cl.CH3OH.H2O 2, were designed, prepared and characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, ESI-Mass, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR) techniques. The proposed geometry of Sn(IV) in 1 and 2 is distorted octahedral and distorted trigonal-bipyramidal, respectively. Both 1 and 2 exhibit potential cytotoxicity in vitro against MCF-7, HepG-2 and DU-145 cell lines. The intrinsic binding constant (Kb) values of 1 (2.33 × 105 M-1) and 2 (2.46 × 105 M-1) evaluated from UV-Visible absorption studies suggest non-classical electrostatic mode of interaction via phosphate backbone of DNA double helix. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (Ksv) of 1 (9.74 × 105 M-1) and 2 (2.9 × 106 M-1) determined by fluorescence studies suggests the groove binding and intercalation mode for 1 and 2, respectively. Effective cleavage of pBR322 DNA is induced by 1. Their interaction with DNA of cancer cells may account for potency.

Keywords: anticancer agents, DNA binding studies, NMR spectroscopy, organotin

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
258 Synergistic Effect of Doxorubicin-Loaded Silver Nanoparticles – Polymeric Conjugates on Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Nancy M. El-Baz, Laila Ziko, Rania Siam, Wael Mamdouh

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Cancer is one of the most devastating diseases, and has over than 10 million new cases annually worldwide. Despite the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents, their systemic toxicity and non-selective anticancer actions represent the main obstacles facing cancer curability. Due to the effective enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect of nanomaterials, nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as drug nanocarriers providing targeted cancer drug delivery systems. In addition, several inorganic nanoparticles such as silver (AgNPs) nanoparticles demonstrated a potent anticancer activity against different cancers. The present study aimed at formulating core-shell inorganic NPs-based combinatorial therapy based on combining the anticancer activity of AgNPs along with doxorubicin (DOX) and evaluating their cytotoxicity on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These inorganic NPs-based combinatorial therapies were designed to (i) Target and kill cancer cells with high selectivity, (ii) Have an improved efficacy/toxicity balance, and (iii) Have an enhanced therapeutic index when compared to the original non-modified DOX with much lower dosage The in-vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that the NPs-based combinatorial therapy achieved the same efficacy of non-modified DOX on breast cancer cell line, but with 96% reduced dose. Such reduction in DOX dose revealed that the combination between DOX and NPs possess a synergic anticancer activity against breast cancer. We believe that this is the first report on a synergic anticancer effect at very low dose of DOX against MCF-7 cells. Future studies on NPs-based combinatorial therapy may aid in formulating novel and significantly more effective cancer therapeutics.

Keywords: nanoparticles-based combinatorial therapy, silver nanoparticles, doxorubicin, breast cancer

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257 Application of Computational Chemistry for Searching Anticancer Derivatives of 2-Phenazinamines as Bcr-Abl Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

Authors: Gajanan M. Sonwane

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The computational studies on 2-phenazinamines with their protein targets have been carried out to design compounds with potential anticancer activity. This strategy of designing compounds possessing selectivity over specific tyrosine kinase has been achieved through G-QSAR and molecular docking studies. The objective of this research has been to design newer 2-phenazinamine derivatives as Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors by G-QSAR, molecular docking studies followed by wet-lab studies along with evaluation of their anticancer potential. Computational chemistry was done by using VLife MDS 4.3 and Autodock 4.2 followed by wet-lab experiments for synthesizing 2-phenazinamine derivatives. The chemical structures of ligands in 2D were drawn by employing Chemdraw 2D Ultra 8.0 and were converted into 3D. These were optimized by using a semi-empirical method called MOPAC. The protein structure was retrieved from RCSC protein data bank as a PDB file. The binding interactions of protein and ligands were done by using PYMOL. The molecular properties of the designed compounds were predicted in silico by using Osiris property explorer. The parent compound 2-phenazinamine was synthesized by reduction of 2, 4-dinitro-N-phenyl-benzenamine in the presence of tin chloride followed by cyclization in the presence of nitrobenzene and magnesium sulfate. The derivatization at the amino function of 2-phenazinamine was performed by treating parent compound with various aldehydes in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and urea to afford 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-(phenazine-2-yl) thiazolidine-4-one. Synthesized 39 novel derivatives of 2-phenazinamine and performed antioxidant activity, anti antiproliferative on the bulb of onion and anticancer activity on cell line showing significant competition with marked blockbuster drug imatinib.

Keywords: computer-aided drug design, tyrosin kinases, anticancer, docking

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256 Design, Synthesis and Pharmacological Investigation of Novel 2-Phenazinamine Derivatives as a Mutant BCR-ABL (T315I) Inhibitor

Authors: Gajanan M. Sonwane

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Nowadays, the entire pharmaceutical industry is facing the challenge of increasing efficiency and innovation. The major hurdles are the growing cost of research and development and a concurrent stagnating number of new chemical entities (NCEs). Hence, the challenge is to select the most druggable targets and to search the equivalent drug-like compounds, which also possess specific pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties that allow them to be developed as drugs. The present research work includes the studies of developing new anticancer heterocycles by using molecular modeling techniques. The heterocycles synthesized through such methodology are much effective as various physicochemical parameters have been already studied and the structure has been optimized for its best fit in the receptor. Hence, on the basis of the literature survey and considering the need to develop newer anticancer agents, new phenazinamine derivatives were designed by subjecting the nucleus to molecular modeling, viz., GQSAR analysis and docking studies. Simultaneously, these designed derivatives were subjected to in silico prediction of biological activity through PASS studies and then in silico toxicity risk assessment studies. In PASS studies, it was found that all the derivatives exhibited a good spectrum of biological activities confirming its anticancer potential. The toxicity risk assessment studies revealed that all the derivatives obey Lipinski’s rule. Amongst these series, compounds 4c, 5b and 6c were found to possess logP and drug-likeness values comparable with the standard Imatinib (used for anticancer activity studies) and also with the standard drug methotrexate (used for antimitotic activity studies). One of the most notable mutations is the threonine to isoleucine mutation at codon 315 (T315I), which is known to be resistant to all currently available TKI. Enzyme assay planned for confirmation of target selective activity.

Keywords: drug design, tyrosine kinases, anticancer, Phenazinamine

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255 Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis Activity of Areca catechu Linn. Extract as Natural Anticancer Agent for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Liza Meutia Sari, Gus Permana Subita, Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

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Background: Many herbs have been discovered to be potential sources of anticancer drugs. Biji Pinang or areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.) has a high content of phenolics and flavonoids, and which is related to antioxidant activity. However, data on its effects on oral squamous cell carcinoma is not available. Objectives: Identification of the cytotoxicity and apoptosis activity in HSC-2 and HSC-3. Methods: The areca nut was extracted by ethanol 96%, MTS assay and apoptosis activity with flow cytometry. Results: The extract of areca nut showed higher toxicity on HSC-3 cell compared to HSC-2. The IC₅₀ of HSC-3 was 164.06 μg/ml vs. 629.50 μg/ml in HSC-2. There was an increase in late apoptosis percentage after 24 and 48 hours in HSC-2. There was a significant increase in early apoptosis percentage after 24 hours and late in 48 hours in HSC-3. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of the extract of areca nut might be associated with the selective cytotoxicity on HSC-2 and HSC-3. Apoptosis is the major cell death mechanism involved. The areca nut may play an important role in anticancer herb medicine.

Keywords: areca nut, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, oral carcinoma

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254 Molecular Design and Synthesis of Heterocycles Based Anticancer Agents

Authors: Amna J. Ghith, Khaled Abu Zid, Khairia Youssef, Nasser Saad

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Backgrounds: The multikinase and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitors interrupt the pathway by which angiogenesis becomes established and promulgated, resulting in the inadequate nourishment of metastatic disease. VEGFR-2 has been the principal target of anti-angiogenic therapies. We disclose the new thieno pyrimidines as inhibitors of VEGFR-2 designed by a molecular modeling approach with increased synergistic activity and decreased side effects. Purpose: 2-substituted thieno pyrimidines are designed and synthesized with anticipated anticancer activity based on its in silico molecular docking study that supports the initial pharmacophoric hypothesis with a same binding mode of interaction at the ATP-binding site of VEGFR-2 (PDB 2QU5) with high docking score. Methods: A series of compounds were designed using discovery studio 4.1/CDOCKER with a rational that mimic the pharmacophoric features present in the reported active compounds that targeted VEGFR-2. An in silico ADMET study was also performed to validate the bioavailability of the newly designed compounds. Results: The Compounds to be synthesized showed interaction energy comparable to or within the range of the benzimidazole inhibitor ligand when docked with VEGFR-2. ADMET study showed comparable results most of the compounds showed absorption within (95-99) zone varying according to different substitutions attached to thieno pyrimidine ring system. Conclusions: A series of 2-subsituted thienopyrimidines are to be synthesized with anticipated anticancer activity and according to docking study structure requirement for the design of VEGFR-2 inhibitors which can act as powerful anticancer agents.

Keywords: docking, discovery studio 4.1/CDOCKER, heterocycles based anticancer agents, 2-subsituted thienopyrimidines

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253 Evaluation of Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Purified Lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963)

Authors: Bhargavi Santebennur Dwarakanath, Praveen Vadakke Kamath, Savitha Janakiraman

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Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in women and is the second most common malignancy worldwide. Lovastatin, a non polar, anticholesterol drug which also exerts antitumour activity in vitro. In the present study, lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963) was purified by adsoprtion chromatography and evaluated for its anticancer and anti-oxidant properties in human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa). The growth inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of purified lovastatin on HeLa cell lines were investigated by determining its influence on cytotoxicity, Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation and antioxidant property (Hydroxy radical scavenging effect and the levels of total reduced glutathione). Flow cytometry analysis by propidium iodide staining confirmed the induction of apoptotic cell death and revealed cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Results of the study give leads for anticancer effects of lovastatin and its potential efficacy in the chemotherapy of cervical cancer.

Keywords: apoptosis, Aspergillus terreus, cervical cancer, lovastatin

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252 Management of Therapeutic Anticancer at Oran Teaching Hospital, Algeria

Authors: S. Boulenouar, M. Sefir, M. Benahmed

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All facilities need medication and other pharmaceuticals for their operation. Management and supply is therefore to provide the different services of the facility goods and services in required quantity and quality. The permanent availability of drugs in the facilities is very difficult because most face many difficulties at the inventory management and drug supplies. Therefore, it is necessary for each health facility to know the causes for the malfunction of its management system to cope with them. It is in this context that we have undertaken to conduct this study to know the causes which should be taken into consideration by the concerned authorities to carry out their mission, which is to provide quality health care for the population. In terms of financial resources, the budget for medicines represents a significant part of the budget of the pharmacy. Our study shows that the share of the hospital budget reserved for the drugs procurement represent on average 70% of the budget of the pharmacy. The results show a state of lack of anticancer drugs at Oran teaching hospital. The analysis of the management process allowed us to know the level that the problem of stock-outs of anti-cancer drugs is at. Suggestions were made to that effect to improve the availability for these products and to respond better to the needs of patients.

Keywords: anticancer drugs, health care facility, budget, hospital pharmacist, hospital service

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
251 Poly(Amidoamine) Dendrimer-Cisplatin Nanocomplex Mixed with Multifunctional Ovalbumin Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Immuno-Chemotherapeutics with M1 Polarization of Macrophages

Authors: Tefera Worku Mekonnen, Hiseh Chih Tsai

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Enhancement of drug efficacy is essential in cancer treatment. The immune stimulator ovalbumin (Ova)-coated citric acid (AC-)-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (AC-IO-Ova NPs) and enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) based tumor targeted 4.5 (4.5G) poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-cisplatin nanocomplex (4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC) were used for enhanced anticancer efficiency. The formations of 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC, AC-IO, and AC-IO-Ova NPs have been examined by FTIR, X-ray diffraction, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The conjugation of cisplatin (Cis-pt) with 4.5GDP was confirmed using carbon NMR. The tumor-specific 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC provided ~45% and 28% cumulative cisplatin release in 72 h at pH 6.5 and 7.4, respectively. A significant immune response with high TNF-α and IL-6 cytokine secretion was confirmed when the co-incubation of AC-IO-Ova with RAW 264.7 or HaCaT cells. AC-IO-Ova NP was biocompatible in different cell lines, even at a high concentration (200 µg mL−1). In contrast, AC-IO-Ova NPs mixed with 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC (Cis-pt at 15 µg mL−1) significantly increased the cytotoxicity against the cancer cells, which is dose-dependent on the concentration of AC-IO-Ova NPs. The increased anticancer effects may be attributed to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the efficiency of anticancer cells may be further assisted by induction of an innate immune response via M1 macrophage polarization due to the presence of AC-IO-Ova NPs. We provide a better synergestic chemoimmunotherapeutic strategy to enhance the efficiency of anticancer of cisplatin via chemotherapeutic agent 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC and induction of proinflammatory cytokines to stimulate innate immunity through AC-IO-Ova NPs against tumors.

Keywords: cisplatin-release, iron oxide, ovalbumin, poly(amidoamine) dendrimer

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250 Synthesis and Evaluation of Anti-Cancer Activity on Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MFC7 of Some Novel Thiazolidino (3,2-b)-1, 2,4-Triazole-5(6H)-one Derivatives

Authors: Kamta P. Namdeo

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Novel thiazolidino-(3,2-b)-1, 2,4-triazole-5(6H)-one derivatives were synthesized, and anticancer activity was studied on human breast cancer cell line MFC7. It showed a significant decrease in cell viability with reference to the standard. The findings suggest that nitro-substituted compound showed best anticancer activity and activity was due to the triazole and thiazolidinone hetero nucleus present in the structure.

Keywords: anti-cancer, adriamycine, thiazolidinone, 1, 2, 4-triazole, thiazolidino-triazolone

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249 Development and in vitro Evaluation of Polymer-Drug Conjugates Containing Potentiating Agents for Combination Therapy

Authors: Blessing A. Aderibigbe

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Combination therapy is a treatment approach that is used to prevent the emergence of drug resistance. This approach is used for the treatment of many chronic and infectious diseases. Potentiating agents are currently explored in combination therapy, resulting in excellent therapeutic outcomes. Breast cancer and malaria are two chronic conditions responsible globally for high death rates. In this research, a class of polymer-drug conjugates containing potentiating agents with either antimalarial or anticancer drugs were prepared by Michael Addition Polymerization reaction and ring-opening polymerization reaction. Conjugation of potentiating agents with bioactive compounds into the polymers resulted in conjugates with good water solubility, highly selective and non-toxic. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vitro antiplasmodial evaluation on the conjugates revealed that the conjugates were more effective when compared to the free drugs. The drug release studies further showed that the release profile of the drugs from the conjugates was sustained. The findings revealed the potential of polymer-drug conjugates to overcome drug toxicity and drug resistance, which is common with the currently used antimalarial and anticancer drugs.

Keywords: anticancer, antimalarials, combination therapy, polymer-drug conjugates

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248 Curcumin Loaded Modified Chitosan Nanocarrier for Tumor Specificity

Authors: S. T. Kumbhar, M. S. Bhatia, R. C. Khairate

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An effective nanodrug delivery system was developed by using chitosan for increased encapsulation efficiency and retarded release of curcumin. Potential ionotropic gelation method was used for the development of chitosan nanoparticles with TPP as cross-linker. The characterization was done for analysis of size, structure, surface morphology, and thermal behavior of synthesized chitosan nanoparticles. The encapsulation efficiency was more than 80%, with improved drug loading capacity. The in-vitro drug release study showed that curcumin release rate was decreased significantly. These chitosan nanoparticles could be a suitable platform for co-delivery of curcumin and anticancer agent for enhanced cytotoxic effect on tumor cells.

Keywords: Curcumin, chitosan, nanoparticles, anticancer activity

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247 Synthesis of Biostabilized Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia indica Extract and Its Antimicrobial and Anticancer Properties

Authors: Rebecca Thombre, Aishwarya Borate

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Chemical synthesis of nanoparticles produces toxic by-products, as a result of which eco-friendly methods of synthesis are gaining importance. The synthesis of nanoparticles using plant derived extracts is economical, safe and eco-friendly. Biostabilized gold nanoparticles were synthesized using extracts of Garcinia indica. The gold nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and demonstrated a peak at 527 nm. The presence of plant derived peptides and phytoconstituents was confirmed using the FTIR spectra. TEM analysis revealed formation of gold nanopyramids and nanorods. The SAED analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Pichia pastoris. The cytotoxic activity of gold nanoparticles was studied using HEK, Hela and L929 cancerous cell lines and the apoptosis of cancerous cells were observed using propidium iodide staining. Thus, a simple and eco-friendly method for synthesis of biostabilized gold nanoparticles using fruit extracts of Garcinia indica was developed and the nanoparticles had potent antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties.

Keywords: cytotoxic, gold nanoparticles, green synthesis, Garcinia indica, anticancer

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246 Anticancer Activity of Milk Fat Rich in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells in Female Swiss Albino Mice

Authors: Diea Gamal Abo El-Hassan, Salwa Ahmed Aly, Abdelrahman Mahmoud Abdelgwad

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The major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have anticancer effect, especially breast cancer cells, inhibits cell growth and induces cell death. Also, CLA has several health benefits in vivo, including antiatherogenesis, antiobesity, and modulation of immune function. The present study aimed to assess the safety and anticancer effects of milk fat CLA against in vivo Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in female Swiss albino mice. This was based on acute toxicity study, detection of the tumor growth, life span of EAC bearing hosts, and simultaneous alterations in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological profiles. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty adult female mice were equally divided into five groups. Groups (1-2) were normal controls, and Groups (3-5) were tumor transplanted mice (TTM) inoculated intraperitoneally with EAC cells (2×106 /0.2 mL). Group (3) was (TTM positive control). Group (4) TTM fed orally on balanced diet supplemented with milk fat CLA (40 mg CLA/kg body weight). Group (5) TTM fed orally on balanced diet supplemented with the same level of CLA 28 days before tumor cells inoculation. Blood samples and specimens from liver and kidney were collected from each group. The effect of milk fat CLA on the growth of tumor, life span of TTM, and simultaneous alterations in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological profiles were examined. Results: For CLA treated TTM, significant decrease in tumor weight, ascetic volume, viable Ehrlich cells accompanied with increase in life span were observed. Hematological and biochemical profiles reverted to more or less normal levels and histopathology showed minimal effects. Conclusion: The present study proved the safety and anticancer efficiency of milk fat CLA and provides a scientific basis for its medicinal use as anticancer attributable to the additive or synergistic effects of its isomers.

Keywords: anticancer activity, conjugated linoleic acid, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, % increase in life span, mean survival time, tumor transplanted mice.

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245 Molecular Modeling of 17-Picolyl and 17-Picolinylidene Androstane Derivatives with Anticancer Activity

Authors: Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Kovačević, Lidija Jevrić, Evgenija Djurendić, Jovana Ajduković

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In the present study, the molecular modeling of a series of 24 17-picolyl and 17-picolinylidene androstane derivatives whit significant anticancer activity was carried out. Modelling of studied compounds was performed by CS ChemBioDraw Ultra v12.0 program for drawing 2D molecular structures and CS ChemBio3D Ultra v12.0 for 3D molecular modelling. The obtained 3D structures were subjected to energy minimization using molecular mechanics force field method (MM2). The cutoff for structure optimization was set at a gradient of 0.1 kcal/Åmol. Full geometry optimization was done by the Austin Model 1 (AM1) until the root mean square (RMS) gradient reached a value smaller than 0.0001 kcal/Åmol using Molecular Orbital Package (MOPAC) program. The obtained physicochemical, lipophilicity and topological descriptors were used for analysis of molecular similarities and dissimilarities applying suitable chemometric methods (principal component analysis and cluster analysis). These results are the part of the project No. 114-451-347/2015-02, financially supported by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina and CMST COST Action CM1306.

Keywords: androstane derivatives, anticancer activity, chemometrics, molecular descriptors

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244 Anticancer Effect of Doxorubicin Using Injectable Hydrogel

Authors: Prasamsha Panta, Da Yeon Kim, Ja Yong Jang, Min Jae Kim, Jae Ho Kim, Moon Suk Kim

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Introduction: Among the many anticancer drugs used clinically, doxorubicin (Dox), was one of widely used drugs to treat many types of solid tumors such as liver, colon, breast, or lung. Intratumoral injection of chemotherapeutic agents is a potentially more effective alternative to systemic administration because direct delivery of the anticancer drug to the target may improve both the stability and efficacy of anticancer drugs. Injectable in situ-forming gels have attracted considerable attention because they can achieve site specific drug delivery, long term action periods, and improved patient compliance. Objective: Objective of present study is to confirm clinical benefit of intratumoral chemotherapy using injectable in situ-forming poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polycaprolactone diblock copolymer (MP) and Dox with increase in efficacy and reducing the toxicity in patients with cancer diseases. Methods and methodology: We prepared biodegradable MP hydrogel and measured viscosity for the evaluation of thermo-sensitive property. In vivo antitumor activity was performed with normal saline, MP only, single free Dox, repeat free Dox, and Dox-loaded MP gel. The remaining amount of Dox drug was measured using HPLC after the mouse was sacrified. For cytotoxicity studies WST-1 assay was performed. Histological analysis was done with H&E and TUNEL processes respectively. Results: The works in this experiment showed that Dox-loaded MP have biodegradable drug depot property. Dox-loaded MP gels showed remarkable in vitro cytotoxicity activities against cancer cells. Finally, this work indicates that injection of Dox-loaded MP allowed Dox to act effectively in the tumor and induced long-lasting supression of tumor growth. Conclusion: This work has examined the potential clinical utility of intratumorally injected Dox-loaded MP gel, which shows significant effect of higher local Dox retention compared with systemically administered Dox.

Keywords: injectable in-situ forming hydrogel, anticancer, doxorubicin, intratumoral injection

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243 Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Ethanolic Extract from Monascus purpureus

Authors: M. Pourshirazi, M. Esmaelifar, A. Aliahmadi, F. Yazdian, A. S. Hatamian Zarami, S. J. Ashrafi

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Medicinal fungi are the new potential source of drugs to improve the treatment of diseases with association to oxidative agents such as cancers. Monascus purpureus contains functional components potentially effective in improving human health. In the present work, ethanolic extract of Monascus purpureus (EEM) was evaluated for health improving potential mainly focusing on antioxidant and anticancer activities. Ferric ion reducing power (FRAP), scavenging of DPPH radicals and determining viability of breast carcinoma MCF-7 and cervical carcinoma HeLa cells with MTT assay were evaluated. Our data showed a significant antioxidant activity of EEM with 142.45 µg/ml inhibition concentration of 50% DPPH radicals and 2112.33 µg eq.Fe2+/mg extract of FRAP assay. These results might be caused by antioxidant components such as pigments and phenolic compounds. Further, the results demonstrated that EEM caused significant reduction in the viability of MCF-7 with IC50 of 7 µg/ml but not have good effect against viability of HeLa cells. Accordingly, Monascus purpureus is presented as a strong potential of breast cancer treatment. In further study, the mechanistic studies are needed to determine the mechanisms of anticancer activity of EEM.

Keywords: Monascus purpureus, antioxidant, cancer, ethanolic extract

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242 Synthesis and Anticancer Evaluation of Substituted 2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl) Benzazoles

Authors: Cigdem Karaaslan, Yalcin Duydu, Aylin Ustundag, Can Ozgur Yalcın, Hakan Goker

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Benzazole nucleus is found in the structure of many compounds as anticancer agents. Bendamustine (Alkylating agent), Nocodazole (Mitotic inhibitor), Veliparib (PARP inhibitor), Glasdegib (SMO inhibitor) are clinically used as anticancer therapeutics which bearing benzimidazole moiety. Based on the principle of bioisosterism in the present work, 23 compounds belonging to 2-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl) benzazoles and imidazopyridine series were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activities. N-(5-Chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethoxybenzamide, was obtained by the amidation of 2-hydroxy-5-chloroaniline with 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid by using 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole. Cyclization of benzamide derivative to benzoxazole, was achieved by p-toluenesulfonic acid. Other 1H-benz (or pyrido) azoles were prepared by the reaction between 2-aminothiophenol, o-phenylenediamine, o-pyridinediamine with sodium metabisulfite adduct of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde. The NMR assignments of the dimethoxy groups were established by the Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy. A compound named, 5(4),7(6)-Dichloro-2-(3,4-dimethoxy) phenyl-1H-benzimidazole, bearing two chlorine atoms at the 5(4) and 7(6) positions of the benzene moiety of benzimidazole was found the most potent analogue, against A549 cells with the GI50 value of 1.5 µg/mL. In addition, 2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzimi-dazole showed remarkable cell growth inhibition against MCF-7 and HeLa cells with the GI₅₀ values of 7 and 5.5 µg/mL, respectively. It could be concluded that introduction of di-chloro atoms at the phenyl ring of 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-benzimidazoles increase significant cytotoxicity to selected human tumor cell lines in comparison to other all benzazoles synthesized in this study. Unsubstituted 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) imidazopyridines also gave the good inhibitory profile against A549 and HeLa cells.

Keywords: 3, 4-Dimethoxyphenyl, 1H-benzimidazole, benzazole, imidazopyridine

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241 Comparative in silico and in vitro Study of N-(1-Methyl-2-Oxo-2-N-Methyl Anilino-Ethyl) Benzene Sulfonamide and Its Analogues as an Anticancer Agent

Authors: Pamita Awasthi, Kirna, Shilpa Dogra, Manu Vatsal, Ritu Barthwal

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Doxorubicin, also known as adriamycin, is an anthracycline class of drug used in cancer chemotherapy. It is used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma, acute leukemias, breast cancer, lung cancer, endometrium cancer and ovary cancers. It functions via intercalating DNA and ultimately killing cancer cells. The major side effects of doxorubicin are hair loss, myelosuppression, nausea & vomiting, oesophagitis, diarrhoea, heart damage and liver dysfunction. The minor modifications in the structure of compound exhibit large variation in the biological activity, has prompted us to carry out the synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives. Sulfonamide is an important feature with broad spectrum of biological activity such as antiviral, antifungal, diuretics, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anticancer activities. Structure of the synthesized compound N-(1-methyl-2-oxo-2-N-methyl anilino-ethyl)benzene sulfonamide confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR),13C NMR, Mass and FTIR spectroscopic tools to assure the position of all protons and hence stereochemistry of the molecule. Further we have reported the binding potential of synthesized sulfonamide analogues in comparison to doxorubicin drug using Auto Dock 4.2 software. Computational binding energy (B.E.) and inhibitory constant (Ki) has been evaluated for the synthesized compound in comparison of doxorubicin against Poly (dA-dT).Poly (dA-dT) and Poly (dG-dC).Poly (dG-dC) sequences. The in vitro cytotoxic study against human breast cancer cell lines confirms the better anticancer activity of the synthesized compound over currently in use anticancer drug doxorubicin. The IC50 value of the synthesized compound is 7.12 µM where as for doxorubicin is 7.2 µ.

Keywords: Doxorubicin, auto dock, in silco, in vitro

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240 Synthetic Coumarin Derivatives and Their Anticancer Properties

Authors: Kabange Kasumbwe, Viresh Mohanlall, Bharti Odhav, Venu Narayanaswamy

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Coumarins are naturally occurring plant metabolites known for their pharmacological properties such as anticoagulant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. The pharmacological and biochemical properties and curative applications of coumarins depend on the substitution around the coumarin core structure. In the present study, seven halogenated coumarins CMRN1-CMRN7 were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity. The cytotoxicity potential of the test compounds was evaluated against UACC62 (Melanoma), MCF-7 (Breast cancer) and PBM (Peripheral Blood Mononuclear) cell lines using MTT assay keeping doxorubicin as standard drug. The apoptotic potential of the coumarin compounds was evaluated against UACC62 (Melanoma) cell by assessing their morphological changes, membrane change, mitochondria membrane potential; pro-apoptotic changes were investigated using the AnnexinV-PI staining, JC-1, caspase-3 enzyme kits respectively on flow cytometer. The synthetic coumarin has strongly suppressed the cell proliferation of UACC-62 (Melanoma) and MCF-7 (Breast) Cancer cells, the higher toxicity of these compounds against UACC-62 (Melanoma) and MCF-7 (Breast) were CMRN3, CMRN4, CMRN5, CMRN6. However, compounds CMRN1, CMRN2, and CMRN7 had no significant inhibitory effect. Furthermore the active compounds CMRN3, CMRN4, CMRN5, CMRN6 exerted antiproliferative effects through apoptosis induction against UACC-62 (Melanoma), suggesting their potential could be considered as attractive lead molecules in the future for the development of potential anticancer agents since one of the important criteria in the development of therapeutic drugs for cancer treatment is to have high selectivity and less or no side-effects on normal cells and these compounds had no inhibitory effect against the PBMC cells.

Keywords: coumarin, MTT, apoptosis, cytotoxicity

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239 Studies on Induction of Cytotoxicity Through Apoptosis In Ovarian Cancer Cell Line (CAOV-3) by Chloroform Extract of Artocarpus Kemando Miq

Authors: Noor Shafifiyaz Mohd Yazid, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Syam Mohan, Rosea Go

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Artocarpus kemando is a plant species from Moraceae family. This plant is used as household utensil by the local and the fruits are edible. The plants’ bark was used for the extraction process and yielded the chloroform crude extract which was used to screen for anticancer potential. The cytotoxic effect of the extract on CAOV-3 and WRL 68 cell lines were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide or MTT assays. Qualitative AO/PI assay was performed to confirm the apoptosis and necrosis process. Meanwhile, the measurement of cell loss, nuclear morphology, DNA content, cell membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential changes and cytochrome c release from mitochondria were detected through cytotoxicity 3 assay. In MTT assay, A. kemando inhibited 50% growth of CAOV-3 cells at 27.9 ± 0:03, 20.1± 0:03, 18.21± 0:04 µg/mL after 24, 48 and 72 hour, respectively. The morphology changes can be seen on CAOV-3 with a production of cell membrane blebbing, cromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies. Evaluation of cytotoxicity 3 on CAOV-3 cells after treated with extract resulting loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. The results demonstrated A. kemando has potentially anticancer agent, particularly on human ovarian cancer.

Keywords: anticancer, Artocarpus kemando, ovarian cancer, cytotoxicity

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238 Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from Fruticose Lichen Roccella montagnei, and It’s in Silico Docking Study against CDK-10

Authors: Tripti Mishra, Shipra Shukla, Sanjeev Meena, , Ruchi Singh, Mahesh Pal, D. K. Upreti, Dipak Datta

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Roccella montagnei belongs to lichen family Roccelleceae growing luxuriantly along the coastal regions of India. As Roccella has been shown to be bioactive, we prepared methanolic extract and assessed its anticancer potential. The methanolic extract showed significant in vitro cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines such as Colon (DLD-1, SW-620), Breast (MCF-7), Head and Neck (FaDu). This prompted us to isolate bioactive compounds through column chromatography. Two compounds Roccellic acid and Everninic acid have been isolated, out of which Everninic acid is reported for the first time. Both the compounds have been tested for in vitro cytotoxic activity in which Roccellic acid showed strong anticancer activity as compared to the Everninic acid. CDK-10 (Cyclin-dependent kinase) contributes to proliferation of cancer cells, and aberrant activity of these kinases has been reported in a wide variety of human cancers. These kinases, therefore, constitute biomarkers of proliferation and attractive pharmacological targets for the development of anticancer therapeutics. Therefore both the isolated compounds were tested for in silico molecular docking study against CDK-10 isomer enzyme to support the cytotoxic activity.

Keywords: cytotoxic activity, everninic acid, roccellic acid, R. montagnei

Procedia PDF Downloads 224