Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: generality & peculiarity

36 Islam and Democracy

Authors: Nasrollah Sekhavaty

Abstract:

This topic has many points, one of which could be "the relationship between Islam and democracy". In this paper we discuss the relationship between them. The logic has taught us that there is only one relationship between an object and itself. But if we have two things, there is one of the four relations between them; contradiction, equivalence, absolute generality & peculiarity or generality & peculiarity in some respect. To clarify the relationship between Islam and democracy, at first we must examine the meaning of Islam and Democracy. Islam is a religion which has ideas about politics and governance. The politics in Islam includes both individual and social affairs, to achieve worldly and heavenly blessings. With this assumption, Islam and democracy are not the same, or contrast, nor the absolute generality & peculiarity; but, the relationship between these two concepts is the generality & peculiarity in some respect. Conclusion: If one considers democracy as content, it does not accumulate with Islam which is content. But if democracy means a structure and style of governing, then its content could be Islam.

Keywords: Islam, democracy, contradiction, equivalence, absolute generality, generality & peculiarity

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35 OCR/ICR Text Recognition Using ABBYY FineReader as an Example Text

Authors: A. R. Bagirzade, A. Sh. Najafova, S. M. Yessirkepova, E. S. Albert

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This article describes a text recognition method based on Optical Character Recognition (OCR). The features of the OCR method were examined using the ABBYY FineReader program. It describes automatic text recognition in images. OCR is necessary because optical input devices can only transmit raster graphics as a result. Text recognition describes the task of recognizing letters shown as such, to identify and assign them an assigned numerical value in accordance with the usual text encoding (ASCII, Unicode). The peculiarity of this study conducted by the authors using the example of the ABBYY FineReader, was confirmed and shown in practice, the improvement of digital text recognition platforms developed by Electronic Publication.

Keywords: ABBYY FineReader system, algorithm symbol recognition, OCR/ICR techniques, recognition technologies

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34 Mathematical Modeling of the Water Bridge Formation in Porous Media: PEMFC Microchannels

Authors: N. Ibrahim-Rassoul, A. Kessi, E. K. Si-Ahmed, N. Djilali, J. Legrand

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The static and dynamic formation of liquid water bridges is analyzed using a combination of visualization experiments in a microchannel with a mathematical model. This paper presents experimental and theoretical findings of water plug/capillary bridge formation in a 250 μm squared microchannel. The approach combines mathematical and numerical modeling with experimental visualization and measurements. The generality of the model is also illustrated for flow conditions encountered in manipulation of polymeric materials and formation of liquid bridges between patterned surfaces. The predictions of the model agree favorably the observations as well as with the experimental recordings.

Keywords: green energy, mathematical modeling, fuel cell, water plug, gas diffusion layer, surface of revolution

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33 Two Spherical Three Degrees of Freedom Parallel Robots 3-RCC and 3-RRS Static Analysis

Authors: Alireza Abbasi Moshaii, Shaghayegh Nasiri, Mehdi Tale Masouleh

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The main purpose of this study is static analysis of two three-degree of freedom parallel mechanisms: 3-RCC and 3-RRS. Geometry of these mechanisms is expressed and static equilibrium equations are derived for the whole chains. For these mechanisms due to the equal number of equations and unknowns, the solution is as same as 3-RCC mechanism. Mathematical software is used to solve the equations. In order to prove the results obtained from solving the equations of mechanisms, their CAD model has been simulated and their static is analysed in ADAMS software. Due to symmetrical geometry of the mechanisms, the force and external torque acting on the end-effecter have been considered asymmetric to prove the generality of the solution method. Finally, the results of both softwares, for both mechanisms are extracted and compared as graphs. The good achieved comparison between the results indicates the accuracy of the analysis.

Keywords: robotic, static analysis, 3-RCC, 3-RRS

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32 The Challenge of Teaching French as a Foreign Language in a Multilingual Community

Authors: Carol C. Opara, Olukemi E. Adetuyi-Olu-Francis

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The teaching of French language, like every other language, has its numerous challenges. A multilingual community, however, is a linguistic environment housing diverse languages, each with its peculiarity, both pros, and cones. A foreign language will have to strive hard for survival in an environment where various indigenous languages, as well as an established official language, exist. This study examined the challenges and prospects of the teaching of French as a foreign language in a multilingual community. A 22-item questionnaire was used to elicit information from 40 Nigerian Secondary school teachers of French. One of the findings of this study showed that the teachers of the French language are not motivated. Also, the linguistic environment is not favourable for the teaching and learning of French language in Nigeria. One of the recommendations was that training and re-training of teachers of French should be of utmost importance to the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education.

Keywords: challenges, french as foreign language, multilingual community, teaching

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31 Block Based Imperial Competitive Algorithm with Greedy Search for Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: Meng-Hui Chen, Chiao-Wei Yu, Pei-Chann Chang

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Imperial competitive algorithm (ICA) simulates a multi-agent algorithm. Each agent is like a kingdom has its country, and the strongest country in each agent is called imperialist, others are colony. Countries are competitive with imperialist which in the same kingdom by evolving. So this country will move in the search space to find better solutions with higher fitness to be a new imperialist. The main idea in this paper is using the peculiarity of ICA to explore the search space to solve the kinds of combinational problems. Otherwise, we also study to use the greed search to increase the local search ability. To verify the proposed algorithm in this paper, the experimental results of traveling salesman problem (TSP) is according to the traveling salesman problem library (TSPLIB). The results show that the proposed algorithm has higher performance than the other known methods.

Keywords: traveling salesman problem, artificial chromosomes, greedy search, imperial competitive algorithm

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30 Chaotic Semiflows with General Acting Topological Monoids

Authors: Alica Miller

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A semiflow is a triple consisting of a Hausdorff topological space $X$, a commutative topological monoid $T$ and a continuous monoid action of $T$ on $X$. The acting monoid $T$ is usually either the discrete monoid $\N_0$ of nonnegative integers (in which case the semiflow can be defined as a pair $(X,f)$ consisting of a phase space $X$ and a continuous function $f:X\to X$), or the monoid $\R_+$ of nonnegative real numbers (the so-called one-parameter monoid). However, it turns out that there are real-life situations where it is useful to consider the acting monoids that are a combination of discrete and continuous monoids. That, for example, happens, when we are observing certain dynamical system at discrete moments, but after some time realize that it would be beneficial to continue our observations in real time. The acting monoid in that case would be $T=\{0, t_0, 2t_0, \dots, (n-1)t_0\} \cup [nt_0,\infty)$ with the operation and topology induced from real numbers. This partly explains the motivation for the level of generality which is pursued in our research. We introduce the PSP monoids, which include all but ``pathological'' monoids, and most of our statements hold for them. The topic of our presentation are some recent results about chaos-related properties in semiflows, indecomposability and sensitivity of semiflows in the described general context.

Keywords: chaos, indecomposability, PSP monoids, semiflow, sensitivity

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29 Residual Stresses and Crystallographic Texture of Magnesium AZ31-C Alloy Welded by Friction Stir Welding (FSW)

Authors: A. Kouadri-Henni, L. Barrallier

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The objective of the study was to characterize the properties of a magnesium alloy welded by friction stir welding (FSW). The results led to a better understanding of the relationship between this process, the microstructure and anisotropic properties of alloy materials. Welding principally leads to a large reduction in grain size in welded zones due to the phenomenon of dynamic recrystallization. The most remarkable observation was that crystallographic textures changed from a base metal with one texture in two zones: the thermo-mechanically affected and stir welded zones. The latter zone has the peculiarity of possessing a marked texture with two components on the basal plane and the pyramidal plane. These characteristics disappeared in the TMAZ, which had only one component following the basal plane. These modifications have been explained by the nature of the plastic deformation in these zones, which occurs at a moderate temperature in the TMAZ and high temperature in the SWZ. In the same time, we compared this evolution with the nature and the level of the residual stresses obtained by X-ray diffraction.

Keywords: texture christallography, residual stresses, FSW process

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28 Keypoint Detection Method Based on Multi-Scale Feature Fusion of Attention Mechanism

Authors: Xiaoxiao Li, Shuangcheng Jia, Qian Li

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Keypoint detection has always been a challenge in the field of image recognition. This paper proposes a novelty keypoint detection method which is called Multi-Scale Feature Fusion Convolutional Network with Attention (MFFCNA). We verified that the multi-scale features with the attention mechanism module have better feature expression capability. The feature fusion between different scales makes the information that the network model can express more abundant, and the network is easier to converge. On our self-made street sign corner dataset, we validate the MFFCNA model with an accuracy of 97.8% and a recall of 81%, which are 5 and 8 percentage points higher than the HRNet network, respectively. On the COCO dataset, the AP is 71.9%, and the AR is 75.3%, which are 3 points and 2 points higher than HRNet, respectively. Extensive experiments show that our method has a remarkable improvement in the keypoint recognition tasks, and the recognition effect is better than the existing methods. Moreover, our method can be applied not only to keypoint detection but also to image classification and semantic segmentation with good generality.

Keywords: keypoint detection, feature fusion, attention, semantic segmentation

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27 Machine Learning Methods for Flood Hazard Mapping

Authors: Stefano Zappacosta, Cristiano Bove, Maria Carmela Marinelli, Paola di Lauro, Katarina Spasenovic, Lorenzo Ostano, Giuseppe Aiello, Marco Pietrosanto

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This paper proposes a novel neural network approach for assessing flood hazard mapping. The core of the model is a machine learning component fed by frequency ratios, namely statistical correlations between flood event occurrences and a selected number of topographic properties. The proposed hybrid model can be used to classify four different increasing levels of hazard. The classification capability was compared with the flood hazard mapping River Basin Plans (PAI) designed by the Italian Institute for Environmental Research and Defence, ISPRA (Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale). The study area of Piemonte, an Italian region, has been considered without loss of generality. The frequency ratios may be used as a standalone block to model the flood hazard mapping. Nevertheless, the mixture with a neural network improves the classification power of several percentage points, and may be proposed as a basic tool to model the flood hazard map in a wider scope.

Keywords: flood modeling, hazard map, neural networks, hydrogeological risk, flood risk assessment

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26 Redefining of Islamic Unity based on Imam Khomeini Points of View

Authors: Mohammad Molavi, Mohsen Nourai

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The emancipation of the Muslim nation from the numerous problems and achieving to the decent position is one of the old desires of Muslim. Increasing efforts to realize this wish based on religious and rational teachings is the main goal for Muslim reformist. Almost all scholars relying on the Qur'an teaching emphasize on the significant role of Islamic Unity for the revival of Islamic civilization. But their methods for achieving to the Islamic Unity are not so clear. Generally speaking, failure to provide specific solutions, uncertainty in the face of universal literature in politics and governance, and etc. are some of the challenges facing the Islamic Unity.This paper via the descriptive-analytical method and by focusing on theoretical aspects of the subject has attempted to analyze Imam Khomeini points of view. Research findings show that there are several significant differences between Imam Khomeini's idea of Islamic Unity and ideas like 'Pan-Turkism', 'Pan-Arabism' and so on. Some of Imam Khomeini's principles in this regard are as follow: Strategic approach to unity, relying on juridical certain and systematic attitude, comprehensive approach, Holistic, rationality, and moderation. So, there is no any generality speaking or ambiguity in Khomeini's thought.

Keywords: Qur'an, Imam Khomeini, islamic unity, islamic nation, islamic political thought

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25 Effect of Large English Studies Classes on Linguistic Achievement and Classroom Discourse at Junior Secondary Level in Yobe State

Authors: Clifford Irikefe Gbeyonron

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Applied linguists concur that there is low-level achievement in English language use among Nigerian secondary school students. One of the factors that exacerbate this is classroom feature of which large class size is obvious. This study investigated the impact of large classes on learning English as a second language (ESL) at junior secondary school (JSS) in Yobe State. To achieve this, Solomon four-group experimental design was used. 382 subjects were divided into four groups and taught ESL for thirteen weeks. 356 subjects wrote the post-test. Data from the systematic observation and post-test were analyzed via chi square and ANOVA. Results indicated that learners in large classes (LLC) attain lower linguistic progress than learners in small classes (LSC). Furthermore, LSC have more chances to access teacher evaluation and participate actively in classroom discourse than LLC. In consequence, large classes have adverse effects on learning ESL in Yobe State. This is inimical to English language education given that each learner of ESL has their individual peculiarity within each class. It is recommended that strategies that prioritize individualization, grouping, use of language teaching aides, and theorization of innovative models in respect of large classes be considered.

Keywords: large classes, achievement, classroom discourse

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24 Crack Propagation Effect at the Interface of a Composite Beam

Authors: Mezidi Amar

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In this research work, crack propagation at the interface of a composite beam is considered. The behavior of composite beams (CB) depends upon a law based on relationship between tangential or normal efforts with inelastic propagation. Throughout this study, composite beams are classified like composite beams with partial connection or sandwich beams of three layers. These structural systems are controlled by the same nature of differential equations regarding their behavior in the plane, as well as out-of-plane. Multi-layer elements with partial connection are typically met in the field of timber construction where the elements are assembled by joining. The formalism of the behavior in the plane and out-of-plane of these composite beams is obtained and their results concerning the engineering aspect or simple of interpretation are proposed for the case of composite beams made up of rectangular section and simply supported section. An apparent analytical peculiarity or paradox in the bending behavior of elastic–composite beams with interlayer slip, sandwich beam or other similar problems subjected to boundary moments exists. For a fully composite beam subjected to end moments, the partial composite model will render a non-vanishing uniform value for the normal force in the individual subelement. Obtained results are similar to those for the case of vibrations in the plane as well for the composite beams as for the sandwich beams where eigen-frequencies increase with related rigidity.

Keywords: composite beam, behaviour, interface, deflection, propagation

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23 The Design of a Smartbrush Oral Health Installation for Aged Care Centres in Australia

Authors: Lukasz Grzegorz Broda, Taiwo Oseni, Andrew Stranieri, Rodrigo Marino, Ronelle Welton, Mark Yates

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The oral health of residents in aged care centres in Australia is poor, contributing to infections, hospital admissions, and increased suffering. Although the use of electric toothbrushes has been deployed in many centres, smartbrushes that record and transmit information about brushing patterns and duration are not routinely deployed. Yet, the use of smartbrushes for aged care residents promises better oral care. Thus, a study aimed at investigating the appropriateness and suitability of a smartbrush for aged care residents is currently underway. Due to the peculiarity of the aged care setting, the incorporation of smartbrushes into residents’ care does require careful planning and design considerations. This paper describes an initial design process undertaken through the use of an actor to understand the important elements to be incorporated whilst installing a smartbrush for use in aged care settings. The design covers the configuration settings of the brush and app, including ergonomic factors related to brush and smartphone placement. A design science approach led to an installation re-design and a revised protocol for the planned study, the ultimate aim being to design installations to enhance perceived usefulness, ease of use, and attitudes towards the incorporation of smartbrushes for improving oral health care for aged care residents.

Keywords: smartbrush, applied computing, life and medical sciences, health informatics

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22 Numerical Modelling of Dust Propagation in the Atmosphere of Tbilisi City in Case of Western Background Light Air

Authors: N. Gigauri, V. Kukhalashvili, A. Surmava, L. Intskirveli, L. Gverdtsiteli

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Tbilisi, a large city of the South Caucasus, is a junction point connecting Asia and Europe, Russia and republics of the Asia Minor. Over the last years, its atmosphere has been experienced an increasing anthropogenic load. Numerical modeling method is used for study of Tbilisi atmospheric air pollution. By means of 3D non-linear non-steady numerical model a peculiarity of city atmosphere pollution is investigated during background western light air. Dust concentration spatial and time changes are determined. There are identified the zones of high, average and less pollution, dust accumulation areas, transfer directions etc. By numerical modeling, there is shown that the process of air pollution by the dust proceeds in four stages, and they depend on the intensity of motor traffic, the micro-relief of the city, and the location of city mains. In the interval of time 06:00-09:00 the intensive growth, 09:00-15:00 a constancy or weak decrease, 18:00-21:00 an increase, and from 21:00 to 06:00 a reduction of the dust concentrations take place. The highly polluted areas are located in the vicinity of the city center and at some peripherical territories of the city, where the maximum dust concentration at 9PM is equal to 2 maximum allowable concentrations. The similar investigations conducted in case of various meteorological situations will enable us to compile the map of background urban pollution and to elaborate practical measures for ambient air protection.

Keywords: air pollution, dust, numerical modeling, urban

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21 Flood Disaster Prevention and Mitigation in Nigeria Using Geographic Information System

Authors: Dinebari Akpee, Friday Aabe Gaage, Florence Fred Nwaigwu

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Natural disasters like flood affect many parts of the world including developing countries like Nigeria. As a result, many human lives are lost, properties damaged and so much money is lost in infrastructure damages. These hazards and losses can be mitigated and reduced by providing reliable spatial information to the generality of the people through about flood risks through flood inundation maps. Flood inundation maps are very crucial for emergency action plans, urban planning, ecological studies and insurance rates. Nigeria experience her worst flood in her entire history this year. Many cities were submerged and completely under water due to torrential rainfall. Poor city planning, lack of effective development control among others contributes to the problem too. Geographic information system (GIS) can be used to visualize the extent of flooding, analyze flood maps to produce flood damaged estimation maps and flood risk maps. In this research, the under listed steps were taken in preparation of flood risk maps for the study area: (1) Digitization of topographic data and preparation of digital elevation model using ArcGIS (2) Flood simulation using hydraulic model and integration and (3) Integration of the first two steps to produce flood risk maps. The results shows that GIS can play crucial role in Flood disaster control and mitigation.

Keywords: flood disaster, risk maps, geographic information system, hazards

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20 Higher Education Quality Culture: Case Study: Georgia

Authors: Pikria Vardosanidze

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This presentation entitled ”Higher Education Quality Culture – Case Study: Georgia”is concerned with an urgent and crucial issue. Located at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, Georgia is a transnational, post-soviet country. And it is conditioned the peculiarity of our education system. Higher education in Georgia has an extensive history and a challenging period of development consisting of several phases, especially noteworthy of which are 1918 and 1991, marking there storation of Georgia’s independence. Georgia joined the Bologna Process in 2005. Given its geopolitical location, Georgian culture has developed, and still pursues the path of development against the background of the Western and Eastern cultures. Furthermore, socio-politically and culturally, it represents part of Europe. It is of particular interest how post-Soviet states develop in terms of education. What is the path to the European integration for Georgia as a post-Soviet country? How developed is the higher education quality culture in Georgia? And, what should be done in the future? It is important to answer these questions. The research carried out in the field of education is characterized by a certain specificity as does the post-colonial research. The field of education contributes to the development of democratic society as well as to the European integration, the Eastern Partnership and so on. What is crucial for the educational system, apart from transparency and democratization, is the improvement of the quality of education which is one of the most powerful tools dictating the need for a doctoral research as such. As for the research method, the comparative method of research, and the qualitative research are applied.

Keywords: internationalization, higher education, policies, Georgia

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19 Developing Proof Demonstration Skills in Teaching Mathematics in the Secondary School

Authors: M. Rodionov, Z. Dedovets

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The article describes the theoretical concept of teaching secondary school students proof demonstration skills in mathematics. It describes in detail different levels of mastery of the concept of proof-which correspond to Piaget’s idea of there being three distinct and progressively more complex stages in the development of human reflection. Lessons for each level contain a specific combination of the visual-figurative components and deductive reasoning. It is vital at the transition point between levels to carefully and rigorously recalibrate teaching to reflect the development of more complex reflective understanding. This can apply even within the same age range, since students will develop at different speeds and to different potential. The authors argue that this requires an aware and adaptive approach to lessons to reflect this complexity and variation. The authors also contend that effective teaching which enables students to properly understand the implementation of proof arguments must develop specific competences. These are: understanding of the importance of completeness and generality in making a valid argument; being task focused; having an internalised locus of control and being flexible in approach and evaluation. These criteria must be correlated with the systematic application of corresponding methodologies which are best likely to achieve success. The particular pedagogical decisions which are made to deliver this objective are illustrated by concrete examples from the existing secondary school mathematics courses. The proposed theoretical concept formed the basis of the development of methodological materials which have been tested in 47 secondary schools.

Keywords: education, teaching of mathematics, proof, deductive reasoning, secondary school

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18 The Ethio-Eritrea Claims Commission on Use of Force: Issue of Self-Defense or Violation of Sovereignty

Authors: Isaias Teklia Berhe

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A decision that deals with international disputes, be it arbitral or judicial, has to properly reflect objectivity and coherence with existing rules of international law. This paper shows the decision of the Ethio-Eritrea Claims Commission on the jus ad bellum case is bereft of objectivity and coherence, which contributed a disservice to international law on many aspects. The Commission’s decision that holds Eritrea in contravention to Art 2(4) of the UN Charter based on Ethiopia’s contention is flawed. It fails to consider: the illegitimacy of an actual authority established over contested territory through hostile acts, the proper determination of effectivites under international law, the sanctity of colonially determined boundaries, Ethiopia’s prior firm political recognition and undergirds to respect colonial boundary, and Ethio-Eritrea Border Commission’s decision. The paper will also argue that the Commission confused Eritrea’s right of self-defense with the rule against the non-use of force to settle territorial disputes; wherefore its decision sanitizes or sterilizes unlawful change of territory resulted through unlawful use of force to the effect of advantaging aggressions. The paper likewise argues that the decision is so sacrilegious that it disregards the ossified legal finality of colonial boundaries. Moreover, its approach toward armed attack does not reflect the peculiarity of the jus ad bellum case rather it brings about definitional uncertainties and sustains the perception that the law on self-defense is unsettled.

Keywords: armed attack, Eritrea, Ethiopia, self-defense, territorial integrity, use of force

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17 The Non-Existence of Perfect 2-Error Correcting Lee Codes of Word Length 7 over Z

Authors: Catarina Cruz, Ana Breda

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Tiling problems have been capturing the attention of many mathematicians due to their real-life applications. In this study, we deal with tilings of Zⁿ by Lee spheres, where n is a positive integer number, being these tilings related with error correcting codes on the transmission of information over a noisy channel. We focus our attention on the question ‘for what values of n and r does the n-dimensional Lee sphere of radius r tile Zⁿ?’. It seems that the n-dimensional Lee sphere of radius r does not tile Zⁿ for n ≥ 3 and r ≥ 2. Here, we prove that is not possible to tile Z⁷ with Lee spheres of radius 2 presenting a proof based on a combinatorial method and faithful to the geometric idea of the problem. The non-existence of such tilings has been studied by several authors being considered the most difficult cases those in which the radius of the Lee spheres is equal to 2. The relation between these tilings and error correcting codes is established considering the center of a Lee sphere as a codeword and the other elements of the sphere as words which are decoded by the central codeword. When the Lee spheres of radius r centered at elements of a set M ⊂ Zⁿ tile Zⁿ, M is a perfect r-error correcting Lee code of word length n over Z, denoted by PL(n, r). Our strategy to prove the non-existence of PL(7, 2) codes are based on the assumption of the existence of such code M. Without loss of generality, we suppose that O ∈ M, where O = (0, ..., 0). In this sense and taking into account that we are dealing with Lee spheres of radius 2, O covers all words which are distant two or fewer units from it. By the definition of PL(7, 2) code, each word which is distant three units from O must be covered by a unique codeword of M. These words have to be covered by codewords which dist five units from O. We prove the non-existence of PL(7, 2) codes showing that it is not possible to cover all the referred words without superposition of Lee spheres whose centers are distant five units from O, contradicting the definition of PL(7, 2) code. We achieve this contradiction by combining the cardinality of particular subsets of codewords which are distant five units from O. There exists an extensive literature on codes in the Lee metric. Here, we present a new approach to prove the non-existence of PL(7, 2) codes.

Keywords: Golomb-Welch conjecture, Lee metric, perfect Lee codes, tilings

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16 Vulnerability Assessment of Vertically Irregular Structures during Earthquake

Authors: Pranab Kumar Das

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Vulnerability assessment of buildings with irregularity in the vertical direction has been carried out in this study. The constructions of vertically irregular buildings are increasing in the context of fast urbanization in the developing countries including India. During two reconnaissance based survey performed after Nepal earthquake 2015 and Imphal (India) earthquake 2016, it has been observed that so many structures are damaged due to the vertically irregular configuration. These irregular buildings are necessary to perform safely during seismic excitation. Therefore, it is very urgent demand to point out the actual vulnerability of the irregular structure. So that remedial measures can be taken for protecting those structures during natural hazard as like earthquake. This assessment will be very helpful for India and as well as for the other developing countries. A sufficient number of research has been contributed to the vulnerability of plan asymmetric buildings. In the field of vertically irregular buildings, the effort has not been forwarded much to find out their vulnerability during an earthquake. Irregularity in vertical direction may be caused due to irregular distribution of mass, stiffness and geometrically irregular configuration. Detailed analysis of such structures, particularly non-linear/ push over analysis for performance based design seems to be challenging one. The present paper considered a number of models of irregular structures. Building models made of both reinforced concrete and brick masonry are considered for the sake of generality. The analyses are performed with both help of finite element method and computational method.The study, as a whole, may help to arrive at a reasonably good estimate, insight for fundamental and other natural periods of such vertically irregular structures. The ductility demand, storey drift, and seismic response study help to identify the location of critical stress concentration. Summarily, this paper is a humble step for understanding the vulnerability and framing up the guidelines for vertically irregular structures.

Keywords: ductility, stress concentration, vertically irregular structure, vulnerability

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15 Alternative Ways to Measure Impacts of Dam Closure to the Structure of Fish Communities of a Neotropical River

Authors: Ana Carolina Lima, Carlos Sérgio Agostinho, Amadeu M. V. M. Soares, Kieran A. Monaghan

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Neotropical freshwaters host some of the most biodiverse ecosystems in the world and are among the most threatened by habitat alterations. The high number of species and lack of basic ecological knowledge provides a major obstacle to understanding the effects of environmental change. We assessed the impact of dam closure on the fish communities of a neotropical river by applying simple descriptions of community organizations: Species Abundance Distribution (SAD) and Abundance Biomass Comparison (ABC) curves. Fish data were collected during three distinct time periods (one year before, one year after and five years after closure), at eight sites located downstream of the dam, in the reservoir and reservoir transition zone and upstream of the regulated flow. Dam closure was associated with changes in the structural and functional organization of fish communities at all sites. Species richness tended to increase immediately after dam closure while evenness decreased. Changes in taxonomic structure were accompanied by a change in the distribution of biomass with the proportionate contribution by smaller individuals significantly increased relative to larger individuals. Five years on, richness had fallen to below pre-closure levels at all sites, while the comparative stability of the transformed habitats was reflected by biomass-abundance distribution patterns that approximated pre-disturbance ratios. Despite initial generality, respective sites demonstrated distinct ecological responses that were related to the environmental characteristics of their transformed habitats. This simplistic analysis provides a sensitive and informative assessment of ecological conditions that highlights the impact to ecosystem process and ecological networks and has particular value in regions where detailed ecological knowledge precludes the application of traditional bioassessment methods.

Keywords: ABC curves, SADs, biodiversity, damming, tropical fish

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14 Uniqueness of Fingerprint Biometrics to Human Dynasty: A Review

Authors: Siddharatha Sharma

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With the advent of technology and machines, the role of biometrics in society is taking an important place for secured living. Security issues are the major concern in today’s world and continue to grow in intensity and complexity. Biometrics based recognition, which involves precise measurement of the characteristics of living beings, is not a new method. Fingerprints are being used for several years by law enforcement and forensic agencies to identify the culprits and apprehend them. Biometrics is based on four basic principles i.e. (i) uniqueness, (ii) accuracy, (iii) permanency and (iv) peculiarity. In today’s world fingerprints are the most popular and unique biometrics method claiming a social benefit in the government sponsored programs. A remarkable example of the same is UIDAI (Unique Identification Authority of India) in India. In case of fingerprint biometrics the matching accuracy is very high. It has been observed empirically that even the identical twins also do not have similar prints. With the passage of time there has been an immense progress in the techniques of sensing computational speed, operating environment and the storage capabilities and it has become more user convenient. Only a small fraction of the population may be unsuitable for automatic identification because of genetic factors, aging, environmental or occupational reasons for example workers who have cuts and bruises on their hands which keep fingerprints changing. Fingerprints are limited to human beings only because of the presence of volar skin with corrugated ridges which are unique to this species. Fingerprint biometrics has proved to be a high level authentication system for identification of the human beings. Though it has limitations, for example it may be inefficient and ineffective if ridges of finger(s) or palm are moist authentication becomes difficult. This paper would focus on uniqueness of fingerprints to the human beings in comparison to other living beings and review the advancement in emerging technologies and their limitations.

Keywords: fingerprinting, biometrics, human beings, authentication

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13 Contributions of Women to the Development of Hausa Literature as an Effective Means of Public Enlightenment: The Case of a 19th Century Female Scholar Maryam Bint Uthman Ibn Foduye

Authors: Balbasatu Ibrahim

Abstract:

In the 19th century, Hausaland an Islamic revolution known as the Sokoto Jihad took place that led to the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate in 1804 under the leadership of the famous Sheik Uthman Bn Fodiye. Before the Jihad movement in Hausaland (now Northern Nigeria), women were left in ignorance and were used and dumped like old kitchen utensils. The sheik and his followers did their best to actualising women’s right to education by using their female family members as role models who were highly educated and renowned scholars. After the Jihad with the establishment of an Islamic state, the women scholars initiated different strategies to teach the generality of the women. The most efficient strategy was the ‘Yantaru Movement founded by Nana Asma’u the daughter of Sheikh Uthman Bn Fodiye in collaboration with her sisters around 1840. The ‘Yantaru movement is a women’s educational movement aimed at enlightening women in rural and urban areas. The move helped in massively mobilizing women for education. In addition to town pupils, women from villages and throughout the nooks and crannies of metropolitan Sokoto participated in the movement in the search for knowledge. Thus, the birth of the ‘Yantaru system of women’s education. The ‘Yantaru operates the three-tier system at village, town and the metropolitan capital of Sokoto. ‘Yantaru functions include imparting knowledge to elderly women and young girls. Step down enlightenment program on returning home. The most effective medium of communication in the ‘Yantaru movement was through poetry where scholars composed educational poems which were memorized by the ‘Yantaru, who on return recite it to fellow women at home. Through this system, many women were educated. This paper translated and examines one of such educative poems written by the second leader of the ‘Yantaru Movement Maryam Bn Uthman Bn Fodiye in 1855.

Keywords: English, Hausa language, public enlightenment, Maryam Bint Uthman Ibn Foduye

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12 Phytotechnologies for Use and Reconstitution of Contaminated Sites

Authors: Olga Shuvaeva, Tamara Romanova, Sergey Volynkin, Valentina Podolinnaya

Abstract:

Green chemistry concept is focused on the prevention of environmental pollution caused by human activity. However, there are a lot of contaminated areas in the world which pose a serious threat to ecosystems in terms of their conservation. Therefore in accordance with the principles of green chemistry, it should not be forgotten about the need to clean these areas. Furthermore, the waste material often contains the valuable components, the extraction of which by traditional wet chemical technologies is inefficient both from the economic and environmental protection standpoint. Wherein, the plants may be successfully used to ‘scavenge’ a range of metals from polluted land sites in an approach allowing to carry out both of these processes – phytoremediation and phytomining in conjunction. The goal of the present work was to study bioaccumulation ability of floating macrophytes such as water hyacinth and pondweed toward Hg, Ba, Cd, Mo and Pb as pollutants in aquatic medium and terrestrial plants (birch, reed, and cane) towards gold and silver as valuable components. The peculiarity of ongoing research was that the plants grew under extreme conditions (pH of drainage and pore waters was about 2.5). The study was conducted at the territory of Ursk tailings (Southwestern Siberia, Russia) formed as a result of primary polymetallic ores cyanidation. The waste material is mainly presented (~80%) by pyrite (FeS₂) and barite (BaSO₄), the raw minerals included FeAsS, HgS, PbS, Ag₂S as minor ones. It has been shown that water hyacinth demonstrates high ability to accumulate different metals, and what is especially important – to remove mercury from polluted waters with BCF value more than 1000. As for the gold, its concentrations in reed and cane growing near the waste material were estimated as 500 and 900 μg∙kg⁻¹ respectively. It was also found that the plants can survive under extreme conditions of acidic environment and hence we can assume that there is a principal opportunity to use them for the valuable substances extraction from an area of the mining waste dumps burial.

Keywords: bioaccumulation, gold, heavy metals, mine tailing

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11 Design and Tooth Contact Analysis of Face Gear Drive with Modified Tooth Surface in Helicopter Transmission

Authors: Kazumasa Kawasaki, Isamu Tsuji, Hiroshi Gunbara

Abstract:

A face gear drive is actually composed of a spur or helical pinion that is in mesh with a face gear and transfers power and motion between intersecting or skew axes. Due to the peculiarity of the face gear drive in shunt and confluence drive, it shows potential advantages in the application in the helicopter transmission. The advantages of such applications are the possibility of the split of the torque that appears to be significant where a pinion drives two face gears to provide an accurate division of power and motion. This mechanism greatly reduces the weight and cost compared to conventional design. Therefore, this has been led to revived interest and the face gear drive has been utilized in substitution for bevel and hypoid gears in limited cases. The face gear drive with a spur or a helical pinion is newly designed in order to determine an effective meshing area under the design parameters and specific design dimensions. The face gear has two unique dimensions which control the face width of the tooth, and the outside and inside diameters of the face gear. On the other hand, it is necessary to modify the tooth surfaces of face gear drive in order to avoid the influences of alignment errors on the tooth contact patterns in practical use. In this case, the pinion tooth surfaces are usually modified in the conventional method. However, it is hard to control the tooth contact pattern intentionally and adjust the position of the pinion axis in meshing of the gear pair. Therefore, a method of the modification of the tooth surfaces of the face gear is proposed. Moreover, based on tooth contact analysis, the tooth contact pattern and transmission errors of the designed face gear drive are analyzed, and the influences of alignment errors on the tooth contact patterns and transmission errors are investigated. These results showed that the tooth contact patterns and transmission errors were controllable and the face gear drive which is insensitive to alignment errors can be obtained.

Keywords: alignment error, face gear, gear design, helicopter transmission, tooth contact analysis

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10 Evaluating Problems Arose Due to Adoption of Dual Legal Framework in Regulating the Transactions under Islamic Capital Market with Special Reference to Malaysia

Authors: Rafikoddin Kazi

Abstract:

Almost all the major religions of the world condemn the transactions based on interest which promotes self-centered and materialistic thinking. Still, it is amazing to note that it has become the tradition of transaction at world level hence it is called traditional financial system. The main feature of this system is that it considers economic aspects of the transaction only. This system supports the economic development and not the welfare of humankind. However, it is worth mentioning the fact that, except Islamic financial system no other financial system stood in front of it as a viable alternative system. Although many countries have tried to create financial infrastructure and system, still the Malaysian Islamic financial system has got its own peculiarity. It has made tremendous progress in creating sound Islamic Financial system. However, the historical aspect of this country which has passed through Islamic and traditional financial system has got its own advantages and disadvantages. The advantageous factor is that, despite having mix and heterogeneous culture, it has succeeded in creating Islamic Financial System based on the dual legal system to satisfy the needs of multi-cultural factors. This fact has proved that Islamic Financial System does not need purely Muslim population. However, due to adoption of the dual legal system, several legal issues have been taken place. According to this system, the application of Islamic Law has been limited only up to some family and religious matters. The rest of the matters are being dealt with under the traditional laws, the principles and practices of which are different from that of the Islamic Legal System. The matter becomes all the more complicated when the cases are partially or simultaneously concerned with traditional vis-à-vis Islamic Laws as it requires expertise in both the legal systems. However, the educational principles and systems are different in respect of both the systems. To face this problem, Shariah Advisory Council has been established. But the Multiplicity of Shariah authorities without judicial power has created confusion at various levels. Therefore, some experts have stressed the need for improving, empowering the Islamic financial, legal system to make it more integrated and holistic. In view of the above, an endeavor has been made in this paper to throw some light on the matters related to the adoption of the dual legal system. The paper is conceptual in nature and the method adopted is the intensive survey of literature thereby all the information has been gathered from the secondary sources.

Keywords: Islamic financial system, Islamic legal system, Islamic capital market (ICM) , traditional financial system

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9 Analysis of Power Demand for the Common Rail Pump Drive in an Aircraft Engine

Authors: Rafal Sochaczewski, Marcin Szlachetka, Miroslaw Wendeker

Abstract:

Increasing requirements to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption while increasing the power factor is increasingly becoming applicable to internal combustion engines intended for aircraft applications. As a result, intensive research work is underway to develop a diesel-powered unit for aircraft propulsion. Due to a number of advantages, such as lack of the head (lower heat loss) and timing system, opposite movement of pistons conducive to balancing the engine, the two-stroke compression-ignition engine with the opposite pistons has been developed and upgraded. Of course, such construction also has drawbacks. The main one is the necessity of using a gear connecting two crankshafts or a complicated crank system with one shaft. The peculiarity of the arrangement of pistons with sleeves, as well as the fulfillment of rigorous requirements, makes it necessary to apply the most modern technologies and constructional solutions. In the case of the fuel supply system, it was decided to use common rail system elements. The paper presents an analysis of the possibility of using a common rail pump to supply an aircraft compression-ignition engine. It is an engine with a two-stroke cycle, three cylinders, opposing pistons, and 100 kW power. Each combustion chamber is powered by two injectors controlled by electromagnetic valves. In order to assess the possibility of using a common rail pump, four high-pressure pumps were tested on a bench. They are piston pumps differing in the number and geometry of the pumping sections. The analysis included the torque on the pump drive shaft and the power needed to drive the pump depending on the rotational speed, pumping pressure and fuel dispenser settings. The research allowed to optimize the engine power supply system depending on the fuel demand and the way the pump is mounted on the engine. Acknowledgment: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK ‘PZL-KALISZ’ S.A.’ and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish Nation-al Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: diesel engine, fuel pump, opposing pistons, two-stroke

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8 Historical Tree Height Growth Associated with Climate Change in Western North America

Authors: Yassine Messaoud, Gordon Nigh, Faouzi Messaoud, Han Chen

Abstract:

The effect of climate change on tree growth in boreal and temperate forests has received increased interest in the context of global warming. However, most studies were conducted in small areas and with a limited number of tree species. Here, we examined the height growth responses of seventeen tree species to climate change in Western North America. 37009 stands from forest inventory databases in Canada and USA with varying establishment date were selected. Dominant and co-dominant trees from each stand were sampled to determine top tree height at 50 years breast height age. Height was related to historical mean annual and summer temperatures, annual and summer Palmer Drought Severity Index, tree establishment date, slope, aspect, soil fertility as determined by the rate of carbon organic matter decomposition (carbon/nitrogen), geographic locations (latitude, longitude, and elevation), species range (coastal, interior, and both ranges), shade tolerance and leaf form (needle leaves, deciduous needle leaves, and broadleaves). Climate change had mostly a positive effect on tree height growth. The results explained 62.4% of the height growth variance. Since 1880, height growth increase was greater for coastal, high shade tolerant, and broadleaf species. Height growth increased more on steep slopes and high soil fertility soils. Greater height growth was mostly observed at the leading range and upward. Conversely, some species showed the opposite pattern probably due to the increase of drought (coastal Mediterranean area), precipitation and cloudiness (Alaska and British Columbia) and peculiarity (higher latitudes-lower elevations and vice versa) of western North America topography. This study highlights the role of the species ecological amplitude and traits, and geographic locations as the main factors determining the growth response and its magnitude to the recent global climate change.

Keywords: Height growth, global climate change, species range, species characteristics, species ecological amplitude, geographic locations, western North America

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7 Multilingualism and the Creation of New Languages: The Case of Camfranglais Spoken in Italy and Germany

Authors: Jocelyne Kenne Kenne

Abstract:

Previous works in the field of sociolinguistics have explored the various outcomes of linguistic pluralism. One of these outcomes is the creation of new languages. The presentation will focus on one of such languages, Camfranglais, a hybrid language spoken by Cameroonians. It appeared in the 1970s in the francophone area in Cameroon and developed as a result of interactions between French, English, Cameroonian Pidgin English and local Cameroonian languages, all languages spoken in Cameroon. With the migration of Cameroonians to Europe, researches have been conducted to analyze the sociolinguistic profile of Cameroonians in their new environment. The emphasis on this presentation will be on two recent studies that have been conducted to analyze the peculiarity of Camfranglais in two European countries: Germany and Italy. The research involved 59 Cameroonians living in Italy and 49 Cameroonians residing in Germany. The respondents were composed of participants from different linguistic background, students and workers, married and single. A combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed. The field study was divided into three parts. The first part was focused on observing the Cameroonians interact in different places such as in canteens, in the university halls of residence, lecture theatres, at homes, at various Cameroonian meetings. Those observations were accompanied by audio-recordings of the various interactions. The aim was to study communication between Cameroonians to see whether they use Camfranglais or not; if yes, in which domains and what were the speakers’ linguistic profiles. Additionally, questionnaires of different lengths were used to collect biographical information concerning the participants and their sociolinguistic profile and finally, in-depth interviews with Cameroonians were conducted to inquire about the use, the functions and the importance of this language in the migratory context. The results of the research demonstrate how a widespread use of Camfranglais by Cameroonians in Germany and Italy reveal a longing for home on the one hand and a sign of belonging on the other. It also shows the differences that exist between the profiles of Camfranglais speakers in Europe and the speakers in Cameroon notably in terms of age and social class. Finally, it points out some differences in the use, the structure and the functions of this hybrid language in the migratory setting. This study is a contribution to existing research in the field of contact languages and can serve as a comparison for other situations of multilingualism and the creation of mixed languages. Furthermore, with globalization, the study of migrant languages and the contact of these languages with new languages are topics that might be productive for further research in the field of sociolinguistics.

Keywords: interaction, migrants language, multilingualism, mixed languages

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