Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 685

Search results for: bone remodeling

685 Design Improvement of Dental Implant-Based on Bone Remodelling

Authors: Solehuddin Shuib, Koay Boon Aik, Zainul Ahmad Rajion


There are many types of mechanical failure on the dental implant. In this project, the failure that needs to take into consideration is the bone resorption on the dental implant. Human bone has its ability to remodel after the implantation. As the dental implant is installed into the bone, the bone will detect and change the bone structure to achieve new biomechanical environment. This phenomenon is known as bone remodeling. The objective of the project is to improve the performance of dental implant by using different types of design. These designs are used to analyze and predict the failure of the dental implant by using finite element analysis (FEA) namely ANSYS. The bone is assumed to be fully attached to the implant or cement. Hence, results are then compared with other researchers. The results were presented in the form of Von Mises stress, normal stress, shear stress analysis, and displacement. The selected design will be analyzed further based on a theoretical calculation of bone remodeling on the dental implant. The results have shown that the design constructed passed the failure analysis. Therefore, the selected design is proven to have a stable performance at the recovery stage.

Keywords: dental implant, FEA, bone remodeling, design

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684 3D Simulation of Orthodontic Tooth Movement in the Presence of Horizontal Bone Loss

Authors: Azin Zargham, Gholamreza Rouhi, Allahyar Geramy


One of the most prevalent types of alveolar bone loss is horizontal bone loss (HBL) in which the bone height around teeth is reduced homogenously. In the presence of HBL the magnitudes of forces during orthodontic treatment should be altered according to the degree of HBL, in a way that without further bone loss, desired tooth movement can be obtained. In order to investigate the appropriate orthodontic force system in the presence of HBL, a three-dimensional numerical model capable of the simulation of orthodontic tooth movement was developed. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of different degrees of HBL on a long-term orthodontic tooth movement. Moreover, the effect of different force magnitudes on orthodontic tooth movement in the presence of HBL was studied. Five three-dimensional finite element models of a maxillary lateral incisor with 0 mm, 1.5 mm, 3 mm, 4.5 mm and 6 mm of HBL were constructed. The long-term orthodontic tooth tipping movements were attained during a 4-weeks period in an iterative process through the external remodeling of the alveolar bone based on strains in periodontal ligament as the bone remodeling mechanical stimulus. To obtain long-term orthodontic tooth movement in each iteration, first the strains in periodontal ligament under a 1-N tipping force were calculated using finite element analysis. Then, bone remodeling and the subsequent tooth movement were computed in a post-processing software using a custom written program. Incisal edge, cervical, and apical area displacement in the models with different alveolar bone heights (0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6 mm bone loss) in response to a 1-N tipping force were calculated. Maximum tooth displacement was found to be 2.65 mm at the top of the crown of the model with a 6 mm bone loss. Minimum tooth displacement was 0.45 mm at the cervical level of the model with a normal bone support. Tooth tipping degrees of models in response to different tipping force magnitudes were also calculated for models with different degrees of HBL. Degrees of tipping tooth movement increased as force level was increased. This increase was more prominent in the models with smaller degrees of HBL. By using finite element method and bone remodeling theories, this study indicated that in the presence of HBL, under the same load, long-term orthodontic tooth movement will increase. The simulation also revealed that even though tooth movement increases with increasing the force, this increase was only prominent in the models with smaller degrees of HBL, and tooth models with greater degrees of HBL will be less affected by the magnitude of an orthodontic force. Based on our results, the applied force magnitude must be reduced in proportion of degree of HBL.

Keywords: bone remodeling, finite element method, horizontal bone loss, orthodontic tooth movement.

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683 Comparison of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Levels in the Human Gingival Sulcus during Canine Retraction Using Elastic Chain and Closed Coil Spring

Authors: Sri Suparwitri


When an orthodontic force is applied to a tooth, an inflammatory response is initiated then lead to bone remodeling process, and the process accommodates tooth movement. One of cytokine that plays a prominent role in bone remodeling process was transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1). The purpose of this study was to identify and compare changes of TGF-β1 in human gingival crevicular fluid during canine retraction using elastic chain and closed coil spring. Ten patients (mean age 20.7 ± 2.9 years) participated. The patients were entering the space closure phase of fixed orthodontic treatment. An upper canine of each patient was retracted using elastic chain, and the contralateral canine was retracted using closed coil spring. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from the canine teeth before and 7 days after the force was applied. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The concentrations of TGF-β1 at 7 days were significantly higher compared to before canine retraction in both groups. In the evaluation of between-group difference, before retraction, the difference was insignificant, whereas at 7 days significantly higher values were determined in the closed coil spring group compared to elastic chain group. The result suggests that TGF-β1 is associated with the bone remodeling that occurs during canine distalization movement. Closed coil spring gave higher TGF-β1 concentrations thus more bone remodeling occurred and may be considered the treatment of choice.

Keywords: closed coil spring, elastic chain, gingival crevicular fluid, TGF-β1

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
682 A Review on Bone Grafting, Artificial Bone Substitutes and Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Kasun Gayashan Samarawickrama


Bone diseases, defects, and fractions are commonly seen in modern life. Since bone is regenerating dynamic living tissue, it will undergo healing process naturally, it cannot recover from major bone injuries, diseases and defects. In order to overcome them, bone grafting technique was introduced. Gold standard was the best method for bone grafting for the past decades. Due to limitations of gold standard, alternative methods have been implemented. Apart from them artificial bone substitutes and bone tissue engineering have become the emerging methods with technology for bone grafting. Many bone diseases and defects will be healed permanently with these promising techniques in future.

Keywords: bone grafting, gold standard, bone substitutes, bone tissue engineering

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681 The Decrease of Collagen or Mineral Affect the Fracture in the Turkey Long Bones

Authors: P. Vosynek, T. Návrat, M. Peč, J. Pořízka, P. Diviš


Changes of mechanical properties and response behavior of bones is an important external sign of medical problems like osteoporosis, bone remodeling after fracture or surgery, osteointegration, or bone tissue loss of astronauts in space. Measuring of mechanical behavior of bones in physiological and osteoporotic states, quantified by different degrees of protein (collagen) and mineral loss, is thus an important topic in biomechanical research. This contribution deals with the relation between mechanical properties of the turkey long bone–tibia in physiological, demineralized, and deproteinized state. Three methods for comparison were used: densitometry, three point bending and harmonic response analysis. The results help to find correlations between the methods and estimate their possible application in medical practice.

Keywords: bone properties, long bone, osteoporosis, response behavior

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680 The Bone Remodeling of Mandible in Bruxers

Authors: Eni Rahmi, Rasmi Rikmasari, Taufik Soemarsongko


Background: One of the bad habits that requires a treatment and viewed as a risk factor of the temporomandibular disorder is bruxism. Bruxism defined as an awake and/or asleep parafunctional activities include grinding, gnashing, bracing or clenching of the teeth. In particular circumstances such as an increased frequency of episode, duration and the intensity of masseter contractions, caused phenomenon with pathological consequences, i.e., mandibular remodeling. The remodeling in mandibular angle was associated with the masseter and pterygoid medial muscles attachment which in its insertion area. The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular remodeling between bruxers and non-bruxers with ramus height, gonial angle and bigonial width as parameters, and to identify correlation among those parameters in bruxers, using panoramic radiographic. Methods: This study was conducted on 35 bruxers (10 phasic bruxism patients, 6 tonic bruxism patients, and 19 mixed bruxism patients) and 20 non-bruxers as control group. The data were obtained by using questionary, clinical examination, and radiographic measurement. Panoramic radiograph measurement was done using soft CBCT EPX Impla (E-Woo Korea). The data was analyzed by using Paired T-Test to see differences between parameters in both group and Pearson Correlation Test to evaluate correlation among parameters. Result: There was significant differences between bruxers and non-bruxers in ramus heights (p=0,04), bigonial widths (p=0,001), and gonial angles(p=0,015). The bruxers showed increased ramus heights and bigonial widths, in other hand, the gonial angles decreased. This study also found that there was highly correlation among ramus height, gonial angles, and bigonial widths. Conclusion: the bone remodeling occurred on inferior and posterior border of mandibular angle in bruxism patient, indicated by the form and size differences between bruxers (phasic bruxism, tonic bruxism, and mixed bruxism) with non-bruxers, which shown by panoramic radiograph.

Keywords: bruxism, ramus height, gonial angle, bigonial width

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679 Induced Bone Tissue Temperature in Drilling Procedures: A Comparative Laboratory Study with and without Lubrication

Authors: L. Roseiro, C. Veiga, V. Maranha, A. Neto, N. Laraqi, A. Baïri, N. Alilat


In orthopedic surgery there are various situations in which the surgeon needs to implement methods of cutting and drilling the bone. With this type of procedure the generated friction leads to a localized increase in temperature, which may lead to the bone necrosis. Recognizing the importance of studying this phenomenon, an experimental evaluation of the temperatures developed during the procedure of drilling bone has been done. Additionally the influence of the use of the procedure with / without additional lubrication during drilling of bone has also been done. The obtained results are presented and discussed and suggests an advantage in using additional lubrication as a way to minimize the appearance of bone tissue necrosis during bone drilling procedures.

Keywords: bone necrosis, bone drilling, thermography, surgery

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678 Effect of Locally Injected Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Bone Regeneration of Rat Calvaria Defects

Authors: Gileade P. Freitas, Helena B. Lopes, Alann T. P. Souza, Paula G. F. P. Oliveira, Adriana L. G. Almeida, Paulo G. Coelho, Marcio M. Beloti, Adalberto L. Rosa


Bone tissue presents great capacity to regenerate when injured by trauma, infectious processes, or neoplasia. However, the extent of injury may exceed the inherent tissue regeneration capability demanding some kind of additional intervention. In this scenario, cell therapy has emerged as a promising alternative to treat challenging bone defects. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of local injection of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) on bone regeneration of rat calvaria defects. BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs were isolated and characterized by expression of surface markers; cell viability was evaluated after injection through a 21G needle. Defects of 5 mm in diameter were created in calvaria and after two weeks a single injection of BM-MSCs, AT-MSCs or vehicle-PBS without cells (Control) was carried out. Cells were tracked by bioluminescence and at 4 weeks post-injection bone formation was evaluated by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histology, nanoindentation, and through gene expression of bone remodeling markers. The data were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (p≤0.05). BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs presented characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells, kept viability after passing through a 21G needle and remained in the defects until day 14. In general, injection of both BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs resulted in higher bone formation compared to Control. Additionally, this bone tissue displayed elastic modulus and hardness similar to the pristine calvaria bone. The expression of all evaluated genes involved in bone formation was upregulated in bone tissue formed by BM-MSCs compared to AT-MSCs while genes involved in bone resorption were upregulated in AT-MSCs-formed bone. We show that cell therapy based on the local injection of BM-MSCs or AT-MSCs is effective in delivering viable cells that displayed local engraftment and induced a significant improvement in bone healing. Despite differences in the molecular cues observed between BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs, both cells were capable of forming bone tissue at comparable amounts and properties. These findings may drive cell therapy approaches toward the complete bone regeneration of challenging sites.

Keywords: cell therapy, mesenchymal stem cells, bone repair, cell culture

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677 Amyloid-β Fibrils Remodeling by an Organic Molecule: Insight from All-Atomic Molecular Dynamics Simulations

Authors: Nikhil Agrawal, Adam A. Skelton


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of dementia, which is caused by misfolding and aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides into amyloid-β fibrils (Aβ fibrils). To disrupt the remodeling of Aβ fibrils, a number of candidate molecules have been proposed. To study the molecular mechanisms of Aβ fibrils remodeling we performed a series of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, a total time of 3µs, in explicit solvent. Several previously undiscovered candidate molecule-Aβ fibrils binding modes are unraveled; one of which shows the direct conformational change of the Aβ fibril by understanding the physicochemical factors responsible for binding and subsequent remodeling of Aβ fibrils by the candidate molecule, open avenues into structure-based drug design for AD can be opened.

Keywords: alzheimer’s disease, amyloid, MD simulations, misfolded protein

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676 Role of Vitamin D in Osseointegration of Dental Implant

Authors: Pouya Khaleghi


Dental implants are a successful treatment modality for restoring both function and aesthetics. Dental implant treatment has predictive results in the replacement of the lost teeth and has a high success rate even in the long term. The most important factor which is responsible for the positive course of implant treatment is the process of osseointegration between the implant structure and the host’s bone tissue. During recent years, many studies have focused on surgical and prosthetic factors, as well as the implant-related factors. However, implant failure still occurs despite the improvements that have led to the increased survival rate of dental implants, which suggests the possible role of some host-related risk factors. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism in tissues. The role of vitamin D in bone healing has been under investigation for several years. Vitamin D deficiency has also been associated with impaired and delayed callus formation and fractures healing; however, the role of vitamin D has not been clarified. Therefore, it is extremely important to study the phenomenon of a connection formed between bone tissue and the surface of a titanium implant and find correlations between the 25- hydroxycholecalciferol concentration in blood serum and the course of osseointegration. Because the processes of bone remodeling are very dynamic in the period of actual osseointegration, it is necessary to obtain the correct concentration of vitamin D3 metabolites in blood serum. In conclusion, the correct level of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the day of surgery and vitamin D deficiency treatment have a significant influence on the increase in the bone level at the implant site during the process of osseointegration assessed radiologically.

Keywords: implant, osseointegration, vitamin d, dental

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675 Assessment of the Radiation Absorbed Dose Produced by Lu-177, Ra-223, AC-225 for Metastatic Prostate Cancer in a Bone Model

Authors: Maryam Tajadod


The treatment of cancer is one of the main challenges of nuclear medicine; while cancer begins in an organ, such as the breast or prostate, it spreads to the bone, resulting in metastatic bone. In the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy, the determination of the involved tissues’ dose is one of the important steps in the treatment protocol. Comparing absorbed doses for Lu-177 and Ra-223 and Ac-225 in the bone marrow and soft tissue of bone phantom with evaluating energetic emitted particles of these radionuclides is the important aim of this research. By the use of MCNPX computer code, a model for bone phantom was designed and the values of absorbed dose for Ra-223 and Ac-225, which are Alpha emitters & Lu-177, which is a beta emitter, were calculated. As a result of research, in comparing gamma radiation for three radionuclides, Lu-177 released the highest dose in the bone marrow and Ra-223 achieved the lowest level. On the other hand, the result showed that although the figures of absorbed dose for Ra and Ac in the bone marrow are near to each other, Ra spread more energy in cortical bone. Moreover, The alpha component of the Ra-223 and Ac-225 have very little effect on bone marrow and soft tissue than a beta component of the lu-177 and it leaves the highest absorbed dose in the bone where the source is located.

Keywords: bone metastases, lutetium-177, radium-223, actinium-225, absorbed dose

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674 Identification of the Orthotropic Parameters of Cortical Bone under Nanoindentation

Authors: D. Remache, M. Semaan, C. Baron, M. Pithioux, P. Chabrand, J. M. Rossi, J. L. Milan


A good understanding of the mechanical properties of the bone implies a better understanding of its various diseases, such as osteoporosis. Berkovich nanoindentation tests were performed on the human cortical bone to extract its orthotropic parameters. The nanoindentation experiments were then simulated by the finite element method. Different configurations of interactions between the tip indenter and the bone were simulated. The orthotropic parameters of the material were identified by the inverse method for each configuration. The friction effect on the bone mechanical properties was then discussed. It was found that the inverse method using the finite element method is a very efficient method to predict the mechanical behavior of the bone.

Keywords: mechanical behavior of bone, nanoindentation, finite element analysis, inverse optimization approaches

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673 Preliminary Dosimetric Evaluation of Two New 153Sm Bone Pain Palliative Agents

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, N. Amraee, Z. Naseri, Ar. Jalilian


The purpose of this study was to calculate the absorbed dose to each human organ for two new Sm-153 bone-seeking agents in order to evaluate their effectiveness in bone pain palliation therapy. In this work, the absorbed dose of 153Sm-TTHMP and 153Sm-PDTMP to each human organ was evaluated based on biodistribution studies in rats by radiation dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. The highest absorbed dose for 153Sm-TTHMP and 153Sm-PDTMP is observed in trabecular bone with 1.844 and 3.167 mGy/MBq, respectively. Bone/red marrow dose ratio, as the target/critical organ dose ratio, for 153Sm-PDTMP is greater than 153Sm-TTHMP and is compatible with 153Sm-EDTMP. The results showed that these bone-seeking agents, specially 153Sm-PDTMP, have considerable characteristics compared to the most clinically used bone pain palliative radiopharmaceutical, and therefore, can be good candidates for bone pain palliation in patients with bone metastasis; however, further biological studies in other mammals are still needed.

Keywords: internal dosimetry, PDTMP, 153Sm, TTHMP

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672 Characterization of Fish Bone Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Sarina Sulaiman, N.Khairudin , P.Jamal, M.Z. Alam, Zaki Zainudin, S. Azmi


In this study, fish bone waste was used as a new catalyst for biodiesel production. Instead of discarding the fish bone waste, it will be utilized as a source for catalyst that can provide significant benefit to the environment. Also, it can be substitute as a calcium oxide source instead of using eggshell, crab shell and snail shell. The XRD and SEM analysis proved that calcined fish bone contains calcium oxide, calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD).

Keywords: calcinations, fish bone, transesterification, waste catalyst

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671 A Radiographic Survey of Eggshell Powder Effect on Tibial Bone Defect Repair Tested in Dog

Authors: M. Yadegari, M. Nourbakhsh, N. Arbabzadeh


The skeletal system injuries are of major importance. In addition, it is recommended to use materials for hard tissue repair in open or closed fractures. It is important to use complex minerals with a beneficial effect on hard tissue repair, stimulating cell growth in the bone. Materials that could help avoid bone fracture inflammatory reaction and speed up bone fracture repair are of utmost importance in the treatment of bone fractures. Similar to minerals, the inner eggshell membrane consists of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins with the high pH, high calcium absorptive capacity and with faster bone fracture repair ability. In the present radiographic survey, eggshell-derived bone graft substitutes were used for bone defect repair in 8 dog tibia, measuring bone density on the day of implant placement and 30 and 60 days after placement. In fact, the result of this study shows the difference in bone growth and misshapen bones between treatment and control sites. Cell growth was adequate in treatment sites and misshapen bones were less frequent here than in control sites.

Keywords: bone repair, eggshell powder, implant, radiography

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670 Ultrasonic Densitometry of Bone Tissue of Jaws and Phalanges of Fingers in Patients after Orthodontic Treatment

Authors: Margarita Belousova


The ultrasonic densitometry (RU patent № 2541038) was used to assess the density of the bone tissue in the jaws of patients after orthodontic treatment. In addition, by ultrasonic densitometry assessed the state of the bone tissue in the region III phalanges of middle fingers in above mentioned patients. A comparative study was carried out in healthy volunteers of same age. It was established a significant decrease of the ultrasound wave speed and bone mineral density after active period of orthodontic treatment. Statistically, significant differences in bone mineral density of the fingers by ultrasonic densitometry in both groups of patients were not detected.

Keywords: intraoral ultrasonic densitometry, bone tissue density of jaws, bone tissue density of phalanges of fingers, orthodontic treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
669 Viscoelastic Characterization of Bovine Trabecular Bone Samples

Authors: I. Ramirez D. Edgar, J. Angeles H. José, Ruiz C. Osvaldo, H. Jacobo A. Victor, Ortiz P. Armando


Knowledge of bone mechanical properties is important for bone substitutes design and fabrication, and more efficient prostheses development. The aim of this study is to characterize the viscoelastic behavior of bone specimens, through stress relaxation and fatigue tests performed to trabecular bone samples from bovine femoral heads. Relaxation tests consisted on preloading the samples at five different magnitudes and evaluate them for 1020 seconds, adjusting the results to a KWW mathematical model. Fatigue tests consisted of 700 load cycles and analyze their status at the end of the tests. As a conclusion we have that between relaxation stress and each preload there is linear relation and for samples with initial Young´s modulus greater than 1.5 GPa showed no effects due fatigue test loading cycles.

Keywords: bone viscoelasticity, fatigue test, stress relaxation test, trabecular bone properties

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668 Hybrid Fixation in Management of Proximal Diaphyseal Forearm Bone Fractures in Children

Authors: Tarek Aly


Introduction: Maintenance of the length, providing rotational stability, and preserving functional range of forearm motion is the mainstay of both bone forearm fractures treatment. Conservative treatment in older children may lead to malunion with poor remodeling capacity. Recent studies emphasized that the rate of complications with IM nailing was obviously increased in old children. Open reduction and internal fixation have been criticized for the amount of soft tissue dissection and periosteal stripping needed for fixation and excessive scar formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical and functional outcomes of hybrid fixation in the treatment of closed proximal radius and ulna fractures in adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age. Patients and Methods: 30 cases of diaphyseal both bone forearm fractures treated with hybrid fixation (Nail radius – Plate ulna) and were available for a follow-up period of fewer than 24 months. Results: Clinically, 72% of cases had an excellent function, 22% had a good function, 4% had a fair function, and 2% had a poor function. Radiologically, signs of the union had appeared in the radius 2weeks earlier than in the ulna in 55% of cases. Conclusion: A hybrid fixation technique in adolescent proximal both-bones forearm fractures could be a viable option in managing these injuries.

Keywords: hyprid fixation, both bones, forearm, fractures

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667 Development of an Information System Based on the Establishment and Evaluation of Performance Rating by Application Part/Type of Remodeling Element Technologies

Authors: Sungwon Jung


The percentage of 20 years or older apartment houses in South Korea is approximately 20% (1.55 million houses), and the explosive increase of aged houses is expected around the first planned new towns. Accordingly, we should prepare for social issues such as difficulty of housing lease and degradation of housing performance. The improvement of performance of aged houses is essential for achieving the national energy and carbon reduction goals, and we should develop techniques to respond to the changing construction environment. Furthermore, we should develop a performance evaluation system that is appropriate for the demands of residents such as the improvement of remodeling floor plan by performance improvement in line with the residence type of the housing vulnerable groups such as low-income group and elderly people living alone. For this purpose, remodeling techniques and business models optimized for the target complexes must be spread through the development of various business models. In addition, it is necessary to improve the remodeling business by improving the laws and systems related to the improvement of the residential performance and to prepare techniques to respond to the increasing business demands. In other words, performance improvement and evaluation and knowledge systems need to be researched as new issues related to remodeling that has not been addressed in the existing research.

Keywords: remodelling, performance evaluation, web-based system, big data

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666 Epidemiology of Bone Hydatidosis in Eastern Libya from 1995 to 2013

Authors: Sadek A. Makhlouf, Hassan M. Nouh


Bone hydatidosis is an infection in worldwide distribution. Although there is no evidence in literature on Bone Hydatid disease in Libya, we tried to present the first epidemiological study of this disease in Eastern Libya through retrospective study from 1995 to 2013. Our data were collected from 3 hospitals in Eastern Libya particularly the sheep-raising areas with total number of musculoskeletal infection cases of two thousand one hundred ninety-four (2,194). There were five (5) five cases of bone infection, four (4) of it have been diagnosed after more than three (3) months. Our study is comparable to other international study but this type of bone infection need further studies for effective control strategies for all dogs to avoid serious complications that might happened from the delay in diagnosing this type of disease.

Keywords: bone infection, hydatidosis, Eastern Libya, sheep-raising areas

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665 A Comparison of Implant Stability between Implant Placed without Bone Graft versus with Bone Graft Using Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) Technique: A Resonance Frequency Analysis

Authors: R. Janyaphadungpong, A. Pimkhaokham


This prospective clinical study determined the insertion torque (IT) value and monitored the changes in implant stability quotient (ISQ) values during the 12 weeks healing period from implant placement without bone graft (control group) and with bone graft using the guided bone regeneration (GBR) technique (study group). The relationship between the IT and ISQ values of the implants was also assessed. The control and study groups each consisted of 6 patients with 8 implants per group. The ASTRA TECH Implant System™ EV 4.2 mm in diameter was placed in the posterior mandibular region. In the control group, implants were placed in bone without bone graft, whereas in the study group implants were placed simultaneously with the GBR technique at favorable bone defect. IT (Ncm) of each implant was recorded when fully inserted. ISQ values were obtained from the Osstell® ISQ at the time of implant placement, and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. No difference in IT was found between groups (P = 0.320). The ISQ values in the control group were significantly higher than in the study group at the time of implant placement and at 4 weeks. There was no significant association between IT and ISQ values either at baseline or after the 12 weeks. At 12 weeks of healing, the control and study groups displayed different trends. Mean ISQ values for the control group decreased over the first 2 weeks and then started to increase. ISQ value increases were statistically significant at 8 weeks and later, whereas mean ISQ values in the study group decreased over the first 4 weeks and then started to increase, with statistical significance after 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, all implants achieved osseointegration with mean ISQ values over the threshold value (ISQ>70). These results indicated that implants, in which guided bone regeneration technique was performed during implant placement for treating favorable bone defects, were as predictable as implants placed without bone graft. However, loading in implants placed with the GBR technique for correcting favorable bone defects should be performed after 12 weeks of healing to ensure implant stability and osseointegration.

Keywords: dental implant, favorable bone defect, guided bone regeneration technique, implant stability

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664 Mechanical Cortical Bone Characterization with the Finite Element Method Based Inverse Method

Authors: Djamel Remache, Marie Semaan, Cécile Baron, Martine Pithioux, Patrick Chabrand, Jean-Marie Rossi, Jean-Louis Milan


Cortical bone is a complex multi-scale structure. Even though several works have contributed significantly to understanding its mechanical behavior, this behavior remains poorly understood. Nanoindentation testing is one of the primary testing techniques for the mechanical characterization of bone at small scales. The purpose of this study was to provide new nanoindentation data of cortical bovine bone in different directions and at different bone microstructures (osteonal, interstitial and laminar bone), and then to identify anisotropic properties of samples with FEM (finite element method) based inverse method. Experimentally and numerical results were compared. Experimental and numerical results were compared. The results compared were in good agreement.

Keywords: mechanical behavior of bone, nanoindentation, finite element analysis, inverse optimization approach

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663 Relation between Initial Stability of the Dental Implant and Bone-Implant Contact Level

Authors: Jui-Ting Hsu, Heng-Li Huang, Ming-Tzu Tsai, Kuo-Chih Su, Lih-Jyh Fuh


The objectives of this study were to measure the initial stability of the dental implant (ISQ and PTV) in the artificial foam bone block with three different quality levels. In addition, the 3D bone to implant contact percentage (BIC%) was measured based on the micro-computed tomography images. Furthermore, the relation between the initial stability of dental implant (ISQ and PTV) and BIC% were calculated. The experimental results indicated that enhanced the material property of the artificial foam bone increased the initial stability of the dental implant. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the BIC% and the two approaches (ISQ and PTV) were 0.652 and 0.745.

Keywords: dental implant, implant stability quotient, peak insertion torque, bone-implant contact, micro-computed tomography

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662 Alteration of Bone Strength in Osteoporosis of Mouse Femora: Computational Study Based on Micro CT Images

Authors: Changsoo Chon, Sangkuy Han, Donghyun Seo, Jihyung Park, Bokku Kang, Hansung Kim, Keyoungjin Chun, Cheolwoong Ko


The purpose of the study is to develop a finite element model based on 3D bone structural images of Micro-CT and to analyze the stress distribution for the osteoporosis mouse femora. In this study, results of finite element analysis show that the early osteoporosis of mouse model decreased a bone density in trabecular region; however, the bone density in cortical region increased.

Keywords: micro-CT, finite element analysis, osteoporosis, bone strength

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661 Reconstructing Calvarial Bone Lesions Using PHBV Scaffolds and Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Rat

Authors: Hamed Hosseinkazemi, Esmaeil Biazar


For tissue engineering of bone, anatomical and operational reconstructions of damaged tissue seem to be vital. This is done via reconstruction of bone and appropriate biological joint with bone tissues of damaged areas. In this study the condition of biodegradable bed Nanofibrous PHBV and USSC cells were used to accelerate bone repair of damaged area. Hollow nanofabrication scaffold of damageable life was designed as PHBV by electrospinning and via determining the best factors such as the kind and amount of solvent, specific volume and rate. The separation of osseous tissue infiltration and evaluating its nature by flow cytometrocical analysis was done. Animal test including USSC as well as PHBV condition in the damaged bone was done in the rat. After 8 weeks the implanted area was analyzed using CT scan and was sent to histopathology ward. Finally, the rate and quality of reconstruction were determined after H and E coloring. Histomorphic analysis indicated a statistically significant difference between the experimental group of PHBV, USSC+PHBV and control group. Besides, the histopathologic analysis showed that bone reconstruction rate was high in the area containing USSC and PHBV, compared with area having PHBV and control group and consequently the reconstruction quality of bones and the relationship between the new bone tissues and surrounding bone tissues were high too. Using PHBR scaffold and USSC together could be useful in the amending of wide range of bone lesion.

Keywords: bone lesion, nanofibrous PHBV, stem cells, umbilical cord blood

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660 Stress-Strain Relation for Human Trabecular Bone Based on Nanoindentation Measurements

Authors: Marek Pawlikowski, Krzysztof Jankowski, Konstanty Skalski, Anna Makuch


Nanoindentation or depth-sensing indentation (DSI) technique has proven to be very useful to measure mechanical properties of various tissues at a micro-scale. Bone tissue, both trabecular and cortical one, is one of the most commonly tested tissues by means of DSI. Most often such tests on bone samples are carried out to compare the mechanical properties of lamellar and interlamellar bone, osteonal bone as well as compact and cancellous bone. In the paper, a relation between stress and strain for human trabecular bone is presented. The relation is based on the results of nanoindentation tests. The formulation of a constitutive model for human trabecular bone is based on nanoindentation tests. In the study, the approach proposed by Olivier-Pharr is adapted. The tests were carried out on samples of trabecular tissue extracted from human femoral heads. The heads were harvested during surgeries of artificial hip joint implantation. Before samples preparation, the heads were kept in 95% alcohol in temperature 4 Celsius degrees. The cubic samples cut out of the heads were stored in the same conditions. The dimensions of the specimens were 25 mm x 25 mm x 20 mm. The number of 20 samples have been tested. The age range of donors was between 56 and 83 years old. The tests were conducted with the indenter spherical tip of the diameter 0.200 mm. The maximum load was P = 500 mN and the loading rate 500 mN/min. The data obtained from the DSI tests allows one only to determine bone behoviour in terms of nanoindentation force vs. nanoindentation depth. However, it is more interesting and useful to know the characteristics of trabecular bone in the stress-strain domain. This allows one to simulate trabecular bone behaviour in a more realistic way. The stress-strain curves obtained in the study show relation between the age and the mechanical behaviour of trabecular bone. It was also observed that the bone matrix of trabecular tissue indicates an ability of energy absorption.

Keywords: constitutive model, mechanical behaviour, nanoindentation, trabecular bone

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659 Benign Osteoblastoma of the Mandible Resection and Replacement of the Defects with Decellularized Cattle Bone Scaffold with Mesenchymal Bone Marrow Stem Cells

Authors: K. Mardaleishvili, G. Loladze, G. Shatirishivili, D. Chakhunashvili, A. Vishnevskaya, Z. Kakabadze


Benign osteoblastoma is a benign tumor of the bone, usually affecting the vertebrae and long tubular bones. It is a rarely seen tumor of the facial bones. The authors present a case of a 28-year-old male patient with a tumor in mandibular body. The lesion was radically resected and histological analysis of the specimen demonstrated features typical of a benign osteoblastoma. The defect of the jaw was reconstructed with titanium implants and decellularized and lyophilized cattle bone matrix with mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells transplantation. This presentation describes the procedures for rehabilitating a patient with decellularized bone scaffold in the region of the face, recovering the facial contours and esthetics of the patient.

Keywords: facial bones, osteoblastoma, stem cells, transplantation

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658 Suitability Verification of Cellulose Nanowhisker as a Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Moon Hee Jung, Dae Seung Kim, Sang-Myung Jung, Gwang Heum Yoon, Hoo Cheol Lee, Hwa Sung Shin


Scaffolds are an important part to support growth and differentiation of osteoblast for regeneration of injured bone in bone tissue engineering. We utilized tunicate cellulose nanowhisker (CNW) as scaffold and developed complex system that can enhance differentiation of osteoblast by applying mechanical stimulation. CNW, a crystal form of cellulose, has high stiffness with a large surface area and is useful as a biomedical material due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility. In this study, CNW was obtained from tunicate extraction and was confirmed for its adhesion, differentiation, growth of osteoblast without cytotoxicity. In addition, osteoblast was successfully differentiated under mechanical stimulation, followed by calcium dependent signaling. In conclusion, we verified suitability of CNW as scaffold and possibility of bone substitutes.

Keywords: osteoblast, cellulose nanowhisker, CNW, mechanical stimulation, bone tissue engineering, bone substitute

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657 Influence of Modified and Unmodified Cow Bone on the Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Polyester Composites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: I. O. Oladele, J. A. Omotoyinbo, A. M. Okoro, A. G. Okikiola, J. L. Olajide


This work was carried out to investigate comparatively the effects of modified and unmodified cow bone particles on the mechanical properties of polyester matrix composites in order to investigate the suitability of the materials as biomaterial. Cow bones were procured from an abattoir, sun dried for 4 weeks and crushed. The crushed bones were divided into two, where one part was turned to ash while the other part was pulverized with laboratory ball mill before the two grades were sieved using 75 µm sieve size. Bone ash and bone particle reinforced tensile and flexural composite samples were developed from pre-determined proportions of 2, 4, 6, and 8 %. The samples after curing were stripped from the moulds and were allowed to further cure for 3 weeks before tensile and flexural tests were performed on them. The tensile test result showed that, 8 wt % bone particle reinforced polyester composites has higher tensile properties except for modulus of elasticity where 8 wt % bone ash particle reinforced composites has higher value while for flexural test, bone ash particle reinforced composites demonstrate the best flexural properties. The results show that these materials are structurally compatible.

Keywords: biomedical, composites, cow bone, mechanical properties, polyester, reinforcement

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656 Inverse Mode Shape Problem of Hand-Arm Vibration (Humerus Bone) for Bio-Dynamic Response Using Varying Boundary Conditions

Authors: Ajay R, Rammohan B, Sridhar K S S, Gurusharan N


The objective of the work is to develop a numerical method to solve the inverse mode shape problem by determining the cross-sectional area of a structure for the desired mode shape via the vibration response study of the humerus bone, which is in the form of a cantilever beam with anisotropic material properties. The humerus bone is the long bone in the arm that connects the shoulder to the elbow. The mode shape is assumed to be a higher-order polynomial satisfying a prescribed set of boundary conditions to converge the numerical algorithm. The natural frequency and the mode shapes are calculated for different boundary conditions to find the cross-sectional area of humerus bone from Eigenmode shape with the aid of the inverse mode shape algorithm. The cross-sectional area of humerus bone validates the mode shapes of specific boundary conditions. The numerical method to solve the inverse mode shape problem is validated in the biomedical application by finding the cross-sectional area of a humerus bone in the human arm.

Keywords: Cross-sectional area, Humerus bone, Inverse mode shape problem, Mode shape

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