Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 70

Search results for: Amazon rainforest

70 Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosols over South America: A Case Study in the 2019 Amazon Rainforest Wildfires Season

Authors: Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Dirceu Luis Herdies, Debora Souza Alvim, Eder Paulo Vendrasco, Silvio Nilo Figueroa, Jayant Pendharkar, Julio Pablo Reyes Fernandez

Abstract:

Biomass-burning episodes are quite common in the central Amazon rainforest and represent a dominant source of aerosols during the dry season, between August and October. The increase in the occurrence of fires in 2019 in the world’s largest biomes has captured the attention of the international community. In particular, a rare and extreme smoke-related event occurred in the afternoon of Monday, August 19, 2019, in the most populous city in the Western Hemisphere, the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in southeastern Brazil. The sky over the SPMA suddenly blackened, with the day turning into night, as reported by several news media around the world. In order to clarify whether or not the smoke that plunged the SPMA into sudden darkness was related to wildfires in the Amazon rainforest region, a set of 48-hour simulations over South America were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model at 20 km horizontal resolution, on a daily basis, during the period from August 16 to August 19, 2019. The model results were satisfactorily compared against satellite-based data products and in situ measurements collected from air quality monitoring sites. Although a very strong smoke transport coming from the Amazon rainforest was observed in the middle of the afternoon on August 19, its impact on air quality over the SPMA took place in upper levels far above the surface, where, conversely, low air pollutant concentrations were observed.

Keywords: Amazon rainforest, biomass burning aerosols, São Paulo metropolitan area, WRF-Chem model

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69 Oil Pollution Analysis of the Ecuadorian Rainforest Using Remote Sensing Methods

Authors: Juan Heredia, Naci Dilekli

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The Ecuadorian Rainforest has been polluted for almost 60 years with little to no regard to oversight, law, or regulations. The consequences have been vast environmental damage such as pollution and deforestation, as well as sickness and the death of many people and animals. The aim of this paper is to quantify and localize the polluted zones, which something that has not been conducted and is the first step for remediation. To approach this problem, multi-spectral Remote Sensing imagery was utilized using a novel algorithm developed for this study, based on four normalized indices available in the literature. The algorithm classifies the pixels in polluted or healthy ones. The results of this study include a new algorithm for pixel classification and quantification of the polluted area in the selected image. Those results were finally validated by ground control points found in the literature. The main conclusion of this work is that using hyperspectral images, it is possible to identify polluted vegetation. The future work is environmental remediation, in-situ tests, and more extensive results that would inform new policymaking.

Keywords: remote sensing, oil pollution quatification, amazon forest, hyperspectral remote sensing

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68 Vertical Structure and Frequencies of Deep Convection during Active Periods of the West African Monsoon Season

Authors: Balogun R. Ayodeji, Adefisan E. Adesanya, Adeyewa Z. Debo, E. C. Okogbue

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Deep convective systems during active periods of the West African monsoon season have not been properly investigated over better temporal and spatial resolution in West Africa. Deep convective systems are investigated over seven climatic zones of the West African sub-region, which are; west-coast rainforest, dry rainforest, Nigeria-Cameroon rainforest, Nigeria savannah, Central African and South Sudan (CASS) Savannah, Sudano-Sahel, and Sahel, using data from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) database. The vertical structure of the convective systems indicated by the presence of at least one 40 dBZ and reaching (attaining) at least 1km in the atmosphere showed strong core (highest frequency (%)) of reflectivity values around 2 km which is below the freezing level (4-5km) for all the zones. Echoes are detected above the 15km altitude much more frequently in the rainforest and Savannah zones than the Sudano and Sahel zones during active periods in March-May (MAM), whereas during active periods in June-September (JJAS) the savannahs, Sudano and Sahel zones convections tend to reach higher altitude more frequently than the rainforest zones. The percentage frequencies of deep convection indicated that the occurrences of the systems are within the range of 2.3-2.8% during both March-May (MAM) and June-September (JJAS) active periods in the rainforest and savannah zones. On the contrary, the percentage frequencies were found to be less than 2% in the Sudano and Sahel zones, except during the active-JJAS period in the Sudano zone.

Keywords: active periods, convective system, frequency, reflectivity

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67 Linking the Genetic Signature of Free-Living Soil Diazotrophs with Process Rates under Land Use Conversion in the Amazon Rainforest

Authors: Rachel Danielson, Brendan Bohannan, S.M. Tsai, Kyle Meyer, Jorge L.M. Rodrigues

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The Amazon Rainforest is a global diversity hotspot and crucial carbon sink, but approximately 20% of its total extent has been deforested- primarily for the establishment of cattle pasture. Understanding the impact of this large-scale disturbance on soil microbial community composition and activity is crucial in understanding potentially consequential shifts in nutrient or greenhouse gas cycling, as well as adding to the body of knowledge concerning how these complex communities respond to human disturbance. In this study, surface soils (0-10cm) were collected from three forests and three 45-year-old pastures in Rondonia, Brazil (the Amazon state with the greatest rate of forest destruction) in order to determine the impact of forest conversion on microbial communities involved in nitrogen fixation. Soil chemical and physical parameters were paired with measurements of microbial activity and genetic profiles to determine how community composition and process rates relate to environmental conditions. Measuring both the natural abundance of 15N in total soil N, as well as incorporation of enriched 15N2 under incubation has revealed that conversion of primary forest to cattle pasture results in a significant increase in the rate of nitrogen fixation by free-living diazotrophs. Quantification of nifH gene copy numbers (an essential subunit encoding the nitrogenase enzyme) correspondingly reveals a significant increase of genes in pasture compared to forest soils. Additionally, genetic sequencing of both nifH genes and transcripts shows a significant increase in the diversity of the present and metabolically active diazotrophs within the soil community. Levels of both organic and inorganic nitrogen tend to be lower in pastures compared to forests, with ammonium rather than nitrate as the dominant inorganic form. However, no significant or consistent differences in total, extractable, permanganate-oxidizable, or loss-on-ignition carbon are present between the two land-use types. Forest conversion is associated with a 0.5- 1.0 unit pH increase, but concentrations of many biologically relevant nutrients such as phosphorus do not increase consistently. Increases in free-living diazotrophic community abundance and activity appear to be related to shifts in carbon to nitrogen pool ratios. Furthermore, there may be an important impact of transient, low molecular weight plant-root-derived organic carbon on free-living diazotroph communities not captured in this study. Preliminary analysis of nitrogenase gene variant composition using NovoSeq metagenomic sequencing indicates that conversion of forest to pasture may significantly enrich vanadium-based nitrogenases. This indication is complemented by a significant decrease in available soil molybdenum. Very little is known about the ecology of diazotrophs utilizing vanadium-based nitrogenases, so further analysis may reveal important environmental conditions favoring their abundance and diversity in soil systems. Taken together, the results of this study indicate a significant change in nitrogen cycling and diazotroph community composition with the conversion of the Amazon Rainforest. This may have important implications for the sustainability of cattle pastures once established since nitrogen is a crucial nutrient for forage grass productivity.

Keywords: free-living diazotrophs, land use change, metagenomic sequencing, nitrogen fixation

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66 Discovering Traditional Plants Used by Indigenous People in the Tropical Rainforest of Malaysia for the Treatment of Malaria

Authors: Izdihar Ismail, Alona C. Linatoc, Maryati Mohamed

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The tropical rainforest of Malaysia is known for its rich biological diversity and high endemicity. The potential for these forests to hold the cure for many diseases and illnesses is high and much is yet to be discovered. This study explores the richness of the tropical rainforest of Endau-Rompin National Park in Johor, Malaysia in search of plants traditionally used by the indigenous people in the treatment of malaria and malaria-like symptoms. Seven species of plants were evaluated and tested for antiplasmodial activities. Different plant parts were subjected to methanolic and aqueous extractions. A total of 24 extracts were evaluated by histidine-rich protein II (HRP2) assay against K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant. Ten extracts showed significant inhibition of the growth of P. falciparum. Phytochemical screening of the same extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids and anthraquinones. This study affirms that tropical rainforests may still hold undiscovered cures for many diseases and illnesses that have inflicted millions of people worldwide. The species studied herein have not known to have been studied elsewhere before.

Keywords: Endau-Rompin, malaria, Malaysia, tropical rainforest, traditional knowledge

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65 Perceived Environmental Effects of Charcoal Production among Rural Dwellers in Rainforest and Guinea Savannah Agro-Ecological Zones of Nigeria

Authors: P. O. Eniola, S. O. Odebode

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Charcoal production constitutes serious environmental problems to most developing countries of the world. Hence, the study assessed perceived environmental effects of charcoal production (CP) among the rural dwellers in rainforest and guinea savannah (GS) zones of Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 83 and 85 charcoal producers in GS and rainforest zones respectively. Eighteen statements on perceived environmental effects of charcoal production were collected. Data was collected through the use of structured interview schedule and analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive analysis showed that the mean age was 43 years, 90.5% males, 90.6% married and 35.3% of respondents had no formal education. The majority (80.0%) of the respondents make use of earth mound method of CP and 52.9% of respondents produced between 32-32000kg of charcoal per annum. Respondents (62.7%) perceived that charcoal production could lead to erosion, 62.4% reduce the available trees for future use (62.4%) and reduce available air in the environment (54.1%). A significant difference existed in the perceived environmental effects of charcoal production between rainforest and guinea savannah agro-ecological zones (F=14.62). There is a need for the government to quickly work on other available and affordable alternative household energy sources.

Keywords: deforestation, energy, earth mound method, environment

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64 Quantitative Analysis of Three Sustainability Pillars for Water Tradeoff Projects in Amazon

Authors: Taha Anjamrooz, Sareh Rajabi, Hasan Mahmmud, Ghassan Abulebdeh

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Water availability, as well as water demand, are not uniformly distributed in time and space. Numerous extra-large water diversion projects are launched in Amazon to alleviate water scarcities. This research utilizes statistical analysis to examine the temporal and spatial features of 40 extra-large water diversion projects in Amazon. Using a network analysis method, the correlation between seven major basins is measured, while the impact analysis method is employed to explore the associated economic, environmental, and social impacts. The study unearths that the development of water diversion in Amazon has witnessed four stages, from a preliminary or initial period to a phase of rapid development. It is observed that the length of water diversion channels and the quantity of water transferred have amplified significantly in the past five decades. As of 2015, in Amazon, more than 75 billion m³ of water was transferred amidst 12,000 km long channels. These projects extend over half of the Amazon Area. The River Basin E is currently the most significant source of transferred water. Through inter-basin water diversions, Amazon gains the opportunity to enhance the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 5%. Nevertheless, the construction costs exceed 70 billion US dollars, which is higher than any other country. The average cost of transferred water per unit has amplified with time and scale but reduced from western to eastern Amazon. Additionally, annual total energy consumption for pumping exceeded 40 billion kilowatt-hours, while the associated greenhouse gas emissions are assessed to be 35 million tons. Noteworthy to comprehend that ecological problems initiated by water diversion influence the River Basin B and River Basin D. Due to water diversion, more than 350 thousand individuals have been relocated, away from their homes. In order to enhance water diversion sustainability, four categories of innovative measures are provided for decision-makers: development of water tradeoff projects strategies, improvement of integrated water resource management, the formation of water-saving inducements, and pricing approach, and application of ex-post assessment.

Keywords: sustainability, water trade-off projects, environment, Amazon

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63 Software Defined Storage: Object Storage over Hadoop Platform

Authors: Amritesh Srivastava, Gaurav Sharma

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The purpose of this project is to develop an open source object storage system that is highly durable, scalable and reliable. There are two representative systems in cloud computing: Google and Amazon. Their storage systems for Google GFS and Amazon S3 provide high reliability, performance and stability. Our proposed system is highly inspired from Amazon S3. We are using Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) Java API to implement our system. We propose the architecture of object storage system based on Hadoop. We discuss the requirements of our system, what we expect from our system and what problems we may encounter. We also give detailed design proposal along with the abstract source code to implement it. The final goal of the system is to provide REST based access to our object storage system that exists on top of HDFS.

Keywords: Hadoop, HBase, object storage, REST

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62 Assessment of Tourist and Community Perception with Regard to Tourism Sustainability Indicators: A Case Study of Sinharaja World Heritage Rainforest, Sri Lanka

Authors: L. P. K. Liyanage, N. R. P. Withana, A. L. Sandika

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The purpose of this study was to determine tourist and community perception-based sustainable tourism indicators as well as Human Pressure Index (HPI) and Tourist Activity Index (TAI). Study was carried out in Sinharaja forest which is considered as one of the major eco-tourism destination in Sri Lanka. Data were gathered using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire as well as records from Forest department. Convenient sampling technique was applied. For the majority of issues, the responses were obtained on multi-point Likert-type scales. Visual portrayal was used for display analyzed data. The study revealed that the host community of the Kudawa gets many benefits from tourism. Also, tourism has caused negative impacts upon the environment and community. The study further revealed the need of proper waste management and involvement of local cultural events for the tourism business in the Kudawa conservation center. The TAI, which accounted to be 1.27 and monthly evolution of HPI revealed that congestion can be occurred in the Sinharaja rainforest during peak season. The results provide useful information to any party involved with tourism planning anywhere, since such attempts would be more effective once the people’s perceptions on these aspects are taken into account.

Keywords: Kudawa Conservation Center, Sinharaja World Heritage Rainforest, sustainability indicators, community perception

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61 Attitudes of the Indigenous People from Providencia, Amazon towards the Bora Language

Authors: Angela Maria Sarmiento

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Since the end of the 19th century, the Bora people struggled to survive two stages of colonial domination, which resulted in situations of forced contact with the Western world. Their inclusion in global designs altered the configuration of their local spaces and social practices; thus the Bora language was affected and prone to transformation. This descriptive, interpretive study, within the indigenous and minoritized groups’ research field, aimed at analysing the linguistic attitudes as well as the contextual situation of the Bora language in Providencia, an ancestral territory and a speech community contained in the midst of the Colombian Amazon rainforest. Through the inquiry of their sociolinguistic practices, this study also considered the effects of the course of events derived from the rubber exploitation in the late 19th century, and the arrival of the Capuchin’s mission in the early 20th century. The methodology used in this study had an ethnographic approach, which allowed the researcher to study the social phenomena from the perspective of the participants. Fieldwork, diary, field notes, and semi-structured interviews were conducted and then triangulated with participant observations. The findings of this study suggest that there is a transition from current individual bilingualism towards Spanish monolingualism; this is enhanced by the absence of a functional distribution of the three varieties (Bora, Huitoto, and Spanish). Also, the positive attitudes towards the Spanish language are based on its functionality while positive attitudes towards the Bora language mostly refer to pride and identity. Negative attitudes are only directed towards the Bora language. In the search for the roots of these negative attitudes, appeared the traumatic experiences of the rubber exploitation and the indigenous experiences at the capuchin’s boarding school. Finally, the situation of the Bora language can be configured as a social fact strongly connected to previous years of colonial dominations and to the current and continuous incursion of new global-colonial designs.

Keywords: Bora language, language contact, linguistic attitudes, speech communities

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60 Overview of the 2017 Fire Season in Amazon

Authors: Ana C. V. Freitas, Luciana B. M. Pires, Joao P. Martins

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In recent years, fire dynamics in deforestation areas of tropical forests have received considerable attention because of their relationship to climate change. Climate models project great increases in the frequency and area of drought in the Amazon region, which may increase the occurrence of fires. This study analyzes the historical record number of fire outbreaks in 2017 using satellite-derived data sets of active fire detections, burned area, precipitation, and data of the Fire Program from the Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC/INPE). A downward trend in the number of fire outbreaks occurred in the first half of 2017, in relation to the previous year. This decrease can be related to the fact that 2017 was not an El Niño year and, therefore, the observed rainfall and temperature in the Amazon region was close to normal conditions. Meanwhile, the worst period in history for fire outbreaks began with the subsequent arrival of the dry season. September of 2017 exceeded all monthly records for number of fire outbreaks per month in the entire series. This increase was mainly concentrated in Bolivia and in the states of Amazonas, northeastern Pará, northern Rondônia and Acre, regions with high densities of rural settlements, which strongly suggests that human action is the predominant factor, aggravated by the lack of precipitation during the dry season allowing the fires to spread and reach larger areas. Thus, deforestation in the Amazon is primarily a human-driven process: climate trends may be providing additional influences.

Keywords: Amazon forest, climate change, deforestation, human-driven process, fire outbreaks

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59 Quantitative Analysis of Potential Rainwater Harvesting and Supply to a Rural Community at Northeast of Amazon Region, Brazil

Authors: N. Y. H. Konagano

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Riverside population of Brazilian amazon suffers drinking water scarcity, seeking alternative water resources such as well and rivers, ordinary polluted. Although Amazon Region holds high annual river inflow and enough available of underground water, human activities have compromised the conservation of water resources. In addition, decentralized rural households make difficult to access of potable water. Main objective is to analyze quantitatively the potential of rainwater harvesting to human consumption at Marupaúba community, located in northeast of Amazon region, Brazil. Methods such as historical rainfall data series of municipality of Tomé-Açu at Pará state were obtained from Hydrological Information System of National Water Agency (ANA). Besides, Rippl method was used to calculate, mainly, volume of the reservoir based on difference of water demand and volume available through rainwater using as references two houses (CA I and CA II) as model of rainwater catchment and supply. Results presented that, from years 1984 to 2017, average annual precipitation was 2.607 mm, average maximum precipitation peak was 474 mm on March and average minimum peak on September was 44 mm. All months, of a year, surplus volume of water have presented in relation to demand, considering catchment area (CA) I = 134.4m² and demand volume =0.72 m³/month; and, CA II = 81.84 m² and demand volume = 0.48 m³/month. Based on results, it is concluded that it is feasible to use rainwater for the supply of the rural community Marupaúba, since the access of drinking water is a human right and the lack of this resource compromises health and daily life of human beings.

Keywords: Amazon Region, rainwater harvesting, rainwater resource, rural community

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58 Endogenous Development and Sustainable Perspectives: The Case of Traditional Communities Located around the Area of Management of Precious Wood Amazon

Authors: Débora Ramos Santiago

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Endogenous development usually apresent a deep approach to locational aspects, considering the potential, knowledge and the workforce, as encouragement to articulate the entire productive activity of a community. In the case of communities located around the area of management of the company Precious Wood Amazon (PWA), their endogenous development is subject to the dynamic of this company, which operates a certified way, seeking alternatives to mitigate and compensate the damages caused by its activities. This article soughts to present the socio-economic and environmental challenges to promote of the endogenous development of these communities, identifying the relationship of the PWA in this process. The communities analyzed emerge with poor socioeconomic conditions, futhermore, their ecosystem characteristics differ spatially from each other, which modifies the entire production dynamics. The family agriculture was an important source of income, but needs investment and technical assistance. The participation of PWA in the promotion of the endogenous development of the communities was proved significant, because of the intense sustainable actions practice by PWA. Many are the challenges that exist in these communities, so its fundamental to elaborate public policies to these specific areas.

Keywords: endogenous development, traditional communities, Amazon, PWA

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57 Dynamics of the Landscape in the Different Colonization Models Implemented in the Legal Amazon

Authors: Valdir Moura, FranciléIa De Oliveira E. Silva, Erivelto Mercante, Ranieli Dos Anjos De Souza, Jerry Adriani Johann

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Several colonization projects were implemented in the Brazilian Legal Amazon in the 1970s and 1980s. Among all of these colonization projects, the most prominent were those with the Fishbone and Topographic models. Within this scope, the projects of settlements known as Anari and Machadinho were created, which stood out because they are contiguous areas with different models and structure of occupation and colonization. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the dynamics of Land-Use and Land-Cover (LULC) in two different colonization models, implanted in the State of Rondonia in the 1980s. The Fishbone and Topographic models were implanted in the Anari and Machadinho settlements respectively. The understanding of these two forms of occupation will help in future colonization programs of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. These settlements are contiguous areas with different occupancy structures. A 32-year Landsat time series (1984-2016) was used to evaluate the rates and trends in the LULC process in the different colonization models. In the different occupation models analyzed, the results showed a rapid loss of primary and secondary forests (deforestation), mainly due to the dynamics of use, established by the Agriculture/Pasture (A/P) relation and, with heavy dependence due to road construction.

Keywords: land-cover, deforestation, rate fragments, remote sensing, secondary succession

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56 Difficulties for Implementation of Telenursing: An Experience Report

Authors: Jacqueline A. G. Sachett, Cláudia S. Nogueira, Diana C. P. Lima, Jessica T. S. Oliveira, Guilherme K. M. Salazar, Lílian K. Aguiar

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The Polo Amazon Telehealth offers several tools for professionals working in Primary Health Care as a second formative opinion, teleconsulting and training between the different areas, whether medicine, dentistry, nursing, physiotherapy, among others. These activities have a monthly schedule of free access to the municipalities of Amazonas registered. With this premise, and in partnership with the University of the State of Amazonas (UEA), is promoting the practice of the triad; teaching-research-extension in order to collaborate with the enrichment and acquisition of knowledge through educational practices carried out through teleconferences. Therefore, nursing is to join efforts and inserts as a collaborator of this project running, contributing to the education and training of these professionals who are part of the health system in full Amazon. The aim of this study is to report the experience of academic of Amazonas State University nursing course, about the experience in the extension project underway in Polo Telemedicine Amazon. This was a descriptive study, the experience report type, about the experience of nursing academic UEA, by extension 'Telenursing: teleconsulting and second formative opinion for FHS professionals in the state of Amazonas' project, held in Polo Telemedicine Amazon, through an agreement with the UEA and funded by the Foundation of Amazonas Research from July / 2012 to July / 2016. Initially developed active search of members of the Family Health Strategy professionals, in order to provide training and training teams to use the virtual clinic, as well as the virtual environment is the focus of this tool design. The election period was an aggravating factor for the implementation of teleconsulting proposal, due to change of managers in each municipality, requiring the stoppage until they assume their positions. From this definition, we established the need for new training. The first video conference took place on 03.14.2013 for learning and training in the use of Virtual Learning Environment and Virtual Clinic, with the participation of municipalities of Novo Aripuanã, São Paulo de Olivença and Manacapuru. During the whole project was carried out literature about what is being done and produced at the national level about the subject. By the time the telenursing project has received twenty-five (25) consultancy requests. The consultants sent by nursing professionals, all have been answered to date. Faced with the lived experience, particularly in video conferencing, face to cause difficulties issues, such as the fluctuation in the number of participants in activities, difficulty of participants to reconcile the opening hours of the units with the schedule of video conferencing, transmission difficulties and changes schedule. It was concluded that the establishment of connection between the Telehealth points is one of the main factors for the implementation of Telenursing and that this feature is still new for nursing. However, effective training and updating, may provide to these professional category subsidies to quality health care in the Amazon.

Keywords: Amazon, teleconsulting, telehealth, telenursing

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55 Sensor Data Analysis for a Large Mining Major

Authors: Sudipto Shanker Dasgupta

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One of the largest mining companies wanted to look at health analytics for their driverless trucks. These trucks were the key to their supply chain logistics. The automated trucks had multi-level sub-assemblies which would send out sensor information. The use case that was worked on was to capture the sensor signal from the truck subcomponents and analyze the health of the trucks from repair and replacement purview. Open source software was used to stream the data into a clustered Hadoop setup in Amazon Web Services cloud and Apache Spark SQL was used to analyze the data. All of this was achieved through a 10 node amazon 32 core, 64 GB RAM setup real-time analytics was achieved on ‘300 million records’. To check the scalability of the system, the cluster was increased to 100 node setup. This talk will highlight how Open Source software was used to achieve the above use case and the insights on the high data throughput on a cloud set up.

Keywords: streaming analytics, data science, big data, Hadoop, high throughput, sensor data

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54 Enhance the Power of Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Yu Zhang, Pedro Desouza

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Since big data has become substantially more accessible and manageable due to the development of powerful tools for dealing with unstructured data, people are eager to mine information from social media resources that could not be handled in the past. Sentiment analysis, as a novel branch of text mining, has in the last decade become increasingly important in marketing analysis, customer risk prediction and other fields. Scientists and researchers have undertaken significant work in creating and improving their sentiment models. In this paper, we present a concept of selecting appropriate classifiers based on the features and qualities of data sources by comparing the performances of five classifiers with three popular social media data sources: Twitter, Amazon Customer Reviews, and Movie Reviews. We introduced a couple of innovative models that outperform traditional sentiment classifiers for these data sources, and provide insights on how to further improve the predictive power of sentiment analysis. The modelling and testing work was done in R and Greenplum in-database analytic tools.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, social media, Twitter, Amazon, data mining, machine learning, text mining

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53 Palaeo-Environmental Reconstruction of the Wet Zone of Sri Lanka: A Zooarchaeological Perspective

Authors: Kalangi Rodrigo

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Sri Lanka has been known as an island which has a diverse variety of prehistoric occupation among ecological zones. Defining the paleoecology of the past societies has been an archaeological thought developed in the 1960s. It is mainly concerned with the reconstruction from available geological and biological evidence of past biota, populations, communities, landscapes, environments, and ecosystems. Sri Lanka has dealt with this subject, and considerable research has been already undertaken. The fossil and material record of Sri Lanka’s Wet Zone tropical forests continues from c. 38,000–34,000 ybp. This early and persistent human fossil, technical, and cultural florescence, as well as a collection of well-preserved tropical-forest rock shelters with associated 'on-site' palaeoenvironmental records, makes Sri Lanka a central and unusual case study to determine the extent and strength of early human tropical forest encounters. Excavations carried out in prehistoric caves in the low country wet zone has shown that in the last 50,000 years, the temperature in the lowland rainforests has not exceeded 5°C. When taking Batadombalena alone, the entire seven layers have yielded an uninterrupted occupation of Acavus sp and Canerium zeylanicum, a plant that grows in the middle of the rainforest. Acavus, which is highly sensitive to rainforest ecosystems, has been well documented in many of the lowland caves, confirming that the wetland rainforest environment has remained intact at least for the last 50,000 years. If the dry and arid conditions in the upper hills regions affected the wet zone, the Tufted Gray Lunger (semnopithecus priam), must also meet with the prehistoric caves in the wet zone thrown over dry climate. However, the bones in the low country wet zone do not find any of the fragments belonging to Turfed Gray Lunger, and prehistoric human consumption is bestowed with purple-faced leaf monkey (Trachypithecus vetulus) and Toque Macaque (Macaca Sinica). The skeletal remains of Lyriocephalus scutatus, a full-time resident in rain forests, have also been recorded among lowland caves. But, in zoological terms, these remains may be the remains of the Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak), which is currently found in the wet zone. For further investigations, the mtDNA test of genetic diversity (Bottleneck effect) and pollen study from lowland caves should determine whether the wet zone climate has persisted over the last 50,000 years, or whether the dry weather affected in the mountainous region has invaded the wet zone.

Keywords: paleoecology, prehistory, zooarchaeology, reconstruction, palaeo-climate

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52 Characterization of Organic Matter in Spodosol Amazonian by Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Authors: Amanda M. Tadini, Houssam Hajjoul, Gustavo Nicolodelli, Stéphane Mounier, Célia R. Montes, Débora M. B. P. Milori

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Soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role in maintaining soil productivity and accounting for the promotion of biological diversity. The main components of the SOM are the humic substances which can be fractionated according to its solubility in humic acid (HA), fulvic acids (FA) and humin (HU). The determination of the chemical properties of organic matter as well as its interaction with metallic species is an important tool for understanding the structure of the humic fractions. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been studied as a source of information about what is happening at the molecular level in these compounds. Specially, soils of Amazon region are an important ecosystem of the planet. The aim of this study is to understand the molecular and structural composition of HA samples from Spodosol of Amazonia using the fluorescence Emission-Excitation Matrix (EEM) and Time Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRFS). The results showed that the samples of HA showed two fluorescent components; one has a more complex structure and the other one has a simpler structure, which was also seen in TRFS through the evaluation of each sample lifetime. Thus, studies of this nature become important because it aims to evaluate the molecular and structural characteristics of the humic fractions in the region that is considered as one of the most important regions in the world, the Amazon.

Keywords: Amazonian soil, characterization, fluorescence, humic acid, lifetime

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51 Agile Supply Chains and Its Dependency on Air Transport Mode: A Case Study in Amazon

Authors: Fabiana Lucena Oliveira, Aristides da Rocha Oliveira Junior

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This article discusses the dependence on air transport mode of agile supply chains. The agile supply chains are the result of the analysis of the uncertainty supply chain model, which ranks the supply chain, according to the respective product. Thus, understanding the Uncertainty Model and life cycle of products considered standard and innovative is critical to understanding these. The innovative character in the intersection of supply chains arising from the uncertainty model with its most appropriate transport mode. Consider here the variables availability, security and freight as determinants for choosing these modes. Therefore, the research problem is: How agile supply chains maintains logistics competitiveness, as these are dependent on air transport mode? A case study in Manaus Industrial Pole (MIP), an agglomeration model that includes six hundred industries from different backgrounds and billings, located in the Brazilian Amazon. The sample of companies surveyed include those companies whose products are classified in agile supply chains , as innovative and therefore live with the variable uncertainty in the demand for inputs or the supply of finished products. The results confirm the hypothesis that the dependency level of air transport mode is greater than fifty percent. It follows then, that maintain agile supply chain away from suppliers base is expensive (1) , and continuity analysis needs to be remade on each twenty four months (2) , consider that additional freight, handling and storage as members of the logistics costs (3) , and the comparison with the upcoming agile supply chains the world need to consider the location effect (4).

Keywords: uncertainty model, air transport mode, competitiveness, logistics

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50 The Residual Efficacy of Etofenprox WP on Different Surfaces for Malaria Control in the Brazilian Legal Amazon

Authors: Ana Paula S. A. Correa, Allan K. R. Galardo, Luana A. Lima, Talita F. Sobral, Josiane N. Muller, Jessica F. S. Barroso, Nercy V. R. Furtado, Ednaldo C. Rêgo., Jose B. P. Lima

Abstract:

Malaria is a public health problem in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. Among the integrated approaches for anopheline control, the Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) remains one of the main tools in the basic strategy applied in the Amazonian States, where the National Malaria Control Program currently uses one of the insecticides from the pyrethroid class, the Etofenprox WP. Understanding the residual efficacy of insecticides on different surfaces is essential to determine the spray cycles, in order to maintain a rational use and to avoid product waste. The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual efficacy of Etofenprox - VECTRON ® 20 WP on surfaces of Unplastered Cement (UC) and Unpainted Wood (UW) on panels, in field, and in semi-field evaluation of Brazil’s Amapa State. The evaluation criteria used was the cone bioassay test, following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended method, using plastic cones and female mosquitos of Anopheles sp. The tests were carried out in laboratory panels, semi-field evaluation in a “test house” built in the Macapa municipality, and in the field in 20 houses, being ten houses per surface type (UC and UW), in an endemic malaria area in Mazagão’s municipality. The residual efficacy was measured from March to September 2017, starting one day after the spraying, repeated monthly for a period of six months. The UW surface presented higher residual efficacy than the UC. In fact, the UW presented a residual efficacy of the insecticide throughout the period of this study with a mortality rate above 80% in the panels (= 95%), in the "test house" (= 86%) and in field houses ( = 87%). On the UC surface it was observed a mortality decreased in all the tests performed, with a mortality rate of 45, 47 and 29% on panels, semi-field and in field, respectively; however, the residual efficacy ≥ 80% only occurred in the first evaluation after the 24-hour spraying bioassay in the "test house". Thus, only the UW surface meets the specifications of the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) regarding the duration of effective action (three to six months). To sum up, the insecticide residual efficacy presented variability on the different surfaces where it was sprayed. Although the IRS with Etofenprox WP was efficient on UW surfaces, and it can be used in spraying cycles at 4-month intervals, it is important to consider the diversity of houses in the Brazilian Legal Amazon, in order to implement alternatives for vector control, including the evaluation of new products or different formulations types for insecticides.

Keywords: Anopheles, vector control, insecticide, bioassay

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49 A Content Analysis of ‘Junk Food’ Content in Children’s TV Programs: A Comparison of UK Broadcast TV and Video-On-Demand Services

Authors: Alexander B. Barker, Megan Parkin, Shreesh Sinha, Emma Wilson, Rachael L. Murray

Abstract:

Objectives: Exposure to HFSS imagery is associated with consumption of foods high in fat, sugar, or salt (HFSS), and subsequently obesity, among young people. We report and compare the results of two content analyses, one of two popular terrestrial children’s television channels in the UK and the other of a selection of children’s programs available on video-on-demand (VOD) streaming sites. Design: Content analysis of three days’ worth of programs (including advertisements) on two popular children’s television channels broadcast on UK television (CBeebies and Milkshake) as well as a sample of 40 highest-rated children’s programs available on the VOD platforms, Netflix and Amazon Prime, using 1-minute interval coding. Setting: United Kingdom, Participants: None. Results: HFSS content was seen in 181 broadcasts (36%) and in 417 intervals (13%) on terrestrial television, ‘Milkshake’ had a significantly higher proportion of programs/adverts which contained HFSS content than ‘CBeebies’. In VOD platforms, HFSS content was seen in 82 episodes (72% of the total number of episodes), across 459 intervals (19% of the total number of intervals), with no significant difference in the proportion of programs containing HFSS content between Netflix and Amazon Prime. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that HFSS content is common in both popular UK children’s television channels and children's programs on VOD services. Since previous research has shown that HFSS content in the media has an effect on HFSS consumption, children’s television programs broadcast either on TV or VOD services are likely having an effect on HFSS consumption in children and legislative opportunities to prevent this exposure are being missed.

Keywords: public health, epidemiology, obesity, content analysis

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48 First Documented Anesthesia with Use of Low Doses of Tiletamine-Zolazepam Combination in Ovoviparous Amazon Tree Boa Undergoing Emergency Coeliotomy-Case Report

Authors: Krzysztof Buczak, Sonia Lachowska, Pawel Kucharski, Agnieszka Antonczyk

Abstract:

Tiletamine - zolazepam combination is increasingly used in veterinary anaesthesiology in wild animals, including snakes. The available literature shows a lack of information about anesthesia in this mixture in ovoviviparous snakes. The studies show the possibility of using the combination at a dose of 20 mg/kg or more for snake immobilization. This paper presents an anesthetic protocol with the use of a combination of tiletamine - zolazepam at the dose of 10 mg/kg intramuscularly and maintenance with inhalant anesthesia with isoflurane in pure oxygen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the anesthetic protocol to proceed with coeliotomy in Amazon Tree Boa. The patient was a five years old bicolor female Amazon Tree Boa (Corallus hortulanus) with dystocia. The clinical examination reveals significant emaciation (bodyweight 520g), high degree of dehydration, heart rate (HR = 60 / min), pale mucous membranes and poor reactivity. Meloxicam (1 mg/kg) and tramadol (10 mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously and the patient was placed in an incubator with access to fresh oxygen. Four hours later, the combination of tiletamine - zolazepam (10 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly for induction of anesthesia. The snake was intubated and connected to inhalant anesthesia equipment. For maintenance, the anesthesia isoflurane in pure oxygen was used due to apnea, which occurs 30 minutes after the induction semi-closed system was attached and the ventilator was turned on (PCV system, four breaths per minute, 8 cm of H2O). Cardiopulmonary parameters (HR, RR, SPO2, ETCO2, ETISO) were assessed throughout the procedure. During the entire procedure, the operating room was heated to a temperature of 26 degrees Celsius. Additionally, the hose was placed on a heating mat, which maintained a temperature of 30 degrees Celsius. For 15 minutes after induction, the loss of muscle tone was observed from the head to the tail. Induction of general anesthesia was scored as good because of the possibility of intubation. During the whole procedure, the heart rate was at the rate of 58 beats per minute (bpm). Ventilation parameters were stable throughout the procedure. The recovery period lasts for about 4 hours after the end of general anesthesia. The muscle tension returned from tail to head. The snake started to breathe spontaneously within 1,5 hours after the end of general anesthesia. The protocol of general anesthesia with the combination of tiletamine- zolazepam with a dose of 10 mg/kg is useful for proceeding with the emergency coeliotomy in maintenance with isoflurane in oxygen. Further study about the impact of the combination of tiletamine- zolazepam for the recovery period is needed.

Keywords: anesthesia, corallus hortulanus, ovoviparous, snake, tiletamine, zolazepam

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47 Amazonian Native Biomass Residue for Sustainable Development of Isolated Communities

Authors: Bruna C. Brasileiro, José Alberto S. Sá, Brigida R. P. Rocha

Abstract:

The Amazon region development was related to large-scale projects associated with economic cycles. Economic cycles were originated from policies implemented by successive governments that exploited the resources and have not yet been able to improve the local population's quality of life. These implanted development strategies were based on vertical planning centered on State that didn’t know and showed no interest in know the local needs and potentialities. The future of this region is a challenge that depends on a model of development based on human progress associated to intelligent, selective and environmentally safe exploitation of natural resources settled in renewable and no-polluting energy generation sources – a differential factor of attraction of new investments in a context of global energy and environmental crisis. In this process the planning and support of Brazilian State, local government, and selective international partnership are essential. Residual biomass utilization allows the sustainable development by the integration of production chain and energy generation process which could improve employment condition and income of riversides. Therefore, this research discourses how the use of local residual biomass (açaí lumps) could be an important instrument of sustainable development for isolated communities located at Alcobaça Sustainable Development Reserve (SDR), Tucuruí, Pará State, since in this region the energy source more accessible for who can pay are the fossil fuels that reaches about 54% of final energy consumption by the integration between the açaí productive chain and the use of renewable energy source besides it can promote less environmental impact and decrease the use of fossil fuels and carbon dioxide emissions.

Keywords: Amazon, biomass, renewable energy, sustainability

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46 Classification of Forest Types Using Remote Sensing and Self-Organizing Maps

Authors: Wanderson Goncalves e Goncalves, José Alberto Silva de Sá

Abstract:

Human actions are a threat to the balance and conservation of the Amazon forest. Therefore the environmental monitoring services play an important role as the preservation and maintenance of this environment. This study classified forest types using data from a forest inventory provided by the 'Florestal e da Biodiversidade do Estado do Pará' (IDEFLOR-BIO), located between the municipalities of Santarém, Juruti and Aveiro, in the state of Pará, Brazil, covering an area approximately of 600,000 hectares, Bands 3, 4 and 5 of the TM-Landsat satellite image, and Self - Organizing Maps. The information from the satellite images was extracted using QGIS software 2.8.1 Wien and was used as a database for training the neural network. The midpoints of each sample of forest inventory have been linked to images. Later the Digital Numbers of the pixels have been extracted, composing the database that fed the training process and testing of the classifier. The neural network was trained to classify two forest types: Rain Forest of Lowland Emerging Canopy (Dbe) and Rain Forest of Lowland Emerging Canopy plus Open with palm trees (Dbe + Abp) in the Mamuru Arapiuns glebes of Pará State, and the number of examples in the training data set was 400, 200 examples for each class (Dbe and Dbe + Abp), and the size of the test data set was 100, with 50 examples for each class (Dbe and Dbe + Abp). Therefore, total mass of data consisted of 500 examples. The classifier was compiled in Orange Data Mining 2.7 Software and was evaluated in terms of the confusion matrix indicators. The results of the classifier were considered satisfactory, and being obtained values of the global accuracy equal to 89% and Kappa coefficient equal to 78% and F1 score equal to 0,88. It evaluated also the efficiency of the classifier by the ROC plot (receiver operating characteristics), obtaining results close to ideal ratings, showing it to be a very good classifier, and demonstrating the potential of this methodology to provide ecosystem services, particularly in anthropogenic areas in the Amazon.

Keywords: artificial neural network, computational intelligence, pattern recognition, unsupervised learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
45 Sociocultural and Critical Approach for Summer Study Abroad Program in Higher Education

Authors: Magda Silva

Abstract:

This paper presents the empirical and the theoretical principles associated with the Duke in Brazil Summer Program. Using a sociocultural model and critical theory, this study abroad maximizes students’ ability to enrich language competence, intercultural skills, and critical thinking. The fourteen-year implementation of this project demonstrates the global importance of foreign language teaching as the program unfolds into real life scenarios within the cultures of distinct regions of Brazil; Cosmopolitan Rio, in the southeast, and rural Belém, northern Amazon region.

Keywords: study abroad, critical thinking, sociocultural theory, foreign language, empirical, theoretical

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
44 KBASE Technological Framework - Requirements

Authors: Ivan Stanev, Maria Koleva

Abstract:

Automated software development issues are addressed in this paper. Layers and packages of a Common Platform for Automated Programming (CPAP) are defined based on Service Oriented Architecture, Cloud computing, Knowledge based automated software engineering (KBASE) and Method of automated programming. Tools of seven leading companies (AWS of Amazon, Azure of Microsoft, App Engine of Google, vCloud of VMWare, Bluemix of IBM, Helion of HP, OCPaaS of Oracle) are analyzed in the context of CPAP. Based on the results of the analysis CPAP requirements are formulated

Keywords: automated programming, cloud computing, knowledge based software engineering, service oriented architecture

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43 Preliminary Analysis of a Phylogeography Study of Dendropsophus minutus in the Guiana Shield

Authors: Mera-Martínez Daniela

Abstract:

Dendropsophus minutus, is a species distributed in South America including the slopes of the Andes, the Amazon basin, forests of southeastern Brazil and in Guyana where tropical forests are characteristic. The relationship of amphibians found in this locality is evidenced by molecular markers, with the objective of analyzing if the geographic distance is influencing the structure of the populations of D. minutus in Guyana; we analyzed 65 sequences from the 3 localities of Guyana where haplotype networks, Mantel Test and phylogeny were realized to know the influence. It was evidenced that there is a haplotypic difference in the locality of Guyana compared to Suriname and French Guyana, but this does not have a correlation with the geographic distance, but this one can be influenced by the conditions of the places.

Keywords: phylogeography, Dendropsophus, geographic distance, molecular markers

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42 The Role of Logistics Services in Influencing Customer Satisfaction and Reviews in an Online Marketplace

Authors: nafees mahbub, blake tindol, utkarsh shrivastava, kuanchin chen

Abstract:

Online shopping has become an integral part of businesses today. Big players such as Amazon are setting the bar for delivery services, and many businesses are working towards meeting them. However, what happens if a seller underestimates or overestimates the delivery time? Does it translate to consumer comments, ratings, or lost sales? Although several prior studies have investigated the impact of poor logistics on customer satisfaction, that impact of under estimation of delivery times has been rarely considered. The study uses real-time customer online purchase data to study the impact of missed delivery times on satisfaction.

Keywords: LOST SALES, DELIVERY TIME, CUSTOMER SATISFACTION, CUSTOMER REVIEWS

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41 Artificial Intelligence Based Meme Generation Technology for Engaging Audience in Social Media

Authors: Andrew Kurochkin, Kostiantyn Bokhan

Abstract:

In this study, a new meme dataset of ~650K meme instances was created, a technology of meme generation based on the state of the art deep learning technique - GPT-2 model was researched, a comparative analysis of machine-generated memes and human-created was conducted. We justified that Amazon Mechanical Turk workers can be used for the approximate estimating of users' behavior in a social network, more precisely to measure engagement. It was shown that generated memes cause the same engagement as human memes that produced low engagement in the social network (historically). Thus, generated memes are less engaging than random memes created by humans.

Keywords: content generation, computational social science, memes generation, Reddit, social networks, social media interaction

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