Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 764

Search results for: amazon forest

764 The Value of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in a Globalised World: A Case Study from the Peruvian Amazon

Authors: Anna Juliet Stephens

Abstract:

This research emphasises the importance of incorporating traditional ecological knowledge into Peru’s development plans, as a way to manage some of the more adverse impacts of globalisation which continue to impinge on one of the world’s most biodiverse regions. In doing so, it argues for a development strategy to be implemented in the Peruvian Amazon which prioritises local and indigenous rights, needs and perspectives.

Keywords: traditional ecological knowledge, peruvian amazon, globalisation, indigenous, development

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
763 Overview of the 2017 Fire Season in Amazon

Authors: Ana C. V. Freitas, Luciana B. M. Pires, Joao P. Martins

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In recent years, fire dynamics in deforestation areas of tropical forests have received considerable attention because of their relationship to climate change. Climate models project great increases in the frequency and area of drought in the Amazon region, which may increase the occurrence of fires. This study analyzes the historical record number of fire outbreaks in 2017 using satellite-derived data sets of active fire detections, burned area, precipitation, and data of the Fire Program from the Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC/INPE). A downward trend in the number of fire outbreaks occurred in the first half of 2017, in relation to the previous year. This decrease can be related to the fact that 2017 was not an El Niño year and, therefore, the observed rainfall and temperature in the Amazon region was close to normal conditions. Meanwhile, the worst period in history for fire outbreaks began with the subsequent arrival of the dry season. September of 2017 exceeded all monthly records for number of fire outbreaks per month in the entire series. This increase was mainly concentrated in Bolivia and in the states of Amazonas, northeastern Pará, northern Rondônia and Acre, regions with high densities of rural settlements, which strongly suggests that human action is the predominant factor, aggravated by the lack of precipitation during the dry season allowing the fires to spread and reach larger areas. Thus, deforestation in the Amazon is primarily a human-driven process: climate trends may be providing additional influences.

Keywords: Amazon forest, climate change, deforestation, human-driven process, fire outbreaks

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762 Classification of Forest Types Using Remote Sensing and Self-Organizing Maps

Authors: Wanderson Goncalves e Goncalves, José Alberto Silva de Sá

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Human actions are a threat to the balance and conservation of the Amazon forest. Therefore the environmental monitoring services play an important role as the preservation and maintenance of this environment. This study classified forest types using data from a forest inventory provided by the 'Florestal e da Biodiversidade do Estado do Pará' (IDEFLOR-BIO), located between the municipalities of Santarém, Juruti and Aveiro, in the state of Pará, Brazil, covering an area approximately of 600,000 hectares, Bands 3, 4 and 5 of the TM-Landsat satellite image, and Self - Organizing Maps. The information from the satellite images was extracted using QGIS software 2.8.1 Wien and was used as a database for training the neural network. The midpoints of each sample of forest inventory have been linked to images. Later the Digital Numbers of the pixels have been extracted, composing the database that fed the training process and testing of the classifier. The neural network was trained to classify two forest types: Rain Forest of Lowland Emerging Canopy (Dbe) and Rain Forest of Lowland Emerging Canopy plus Open with palm trees (Dbe + Abp) in the Mamuru Arapiuns glebes of Pará State, and the number of examples in the training data set was 400, 200 examples for each class (Dbe and Dbe + Abp), and the size of the test data set was 100, with 50 examples for each class (Dbe and Dbe + Abp). Therefore, total mass of data consisted of 500 examples. The classifier was compiled in Orange Data Mining 2.7 Software and was evaluated in terms of the confusion matrix indicators. The results of the classifier were considered satisfactory, and being obtained values of the global accuracy equal to 89% and Kappa coefficient equal to 78% and F1 score equal to 0,88. It evaluated also the efficiency of the classifier by the ROC plot (receiver operating characteristics), obtaining results close to ideal ratings, showing it to be a very good classifier, and demonstrating the potential of this methodology to provide ecosystem services, particularly in anthropogenic areas in the Amazon.

Keywords: artificial neural network, computational intelligence, pattern recognition, unsupervised learning

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761 Drivers of Deforestation in the Colombian Amazon: An Empirical Causal Loop Diagram of Food Security and Land-Use Change

Authors: Jesica López, Deniz Koca, Asaf Tzachor

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In 2016 the historic peace accord between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) had no strong mechanism for managing changes to land use and the environment. Since the end of a 60-year conflict in Colombia, large areas of forest in the Amazon region have been rapidly converted to agricultural uses, most recently by cattle ranching. This suggests that the peace agreement presents a threat to the conservation of the country's rainforest. We analyze the effects of cattle ranching as a driver and accelerator of deforestation from a systemic perspective, focusing on two key leverage points the legal and illegal activities involved in the cattle ranching practices. We map and understand the inherent dynamic complexity of deforestation, including factors such as land policy instruments, national strategy to tackle deforestation, land use nexus with Amazonian food systems, and loss of biodiversity. Our results show that deforestation inside Colombian Protected Areas (PAs) in the Amazon region and the surrounding buffer areas has accelerated with the onset of peace. By using a systems analysis approach, we contextualized the competition of land between cattle ranching and the need to protect tropical forests and their biodiversity loss. We elaborate on future recommendations for land use management decisions making suggest the inclusion of an Amazonian food system, interconnecting and visualizing the synergies between sustainable development goals, climate action (SDG 13) and life on land (SDG 15).

Keywords: tropical rainforest, deforestation, sustainable land use, food security, Colombian Amazon

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760 Alexa (Machine Learning) in Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Loulwah Bokhari, Jori Nazer, Hala Sultan

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Nowadays, artificial intelligence (AI) is used as a foundation for many activities in modern computing applications at home, in vehicles, and in businesses. Many modern machines are built to carry out a specific activity or purpose. This is where the Amazon Alexa application comes in, as it is used as a virtual assistant. The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of Amazon Alexa among people and how it has improved and made simple daily tasks easier for many people. We gave our participants several questions regarding Amazon Alexa and if they had recently used or heard of it, as well as the different tasks it provides and whether it successfully satisfied their needs. Overall, we found that participants who have recently used Alexa have found it to be helpful in their daily tasks.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, Echo system, machine learning, feature for feature match

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759 Quantitative Analysis of Three Sustainability Pillars for Water Tradeoff Projects in Amazon

Authors: Taha Anjamrooz, Sareh Rajabi, Hasan Mahmmud, Ghassan Abulebdeh

Abstract:

Water availability, as well as water demand, are not uniformly distributed in time and space. Numerous extra-large water diversion projects are launched in Amazon to alleviate water scarcities. This research utilizes statistical analysis to examine the temporal and spatial features of 40 extra-large water diversion projects in Amazon. Using a network analysis method, the correlation between seven major basins is measured, while the impact analysis method is employed to explore the associated economic, environmental, and social impacts. The study unearths that the development of water diversion in Amazon has witnessed four stages, from a preliminary or initial period to a phase of rapid development. It is observed that the length of water diversion channels and the quantity of water transferred have amplified significantly in the past five decades. As of 2015, in Amazon, more than 75 billion m³ of water was transferred amidst 12,000 km long channels. These projects extend over half of the Amazon Area. The River Basin E is currently the most significant source of transferred water. Through inter-basin water diversions, Amazon gains the opportunity to enhance the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 5%. Nevertheless, the construction costs exceed 70 billion US dollars, which is higher than any other country. The average cost of transferred water per unit has amplified with time and scale but reduced from western to eastern Amazon. Additionally, annual total energy consumption for pumping exceeded 40 billion kilowatt-hours, while the associated greenhouse gas emissions are assessed to be 35 million tons. Noteworthy to comprehend that ecological problems initiated by water diversion influence the River Basin B and River Basin D. Due to water diversion, more than 350 thousand individuals have been relocated, away from their homes. In order to enhance water diversion sustainability, four categories of innovative measures are provided for decision-makers: development of water tradeoff projects strategies, improvement of integrated water resource management, the formation of water-saving inducements, and pricing approach, and application of ex-post assessment.

Keywords: sustainability, water trade-off projects, environment, Amazon

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
758 Software Defined Storage: Object Storage over Hadoop Platform

Authors: Amritesh Srivastava, Gaurav Sharma

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The purpose of this project is to develop an open source object storage system that is highly durable, scalable and reliable. There are two representative systems in cloud computing: Google and Amazon. Their storage systems for Google GFS and Amazon S3 provide high reliability, performance and stability. Our proposed system is highly inspired from Amazon S3. We are using Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) Java API to implement our system. We propose the architecture of object storage system based on Hadoop. We discuss the requirements of our system, what we expect from our system and what problems we may encounter. We also give detailed design proposal along with the abstract source code to implement it. The final goal of the system is to provide REST based access to our object storage system that exists on top of HDFS.

Keywords: Hadoop, HBase, object storage, REST

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
757 Community Forest Management Practice in Nepal: Public Understanding of Forest Benefit

Authors: Chandralal Shrestha

Abstract:

In the developing countries like Nepal, the community based forest management approach has often been glorified as one of the best forest management alternatives to maximize the forest benefits. Though the approach has succeeded to construct a local level institution and conserve the forest biodiversity, how the local communities perceived about the forest benefits, the question always remains silent among the researchers and policy makers. The paper aims to explore the understanding of forest benefits from the perspective of local communities who used the forests in terms of institutional stability, equity and livelihood opportunity, and ecological stability. The paper revealed that the local communities have mixed understanding over the forest benefits. The institutional and ecological activities carried out by the local communities indicated that they have better understanding over the forest benefits. However, inequality while sharing the forest benefits, low pricing strategy and its negative consequences in valuation of forest products and limited livelihood opportunities indicated the poor understanding.

Keywords: community based forest management, forest benefits, lowland, Nepal

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756 Linking the Genetic Signature of Free-Living Soil Diazotrophs with Process Rates under Land Use Conversion in the Amazon Rainforest

Authors: Rachel Danielson, Brendan Bohannan, S.M. Tsai, Kyle Meyer, Jorge L.M. Rodrigues

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The Amazon Rainforest is a global diversity hotspot and crucial carbon sink, but approximately 20% of its total extent has been deforested- primarily for the establishment of cattle pasture. Understanding the impact of this large-scale disturbance on soil microbial community composition and activity is crucial in understanding potentially consequential shifts in nutrient or greenhouse gas cycling, as well as adding to the body of knowledge concerning how these complex communities respond to human disturbance. In this study, surface soils (0-10cm) were collected from three forests and three 45-year-old pastures in Rondonia, Brazil (the Amazon state with the greatest rate of forest destruction) in order to determine the impact of forest conversion on microbial communities involved in nitrogen fixation. Soil chemical and physical parameters were paired with measurements of microbial activity and genetic profiles to determine how community composition and process rates relate to environmental conditions. Measuring both the natural abundance of 15N in total soil N, as well as incorporation of enriched 15N2 under incubation has revealed that conversion of primary forest to cattle pasture results in a significant increase in the rate of nitrogen fixation by free-living diazotrophs. Quantification of nifH gene copy numbers (an essential subunit encoding the nitrogenase enzyme) correspondingly reveals a significant increase of genes in pasture compared to forest soils. Additionally, genetic sequencing of both nifH genes and transcripts shows a significant increase in the diversity of the present and metabolically active diazotrophs within the soil community. Levels of both organic and inorganic nitrogen tend to be lower in pastures compared to forests, with ammonium rather than nitrate as the dominant inorganic form. However, no significant or consistent differences in total, extractable, permanganate-oxidizable, or loss-on-ignition carbon are present between the two land-use types. Forest conversion is associated with a 0.5- 1.0 unit pH increase, but concentrations of many biologically relevant nutrients such as phosphorus do not increase consistently. Increases in free-living diazotrophic community abundance and activity appear to be related to shifts in carbon to nitrogen pool ratios. Furthermore, there may be an important impact of transient, low molecular weight plant-root-derived organic carbon on free-living diazotroph communities not captured in this study. Preliminary analysis of nitrogenase gene variant composition using NovoSeq metagenomic sequencing indicates that conversion of forest to pasture may significantly enrich vanadium-based nitrogenases. This indication is complemented by a significant decrease in available soil molybdenum. Very little is known about the ecology of diazotrophs utilizing vanadium-based nitrogenases, so further analysis may reveal important environmental conditions favoring their abundance and diversity in soil systems. Taken together, the results of this study indicate a significant change in nitrogen cycling and diazotroph community composition with the conversion of the Amazon Rainforest. This may have important implications for the sustainability of cattle pastures once established since nitrogen is a crucial nutrient for forage grass productivity.

Keywords: free-living diazotrophs, land use change, metagenomic sequencing, nitrogen fixation

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755 Quantitative Analysis of Potential Rainwater Harvesting and Supply to a Rural Community at Northeast of Amazon Region, Brazil

Authors: N. Y. H. Konagano

Abstract:

Riverside population of Brazilian amazon suffers drinking water scarcity, seeking alternative water resources such as well and rivers, ordinary polluted. Although Amazon Region holds high annual river inflow and enough available of underground water, human activities have compromised the conservation of water resources. In addition, decentralized rural households make difficult to access of potable water. Main objective is to analyze quantitatively the potential of rainwater harvesting to human consumption at Marupaúba community, located in northeast of Amazon region, Brazil. Methods such as historical rainfall data series of municipality of Tomé-Açu at Pará state were obtained from Hydrological Information System of National Water Agency (ANA). Besides, Rippl method was used to calculate, mainly, volume of the reservoir based on difference of water demand and volume available through rainwater using as references two houses (CA I and CA II) as model of rainwater catchment and supply. Results presented that, from years 1984 to 2017, average annual precipitation was 2.607 mm, average maximum precipitation peak was 474 mm on March and average minimum peak on September was 44 mm. All months, of a year, surplus volume of water have presented in relation to demand, considering catchment area (CA) I = 134.4m² and demand volume =0.72 m³/month; and, CA II = 81.84 m² and demand volume = 0.48 m³/month. Based on results, it is concluded that it is feasible to use rainwater for the supply of the rural community Marupaúba, since the access of drinking water is a human right and the lack of this resource compromises health and daily life of human beings.

Keywords: Amazon Region, rainwater harvesting, rainwater resource, rural community

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754 Community Forestry Programme through the Local Forest Users Group, Nepal

Authors: Daniyal Neupane

Abstract:

Establishment of community forestry in Nepal is a successful step in the conservation of forests. Community forestry programme through the local forest users group has shown its positive impacts in the society. This paper discusses an overview of the present scenario of the community forestry in Nepal. It describes the brief historical background, some important forest legislations, and organization of forest. The paper also describes the internal conflicts between forest users and district forest offices, and possible resolution. It also suggests some of the aspects of community forestry in which the research needs to be focused for the better management of the forests in Nepal.

Keywords: community forest, conservation of forest, local forest users group, better management, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
753 Simulation of Forest Fire Using Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Mohammad F. Fauzi, Nurul H. Shahba M. Shahrun, Nurul W. Hamzah, Mohd Noah A. Rahman, Afzaal H. Seyal

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a simulation system using Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that will be distributed around the forest for early forest fire detection and to locate the areas affected. In Brunei Darussalam, approximately 78% of the nation is covered by forest. Since the forest is Brunei’s most precious natural assets, it is very important to protect and conserve our forest. The hot climate in Brunei Darussalam can lead to forest fires which can be a fatal threat to the preservation of our forest. The process consists of getting data from the sensors, analyzing the data and producing an alert. The key factors that we are going to analyze are the surrounding temperature, wind speed and wind direction, humidity of the air and soil.

Keywords: forest fire monitor, humidity, wind direction, wireless sensor network

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752 Economic Benefits in Community Based Forest Management from Users Perspective in Community Forestry, Nepal

Authors: Sovit Pujari

Abstract:

In the developing countries like Nepal, the community-based forest management approach has often been glorified as one of the best forest management alternatives to maximize the forest benefits. Though the approach has succeeded to construct a local level institution and conserve the forest biodiversity, how the local communities perceived about the forest benefits, the question always remains silent among the researchers and policy makers. The paper aims to explore the understanding of forest benefits from the perspective of local communities who used the forests in terms of institutional stability, equity and livelihood opportunity, and ecological stability. The paper revealed that the local communities have mixed understanding over the forest benefits. The institutional and ecological activities carried out by the local communities indicated that they have a better understanding over the forest benefits. However, inequality while sharing the forest benefits, low pricing strategy and its negative consequences in the valuation of forest products and limited livelihood opportunities indicating the poor understanding.

Keywords: community based forest management, low pricing strategy, forest benefits, livelihood opportunities, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
751 Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosols over South America: A Case Study in the 2019 Amazon Rainforest Wildfires Season

Authors: Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Dirceu Luis Herdies, Debora Souza Alvim, Eder Paulo Vendrasco, Silvio Nilo Figueroa, Jayant Pendharkar, Julio Pablo Reyes Fernandez

Abstract:

Biomass-burning episodes are quite common in the central Amazon rainforest and represent a dominant source of aerosols during the dry season, between August and October. The increase in the occurrence of fires in 2019 in the world’s largest biomes has captured the attention of the international community. In particular, a rare and extreme smoke-related event occurred in the afternoon of Monday, August 19, 2019, in the most populous city in the Western Hemisphere, the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in southeastern Brazil. The sky over the SPMA suddenly blackened, with the day turning into night, as reported by several news media around the world. In order to clarify whether or not the smoke that plunged the SPMA into sudden darkness was related to wildfires in the Amazon rainforest region, a set of 48-hour simulations over South America were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model at 20 km horizontal resolution, on a daily basis, during the period from August 16 to August 19, 2019. The model results were satisfactorily compared against satellite-based data products and in situ measurements collected from air quality monitoring sites. Although a very strong smoke transport coming from the Amazon rainforest was observed in the middle of the afternoon on August 19, its impact on air quality over the SPMA took place in upper levels far above the surface, where, conversely, low air pollutant concentrations were observed.

Keywords: Amazon rainforest, biomass burning aerosols, São Paulo metropolitan area, WRF-Chem model

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750 Endogenous Development and Sustainable Perspectives: The Case of Traditional Communities Located around the Area of Management of Precious Wood Amazon

Authors: Débora Ramos Santiago

Abstract:

Endogenous development usually apresent a deep approach to locational aspects, considering the potential, knowledge and the workforce, as encouragement to articulate the entire productive activity of a community. In the case of communities located around the area of management of the company Precious Wood Amazon (PWA), their endogenous development is subject to the dynamic of this company, which operates a certified way, seeking alternatives to mitigate and compensate the damages caused by its activities. This article soughts to present the socio-economic and environmental challenges to promote of the endogenous development of these communities, identifying the relationship of the PWA in this process. The communities analyzed emerge with poor socioeconomic conditions, futhermore, their ecosystem characteristics differ spatially from each other, which modifies the entire production dynamics. The family agriculture was an important source of income, but needs investment and technical assistance. The participation of PWA in the promotion of the endogenous development of the communities was proved significant, because of the intense sustainable actions practice by PWA. Many are the challenges that exist in these communities, so its fundamental to elaborate public policies to these specific areas.

Keywords: endogenous development, traditional communities, Amazon, PWA

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749 Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Stock Potential of Major Forest Types in the Foot Hills of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, India

Authors: B. Palanikumaran, N. Kanagaraj, M. Sangareswari, V. Sailaja, Kapil Sihag

Abstract:

The present study aimed to estimate the carbon sequestration potential of major forest types present in the foothills of Nilgiri biosphere reserve. The total biomass carbon stock was estimated in tropical thorn forest, tropical dry deciduous forest and tropical moist deciduous forest as 14.61 t C ha⁻¹ 75.16 t C ha⁻¹ and 187.52 t C ha⁻¹ respectively. The density and basal area were estimated in tropical thorn forest, tropical dry deciduous forest, tropical moist deciduous forest as 173 stems ha⁻¹, 349 stems ha⁻¹, 391 stems ha⁻¹ and 6.21 m² ha⁻¹, 31.09 m² ha⁻¹, 67.34 m² ha⁻¹ respectively. The soil carbon stock of different forest ecosystems was estimated, and the results revealed that tropical moist deciduous forest (71.74 t C ha⁻¹) accounted for more soil carbon stock when compared to tropical dry deciduous forest (31.80 t C ha⁻¹) and tropical thorn forest (3.99 t C ha⁻¹). The tropical moist deciduous forest has the maximum annual leaf litter which was 12.77 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹ followed by 6.44 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹ litter fall of tropical dry deciduous forest. The tropical thorn forest accounted for 3.42 t ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ leaf litter production. The leaf litter carbon stock of tropical thorn forest, tropical dry deciduous forest and tropical moist deciduous forest found to be 1.02 t C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ 2.28 t⁻¹ C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ and 5.42 t C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ respectively. The results explained that decomposition percent at the soil surface in the following order.tropical dry deciduous forest (77.66 percent) > tropical thorn forest (69.49 percent) > tropical moist deciduous forest (63.17 percent). Decomposition percent at soil subsurface was studied, and the highest decomposition percent was observed in tropical dry deciduous forest (80.52 percent) followed by tropical moist deciduous forest (77.65 percent) and tropical thorn forest (72.10 percent). The decomposition percent was higher at soil subsurface. Among the three forest type, tropical moist deciduous forest accounted for the highest bacterial (59.67 x 105cfu’s g⁻¹ soil), actinomycetes (74.87 x 104cfu’s g⁻¹ soil) and fungal (112.60 x10³cfu’s g⁻¹ soil) population. The overall observation of the study helps to conclude that, the tropical moist deciduous forest has the potential of storing higher carbon content as biomass with the value of 264.68 t C ha⁻¹ and microbial populations.

Keywords: basal area, carbon sequestration, carbon stock, Nilgiri biosphere reserve

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748 Dynamics of the Landscape in the Different Colonization Models Implemented in the Legal Amazon

Authors: Valdir Moura, FranciléIa De Oliveira E. Silva, Erivelto Mercante, Ranieli Dos Anjos De Souza, Jerry Adriani Johann

Abstract:

Several colonization projects were implemented in the Brazilian Legal Amazon in the 1970s and 1980s. Among all of these colonization projects, the most prominent were those with the Fishbone and Topographic models. Within this scope, the projects of settlements known as Anari and Machadinho were created, which stood out because they are contiguous areas with different models and structure of occupation and colonization. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the dynamics of Land-Use and Land-Cover (LULC) in two different colonization models, implanted in the State of Rondonia in the 1980s. The Fishbone and Topographic models were implanted in the Anari and Machadinho settlements respectively. The understanding of these two forms of occupation will help in future colonization programs of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. These settlements are contiguous areas with different occupancy structures. A 32-year Landsat time series (1984-2016) was used to evaluate the rates and trends in the LULC process in the different colonization models. In the different occupation models analyzed, the results showed a rapid loss of primary and secondary forests (deforestation), mainly due to the dynamics of use, established by the Agriculture/Pasture (A/P) relation and, with heavy dependence due to road construction.

Keywords: land-cover, deforestation, rate fragments, remote sensing, secondary succession

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747 Insect Outbreaks, Harvesting and Wildfire in Forests: Mathematical Models for Coupling Disturbances

Authors: M. C. A. Leite, B. Chen-Charpentier, F. Agusto

Abstract:

A long-term goal of sustainable forest management is a relatively stable source of wood and a stable forest age-class structure has become the goal of many forest management practices. In the absence of disturbances, this forest management goal could easily be achieved. However, in the face of recurring insect outbreaks and other disruptive processes forest planning becomes more difficult, requiring knowledge of the effects on the forest of a wide variety of environmental factors (e.g., habitat heterogeneity, fire size and frequency, harvesting, insect outbreaks, and age distributions). The association between distinct forest disturbances and the potential effect on forest dynamics is a complex matter, particularly when evaluated over time and at large scale, and is not well understood. However, gaining knowledge in this area is crucial for a sustainable forest management. Mathematical modeling is a tool that can be used to broader the understanding in this area. In this talk we will introduce mathematical models formulation incorporating the effect of insect outbreaks either as a single disturbance in the forest population dynamics or coupled with other disturbances: either wildfire or harvesting. The results and ecological insights will be discussed.

Keywords: age-structured forest population, disturbances interaction, harvesting insects outbreak dynamics, mathematical modeling

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746 Assessment of Non-Timber Forest Products from Community Managed Forest of Thenzawl Forest Division, Mizoram, Northeast India

Authors: K. Lalhmingsangi, U. K. Sahoo

Abstract:

Non-Timber Forest Products represent one of the key sources of income and subsistence to the fringe communities living in rural areas. A study was conducted for the assessment of NTFP within the community forest of five villages under Thenzawl forest division. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), questionnaire, field exercise, discussion and interview with the first hand NTFP exploiter and sellers was adopted for the field study. Fuel wood, medicinal plants, fodder, wild vegetables, fruits, broom grass, thatch grass, bamboo pole and cane species are the main NTFP harvested from the community forest. Among all the NTFPs, the highest percentage of household involvement was found in fuel wood, i.e. 53% of household and least in medicinal plants 5%. They harvest for their own consumption as well as for selling to the market to meet their needs. Edible food and fruits are sold to the market and it was estimated that 300 (Rs/hh/yr) was earned by each household through the selling of this NTFP from the community forest alone. No marketing channels are linked with fuelwood, medicinal plants and fodder since they harvest only for their own consumption.

Keywords: community forest, subsistence, non-timber forest products, Thenzawl Forest Division

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745 Design an Architectural Model for Deploying Wireless Sensor Network to Prevent Forest Fire

Authors: Saurabh Shukla, G. N. Pandey

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The fires have become the most serious disasters to forest resources and the human environment. In recent years, due to climate change, human activities and other factors the frequency of forest fires has increased considerably. The monitoring and prevention of forest fires have now become a global concern for forest fire prevention organizations. Currently, the methods for forest fire prevention largely consist of patrols, observation from watch towers. Thus, software like deployment of the wireless sensor network to prevent forest fire is being developed to get a better estimate of the temperature and humidity prospects. Now days, wireless sensor networks are beginning to be deployed at an accelerated pace. It is not unrealistic to expect that in coming years the world will be covered with wireless sensor networks. This new technology has lots of unlimited potentials and can be used for numerous application areas including environmental, medical, military, transportation, entertainment, crisis management, homeland defense, and smart spaces.

Keywords: deployment, sensors, wireless sensor networks, forest fires

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744 Brand Content Optimization: A Major Challenge for Sellers on Marketplaces

Authors: Richardson Ciguene, Bertrand Marron, Nicolas Habert

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Today, more and more consumers are purchasing their products and services online. At the same time, the penetration rate of very small and medium-sized businesses on marketplaces continues to increase, which has the direct impact of intensifying competition between sellers. Thus, only the best-optimized deals are ranked well by algorithms and are visible to consumers. However, it is almost impossible to know all the Brand Content rules and criteria established by marketplaces, which is essential to optimizing their product sheets, especially since these rules change constantly. In this paper, we propose to detail this question of Brand Content optimization by taking into account the case of Amazon in order to capture the scientific dimension behind such a subject. In a second step, we will present the genesis of our research project, DEEPERFECT, which aims to set up original methods and effective tools in order to help sellers present on marketplaces in the optimization of their branded content.

Keywords: e-commerce, scoring, marketplace, Amazon, brand content, product sheets

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743 Extraction of Forest Plantation Resources in Selected Forest of San Manuel, Pangasinan, Philippines Using LiDAR Data for Forest Status Assessment

Authors: Mark Joseph Quinto, Roan Beronilla, Guiller Damian, Eliza Camaso, Ronaldo Alberto

Abstract:

Forest inventories are essential to assess the composition, structure and distribution of forest vegetation that can be used as baseline information for management decisions. Classical forest inventory is labor intensive and time-consuming and sometimes even dangerous. The use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) in forest inventory would improve and overcome these restrictions. This study was conducted to determine the possibility of using LiDAR derived data in extracting high accuracy forest biophysical parameters and as a non-destructive method for forest status analysis of San Manual, Pangasinan. Forest resources extraction was carried out using LAS tools, GIS, Envi and .bat scripts with the available LiDAR data. The process includes the generation of derivatives such as Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Canopy Height Model (CHM) and Canopy Cover Model (CCM) in .bat scripts followed by the generation of 17 composite bands to be used in the extraction of forest classification covers using ENVI 4.8 and GIS software. The Diameter in Breast Height (DBH), Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and Carbon Stock (CS) were estimated for each classified forest cover and Tree Count Extraction was carried out using GIS. Subsequently, field validation was conducted for accuracy assessment. Results showed that the forest of San Manuel has 73% Forest Cover, which is relatively much higher as compared to the 10% canopy cover requirement. On the extracted canopy height, 80% of the tree’s height ranges from 12 m to 17 m. CS of the three forest covers based on the AGB were: 20819.59 kg/20x20 m for closed broadleaf, 8609.82 kg/20x20 m for broadleaf plantation and 15545.57 kg/20x20m for open broadleaf. Average tree counts for the tree forest plantation was 413 trees/ha. As such, the forest of San Manuel has high percent forest cover and high CS.

Keywords: carbon stock, forest inventory, LiDAR, tree count

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742 Moroccan Mountains: Forest Ecosystems and Biodiversity Conservation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Sghir Taleb

Abstract:

Forest ecosystems in Morocco are subject increasingly to natural and human pressures. Conscious of this problem, Morocco set a strategy that focuses on programs of in-situ and ex-situ biodiversity conservation. This study is the result of a synthesis of various existing studies on biodiversity and forest ecosystems. It gives an overview of Moroccan mountain forest ecosystems and flora diversity. It also focuses on the efforts made by Morocco to conserve and sustainably manage biodiversity.

Keywords: mountain, ecosystems, conservation, Morocco

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741 Low Pricing Strategy of Forest Products in Community Forestry Program: Subsidy to the Forest Users or Loss of Economy?

Authors: Laxuman Thakuri

Abstract:

Community-based forest management is often glorified as one of the best forest management alternatives in the developing countries like Nepal. It is also believed that the transfer of forest management authorities to local communities is decisive to take efficient decisions, maximize the forest benefits and improve the people’s livelihood. The community forestry of Nepal also aims to maximize the forest benefits; share them among the user households and improve their livelihood. However, how the local communities fix the price of forest products and local pricing made by the forest user groups affects to equitable forest benefits-sharing among the user households and their livelihood improvement objectives, the answer is largely silent among the researchers and policy-makers alike. This study examines local pricing system of forest products in the lowland community forestry and its effects on equitable benefit-sharing and livelihood improvement objectives. The study discovered that forest user groups fixed the price of forest products based on three criteria: i) costs incur in harvesting, ii) office operation costs, and iii) livelihood improvement costs through community development and income generating activities. Since user households have heterogeneous socio-economic conditions, the forest user groups have been applied low pricing strategy even for high-value forest products that the access of socio-economically worse-off households can be increased. However, the results of forest products distribution showed that as a result of low pricing strategy the access of socio-economically better-off households has been increasing at higher rate than worse-off and an inequality situation has been created. Similarly, the low pricing strategy is also found defective to livelihood improvement objectives. The study suggests for revising the forest products pricing system in community forest management and reforming the community forestry policy as well.

Keywords: community forestry, forest products pricing, equitable benefit-sharing, livelihood improvement, Nepal

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740 Characteristics of Old-Growth and Secondary Forests in Relation to Age and Typhoon Disturbance

Authors: Teng-Chiu Lin, Pei-Jen Lee Shaner, Shin-Yu Lin

Abstract:

Both forest age and physical damages due to weather events such as tropical cyclones can influence forest characteristics and subsequently its capacity to sequester carbon. Detangling these influences is therefore a pressing issue under climate change. In this study, we compared the compositional and structural characteristics of three forests in Taiwan differing in age and severity of typhoon disturbances. We found that the two forests (one old-growth forest and one secondary forest) experiencing more severe typhoon disturbances had shorter stature, higher wood density, higher tree species diversity, and lower typhoon-induced tree mortality than the other secondary forest experiencing less severe typhoon disturbances. On the other hand, the old-growth forest had a larger amount of woody debris than the two secondary forests, suggesting a dominant role of forest age on woody debris accumulation. Of the three forests, only the two experiencing more severe typhoon disturbances formed new gaps following two 2015 typhoons, and between these two forests, the secondary forest gained more gaps than the old-growth forest. Consider that older forests generally have more gaps due to a higher background tree mortality, our findings suggest that the age effects on gap dynamics may be reversed by typhoon disturbances. This study demonstrated the effects of typhoons on forest characteristics, some of which could negate the age effects and rejuvenate older forests. If cyclone disturbances were to intensity under climate change, the capacity of older forests to sequester carbon may be reduced.

Keywords: typhoon, canpy gap, coarse woody debris, forest stature, forest age

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
739 Difficulties for Implementation of Telenursing: An Experience Report

Authors: Jacqueline A. G. Sachett, Cláudia S. Nogueira, Diana C. P. Lima, Jessica T. S. Oliveira, Guilherme K. M. Salazar, Lílian K. Aguiar

Abstract:

The Polo Amazon Telehealth offers several tools for professionals working in Primary Health Care as a second formative opinion, teleconsulting and training between the different areas, whether medicine, dentistry, nursing, physiotherapy, among others. These activities have a monthly schedule of free access to the municipalities of Amazonas registered. With this premise, and in partnership with the University of the State of Amazonas (UEA), is promoting the practice of the triad; teaching-research-extension in order to collaborate with the enrichment and acquisition of knowledge through educational practices carried out through teleconferences. Therefore, nursing is to join efforts and inserts as a collaborator of this project running, contributing to the education and training of these professionals who are part of the health system in full Amazon. The aim of this study is to report the experience of academic of Amazonas State University nursing course, about the experience in the extension project underway in Polo Telemedicine Amazon. This was a descriptive study, the experience report type, about the experience of nursing academic UEA, by extension 'Telenursing: teleconsulting and second formative opinion for FHS professionals in the state of Amazonas' project, held in Polo Telemedicine Amazon, through an agreement with the UEA and funded by the Foundation of Amazonas Research from July / 2012 to July / 2016. Initially developed active search of members of the Family Health Strategy professionals, in order to provide training and training teams to use the virtual clinic, as well as the virtual environment is the focus of this tool design. The election period was an aggravating factor for the implementation of teleconsulting proposal, due to change of managers in each municipality, requiring the stoppage until they assume their positions. From this definition, we established the need for new training. The first video conference took place on 03.14.2013 for learning and training in the use of Virtual Learning Environment and Virtual Clinic, with the participation of municipalities of Novo Aripuanã, São Paulo de Olivença and Manacapuru. During the whole project was carried out literature about what is being done and produced at the national level about the subject. By the time the telenursing project has received twenty-five (25) consultancy requests. The consultants sent by nursing professionals, all have been answered to date. Faced with the lived experience, particularly in video conferencing, face to cause difficulties issues, such as the fluctuation in the number of participants in activities, difficulty of participants to reconcile the opening hours of the units with the schedule of video conferencing, transmission difficulties and changes schedule. It was concluded that the establishment of connection between the Telehealth points is one of the main factors for the implementation of Telenursing and that this feature is still new for nursing. However, effective training and updating, may provide to these professional category subsidies to quality health care in the Amazon.

Keywords: Amazon, teleconsulting, telehealth, telenursing

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738 Sensor Data Analysis for a Large Mining Major

Authors: Sudipto Shanker Dasgupta

Abstract:

One of the largest mining companies wanted to look at health analytics for their driverless trucks. These trucks were the key to their supply chain logistics. The automated trucks had multi-level sub-assemblies which would send out sensor information. The use case that was worked on was to capture the sensor signal from the truck subcomponents and analyze the health of the trucks from repair and replacement purview. Open source software was used to stream the data into a clustered Hadoop setup in Amazon Web Services cloud and Apache Spark SQL was used to analyze the data. All of this was achieved through a 10 node amazon 32 core, 64 GB RAM setup real-time analytics was achieved on ‘300 million records’. To check the scalability of the system, the cluster was increased to 100 node setup. This talk will highlight how Open Source software was used to achieve the above use case and the insights on the high data throughput on a cloud set up.

Keywords: streaming analytics, data science, big data, Hadoop, high throughput, sensor data

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
737 Community Forest Management and Ecological and Economic Sustainability: A Two-Way Street

Authors: Sony Baral, Harald Vacik

Abstract:

This study analyzes the sustainability of community forest management in two community forests in Terai and Hills of Nepal, representing four forest types: 1) Shorearobusta, 2) Terai hardwood, 3) Schima-Castanopsis, and 4) other Hills. The sustainability goals for this region include maintaining and enhancing the forest stocks. Considering this, we analysed changes in species composition, stand density, growing stock volume, and growth-to-removal ratio at 3-5 year intervals from 2005-2016 within 109 permanent forest plots (57 in the Terai and 52 in the Hills). To complement inventory data, forest users, forest committee members, and forest officials were consulted. The results indicate that the relative representation of economically valuable tree species has increased. Based on trends in stand density, both forests are being sustainably managed. Pole-sized trees dominated the diameter distribution, however, with a limited number of mature trees and declined regeneration. The forests were over-harvested until 2013 but under-harvested in the recent period in the Hills. In contrast, both forest types were under-harvested throughout the inventory period in the Terai. We found that the ecological dimension of sustainable forest management is strongly achieved while the economic dimension is lacking behind the current potential. Thus, we conclude that maintaining a large number of trees in the forest does not necessarily ensure both ecological and economical sustainability. Instead, priority should be given on a rational estimation of the annual harvest rates to enhance forest resource conditions together with regular benefits to the local communities.

Keywords: community forests, diversity, growing stock, forest management, sustainability, nepal

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736 Local Pricing Strategy Should Be the Entry Point of Equitable Benefit Sharing and Poverty Reduction in Community Based Forest Management: Some Evidences from Lowland Community Forestry in Nepal

Authors: Dhruba Khatri

Abstract:

Despite the short history of community based forest management, the community forestry program of Nepal has produced substantial positive effects to organize the local people at a local level institution called Community Forest User Group and manage the local forest resources in the line of poverty reduction since its inception in 1970s. Moreover, each CFUG has collected a community fund from the sale of forest products and non-forestry sources as well and the fund has played a vital role to improve the livelihood of user households living in and around the forests. The specific study sites were selected based on the criteria of i) community forests having dominancy of Sal forests, and ii) forests having 3-5 years experience of community forest management. The price rates of forest products fixed by the CFUGs and the distribution records were collected from the respective community forests. Nonetheless, the relation between pricing strategy and community fund collection revealed that the small change in price of forest products could greatly affect in community fund collection and carry out of forest management, community development, and income generation activities in the line of poverty reduction at local level.

Keywords: benefit sharing, community forest, equitable, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
735 Forest Polices and Management in Nigeria: Are Households Willing to Pay for Forest Management?

Authors: A. O. Arowolo, M. U. Agbonlahor, P. A. Okuneye, A. E. Obayelu

Abstract:

Nigeria is rich with abundant resources with an immense contribution of the forest resource to her economic development and to the livelihood of the rural populace over the years. However, this important resource has continued to shrink because it is not sustainably used, managed or conserved. The loss of forest cover has far reaching consequences on regional, national and global economy as well as the environment. This paper reviewed the Nigeria forest management policies, the challenges and willingness to pay (WTP) for management of the community forests in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data for the empirical investigation were obtained using a cross-section survey of 160 rural households by multistage sampling technique. The WTP was assessed by the Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation. One major findings is that, the Nigerian forest reserves is established in order to conserve and manage forest resources but has since been neglected while the management plans are either non-existent or abandoned. Also, the free areas termed the community forests where people have unrestricted access to exploit are fast diminishing in both contents and scale. The mean WTP for sustainable management of community forests in the study area was positive with a value of ₦389.04/month. The study recommends policy measures aimed at participatory forest management plan which will include the rural communities in the management of community forests. This will help ensure sustainable management of forest resources as well as improve the welfare of the rural households.

Keywords: forests, management, WTP, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 318