Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Jayant Pendharkar

9 Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosols over South America: A Case Study in the 2019 Amazon Rainforest Wildfires Season

Authors: Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Dirceu Luis Herdies, Debora Souza Alvim, Eder Paulo Vendrasco, Silvio Nilo Figueroa, Jayant Pendharkar, Julio Pablo Reyes Fernandez


Biomass-burning episodes are quite common in the central Amazon rainforest and represent a dominant source of aerosols during the dry season, between August and October. The increase in the occurrence of fires in 2019 in the world’s largest biomes has captured the attention of the international community. In particular, a rare and extreme smoke-related event occurred in the afternoon of Monday, August 19, 2019, in the most populous city in the Western Hemisphere, the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in southeastern Brazil. The sky over the SPMA suddenly blackened, with the day turning into night, as reported by several news media around the world. In order to clarify whether or not the smoke that plunged the SPMA into sudden darkness was related to wildfires in the Amazon rainforest region, a set of 48-hour simulations over South America were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model at 20 km horizontal resolution, on a daily basis, during the period from August 16 to August 19, 2019. The model results were satisfactorily compared against satellite-based data products and in situ measurements collected from air quality monitoring sites. Although a very strong smoke transport coming from the Amazon rainforest was observed in the middle of the afternoon on August 19, its impact on air quality over the SPMA took place in upper levels far above the surface, where, conversely, low air pollutant concentrations were observed.

Keywords: Amazon rainforest, biomass burning aerosols, São Paulo metropolitan area, WRF-Chem model

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8 Food Supply Chain Optimization: Achieving Cost Effectiveness Using Predictive Analytics

Authors: Jayant Kumar, Aarcha Jayachandran Sasikala, Barry Adrian Shepherd


Public Distribution System is a flagship welfare programme of the Government of India with both historical and political significance. Targeted at lower sections of society,it is one of the largest supply chain networks in the world. There has been several studies by academics and planning commission about the effectiveness of the system. Our study focuses on applying predictive analytics to aid the central body to keep track of the problem of breach of service level agreement between the two echelons of food supply chain. Each shop breach is leading to a potential additional inventory carrying cost. Thus, through this study, we aim to show that aided with such analytics, the network can be made more cost effective. The methods we illustrate in this study are applicable to other commercial supply chains as well.

Keywords: PDS, analytics, cost effectiveness, Karnataka, inventory cost, service level JEL classification: C53

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7 Semiconducting Nanostructures Based Organic Pollutant Degradation Using Natural Sunlight for Water Remediation

Authors: Ankur Gupta, Jayant Raj Saurav, Shantanu Bhattacharya


In this work we report an effective water filtration system based on the photo catalytic performance of semiconducting dense nano-brushes under natural sunlight. During thin-film photocatalysis usually performed by a deposited layer of photocatalyst, a stagnant boundary layer is created near the catalyst which adversely affects the rate of adsorption because of diffusional restrictions. One strategy that may be used is to disrupt this laminar boundary layer by creating a super dense nanostructure near the surface of the catalyst. Further it is adequate to fabricate a structured filter element for a through pass of the water with as grown nanostructures coming out of the surface of such an element. So, the dye remediation is performed through solar means. This remediation was initially limited to lower efficiency because of diffusional restrictions but has now turned around as a fast process owing to the development of the filter materials with standing out dense nanostructures. The effect of increased surface area due to microholes on fraction adsorbed is also investigated and found that there is an optimum value of hole diameter for maximum adsorption.

Keywords: nano materials, photocatalysis, waste water treatment, water remediation

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6 Application of Genetic Algorithm with Multiobjective Function to Improve the Efficiency of Photovoltaic Thermal System

Authors: Sonveer Singh, Sanjay Agrawal, D. V. Avasthi, Jayant Shekhar


The aim of this paper is to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) system with the help of Genetic Algorithms with multi-objective function. There are some parameters that affect the efficiency of PVT system like depth and length of the channel, velocity of flowing fluid through the channel, thickness of the tedlar and glass, temperature of inlet fluid i.e. all above parameters are considered for optimization. An attempt has been made to the model and optimizes the parameters of glazed hybrid single channel PVT module when two objective functions have been considered separately. The two objective function for optimization of PVT module is overall electrical and thermal efficiency. All equations for PVT module have been derived. Using genetic algorithms (GAs), above two objective functions of the system has been optimized separately and analysis has been carried out for two cases. Two cases are: Case-I; Improvement in electrical and thermal efficiency when overall electrical efficiency is optimized, Case-II; Improvement in electrical and thermal efficiency when overall thermal efficiency is optimized. All the parameters that are used in genetic algorithms are the parameters that could be changed, and the non-changeable parameters, like solar radiation, ambient temperature cannot be used in the algorithm. It has been observed that electrical efficiency (14.08%) and thermal efficiency (19.48%) are obtained when overall thermal efficiency was an objective function for optimization. It is observed that GA is a very efficient technique to estimate the design parameters of hybrid single channel PVT module.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, energy, exergy, PVT module, optimization

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5 Kinetic Study of C₃N₄/CuWO₄: Photocatalyst towards Solar Light Inactivation of Mixed Populated Bacteria

Authors: Rimzhim Gupta, Bhanupriya Boruah, Jayant M. Modak, Giridhar Madras


Microbial contamination is one of the major concerns in the field of water treatment. AOP (advanced oxidation processes) is well-established method to resolve the issue of removal of contaminants in water. A Z-scheme composite g-C₃N₄/CuWO₄ was synthesized by sol-gel method for the photocatalytic inactivation of a mixed population of Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli). The photoinactivation was observed for different types of bacteria in the same medium together and individually in the absence of the nutrients. The lattice structures and phase purities were determined by X-ray diffraction. For morphological and topographical features, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses were carried out. The band edges of the semiconductor (valence band and conduction band) were determined by ultraviolet photoelectron microscopy. The lifetime of the charge carriers and band gap of the semiconductors were determined by time resolved florescence spectroscopy and diffused reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The effect of weight ratio of C₃N₄ and CuWO₄ was observed by performing photocatalytic experiments. To investigate the exact mechanism and major responsible radicals for photocatalysis, scavenger studies were performed. The rate constants and order of the inactivation reactions were obtained by power law kinetics. For E. coli and S. aureus, the order of reaction and rate constants are 1.15, 0.9 and 1.39 ± 0.03 (CFU/mL)⁻⁰.¹⁵ h⁻¹, 47.95 ± 1.2 (CFU/mL)⁰.¹ h⁻¹, respectively.

Keywords: z-scheme, E. coli, S. aureus, sol-gel

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4 Suicide Prevention through Spiritual Practice

Authors: Jayant Balaji Athavale, Sean Clarke


Background: According to the WHO, every year, more than 700,000 people die by suicide, which is one person around every 45 seconds. Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death among 15 to 29-year-olds globally. The most common situations or life events that might cause suicidal thoughts are financial problems/unemployment, rejections, relationship breakups, sexual/substance abuse and mental illnesses. Mental/psychological weakness caused due to defects in one’s personality is one of the main reasons why people feel they cannot cope in such situations and contemplate suicide. A WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020 lists a 4-point strategy to enhance mental health by ‘implementing strategies for promotion and prevention in mental health.’ Methodology: With 40 years of spiritual research background, the team at the Maharshi University of Spirituality has studied the spiritual root causes that can significantly affect one’s mental health and the solutions to improve it. Results/Findings: According to spiritual science, the time and nature of death are mostly due to spiritual reasons. A person would mostly contemplate and attempt suicide when he is spiritually most vulnerable. Spiritual practice, as per universal principles, helps in protecting a person spiritually and prevents him from getting such thoughts of self-harm or acting upon them by controlling such impulses. The University has had much success in helping people to overcome the defects in their personalities, including those with suicidal thoughts, through spiritual practices such as chanting the Name of God and the Personality Defect Removal (PDR) process developed by the Author. Conclusion: If such techniques were taught in educational institutions, they could be simple yet effective self-help tools to prevent thoughts of suicide and enhance mental health and well-being.

Keywords: suicide, mental health, abuse, suicide prevention, personality defect removal

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3 Reduction of the Cellular Infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 by a Mucoadhesive Nasal Spray

Authors: Adam M. Pitz, Gillian L. Phillipson, Jayant E. Khanolkar, Andrew M. Middleton


New emerging evidence suggests that the nose is the predominant route for entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus into the host. A virucidal suspension test (conforming in principle to the European Standard EN14476) was conducted to determine whether a commercial liquid gel intranasal spray containing 1% of the mucoadhesive hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) could inhibit the cellular infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Virus was added to the test product samples and to controls in a 1:8 ratio and mixed with one part bovine serum albumin as an interfering substance. The test samples were pre-equilibrated to 34 ± 2°C (representing the temperature of the nasopharynx) with the temperature maintained at 34 ± 2°C for virus contact times of 1, 5 and 10 minutes. Neutralized aliquots were inoculated onto host cells (Vero E6 cells, ATCC CRL-1586). The host cells were then incubated at 36 ± 2°C for a period of 7 days. The residual infectious virus in both test and controls was detected by viral-induced cytopathic effect. The 50% tissue culture infective dose per mL (TCID50/mL) was determined using the Spearman-Karber method with results reported as the reduction of the virus titer due to treatment with test product, expressed as log10. The controls confirmed the validity of the results with no cytotoxicity or viral interference observed in the neutralized test product samples. The HPMC formulation reduced SARS-CoV-2 titer, expressed as log10TCID50, by 2.30 ( ± 0.17), 2.60 ( ± 0.19), and 3.88 ( ± 0.19) with the respective contact times of 1, 5 and 10 minutes. The results demonstrate that this 1% HPMC gel formulation can reduce the cellular infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus with an increasing viral inhibition observed with increasing exposure time. This 1% HMPC gel is well tolerated and can reside, when delivered via nasal spray, for up to one hour in the nasal cavity. We conclude that this intranasal gel spray with 1% HPMC repeat-dosed every few hours may offer an effective preventive or early intervention solution to limit the transmission and impact of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.

Keywords: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, mucoadhesive nasal spray, respiratory viruses, SARS-CoV-2

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2 Preparedness Level of Disaster Management Institutions in Context of Floods in Delhi

Authors: Aditi Madan, Jayant Kumar Routray


Purpose: Over the years flood related risks have compounded due to increasing vulnerability caused by rapid urbanisation and growing population. This increase is an indication of the need for enhancing the preparedness of institutions to respond to floods. The study describes disaster management structure and its linkages with institutions involved in managing disasters. It addresses issues and challenges associated with readiness of disaster management institutions to respond to floods. It suggests policy options for enhancing the current state of readiness of institutions to respond by considering factors like institutional, manpower, financial, technical, leadership & networking, training and awareness programs, monitoring and evaluation. Methodology: The study is based on qualitative data with statements and outputs from primary and secondary sources to understand the institutional framework for disaster management in India. Primary data included field visits, interviews with officials from institutions managing disasters and the affected community to identify the challenges faced in engaging national, state, district and local level institutions in managing disasters. For focus group discussions, meetings were held with district project officers and coordinators, local officials, community based organisation, civil defence volunteers and community heads. These discussions were held to identify the challenges associated with preparedness to respond of institutions to floods. Findings: Results show that disasters are handled by district authority and the role of local institutions is limited to a reactive role during disaster. Data also indicates that although the existing institutional setup is well coordinated at the district level but needs improvement at the local level. Wide variations exist in awareness and perception among the officials engaged in managing disasters. Additionally, their roles and responsibilities need to be clearly defined with adequate budget and dedicated permanent staff for managing disasters. Institutions need to utilise the existing manpower through proper delegation of work. Originality: The study suggests that disaster risk reduction needs to focus more towards inclusivity of the local urban bodies. Wide variations exist in awareness and perception among the officials engaged in managing disasters. In order to ensure community participation, it is important to address their social and economic problems since such issues can overshadow attempts made for reducing risks. Thus, this paper suggests development of direct linkages among institutions and community for enhancing preparedness to respond to floods.

Keywords: preparedness, response, disaster, flood, community, institution

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1 Research Insights into Making the Premises Spiritually Pure

Authors: Jayant Athavale, Rendy Ekarantio, Sean Clarke


The Maharshi University of Spirituality was founded on the base of 30 years of spiritual research. It specializes in conducting research on how the subtle-world and spiritual-vibrations affect the lives of people. One such area of research is how to create spiritually positive vibrations in the premises. By using aura and energy scanners along with the sixth sense, the spiritual research team has identified 3 aspects that are instrumental in enhancing or reducing the spiritual positivity of any premises. Firstly, the characteristics of the land should be considered holistically, that is, from a physical, psychological and spiritual point of view. While procedures for the physical assessment of land are well documented, due to ignorance and disbelief, the spiritual aspects are not considered. For example, if the land was previously a graveyard site, it can have highly detrimental effects on the residents within the premises at the spiritual level. This can further manifest as physical and psychological problems that are faced by the residents. Secondly, the manner of construction and the purpose/use of the building affects the subtle-vibrations in the premises. The manner of construction includes gross aspects such as the materials used, kind of architecture, etc. It also includes the subtle aspects provided in detail in the ancient science of Vastu Shastra and Feng Shui. For example, having the front door of the premises facing the south direction can negatively affect the premises because the southern direction is prone to distressing vibrations. The purpose and use of the premises also plays an important role in determining the type of subtle-vibrations that will be predominantly found within its area. Thirdly, the actions, thoughts, value systems and attitudes of the residents play an important part in determining whether the subtle-vibrations will be positive or negative. Residents with many personality defects emit negative vibrations. If some of the residents are affected with negative energies and are not doing any spiritual practice to overcome it, then it can have a harmful spiritual effect on the rest of the residents and the premises. If these three aspects are appropriately considered and attended to, then the premises will generate higher levels of spiritually positive vibrations. Both living and non-living objects within the premises imbibe this positivity and therefore, it holistically enhances the overall well-being of its residents. The positivity experienced in the premises of the Spiritual Research Centre of the Maharshi University of Spirituality, is a testimony to the success of this research. Due to regular and intense spiritual practice carried out by 10 Saints and over 500 seekers residing in its premises, the positivity in the environment can be felt by people when they enter its premises and even from a distance, and can easily be picked up by aura and energy scanners. Extraordinary and fascinating phenomena are observed and experienced in its premises as both living and non-living objects emit spiritually positive vibrations. This also protects the residents from negative vibrations. Examples of such phenomena and their positive impact are discussed in the paper.

Keywords: negative energies, positive vibrations on the premises, resident’s spiritual practice, science of the premises

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