Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 523

Search results for: REST

523 De Broglie Wavelength Defined by the Rest Energy E0 and Its Velocity

Authors: K. Orozović, B. Balon

Abstract:

In this paper, we take a different approach to de Broglie wavelength, as we relate it to relativistic physics. The quantum energy of the photon radiated by a body with de Broglie wavelength, as it moves with velocity v, can be defined within relativistic physics by rest energy E₀. In this way, we can show the connection between the quantum of radiation energy of the body and the rest of energy E₀ and thus combine what has been incompatible so far, namely relativistic and quantum physics. So, here we discuss the unification of relativistic and quantum physics by introducing the factor k that is analog to the Lorentz factor in Einstein's theory of relativity.

Keywords: de Brogli wavelength, relativistic physics, rest energy, quantum physics

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
522 Causality, Special Relativity and Non-existence of Material Particles of Zero Rest Mass

Authors: Mohammad Saleem, Mujahid Kamran

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It is shown that causality, the principle that cause must precede effect, leads inter alia, to highly significant result that the velocity of a material particle cannot be even equal to that of light. Consequently, combined with special relativity, it leads to the conclusion that material particles of zero rest mass cannot exist in nature. Thus, causality, a principle without which nature would be incomprehensible, combined with special relativity, forbids the existence of material particles of zero rest mass. For instance, the neutrinos, as is now known, are material particles of non-zero rest mass. The situation changes when we consider the gauge particles. In fact, when the principle of causality was proposed, the concept of gauge particles had not yet been introduced. Now we know that photon, a gauge particle with zero rest mass does exist in nature. Therefore, principle of causality, as generally stated, is valid only for material particles. For gauge particles, in order to make the statement of causality consistent with experiment, it has to be modified: The cause should either precede or be simultaneous with the effect. Combined with special relativity, it allows gauge particles of zero rest mass.

Keywords: causality, gauge particles, material particles, special relativity

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
521 Estimation of Solar Radiation Power Using Reference Evaluation of Solar Transmittance, 2 Bands Model: Case Study of Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Benedictus Asriparusa

Abstract:

Solar radiation is a green renewable energy which has the potential to answer the needs of energy problems on the period. Knowing how to estimate the strength of the solar radiation force may be one solution of sustainable energy development in an integrated manner. Unfortunately, a fairly extensive area of Indonesia is still very low availability of solar radiation data. Therefore, we need a method to estimate the exact strength of solar radiation. In this study, author used a model Reference Evaluation of Solar Transmittance, 2 Bands (REST 2). Validation of REST 2 model has been performed in Spain, India, Colorado, Saudi Arabia, and several other areas. But it is not widely used in Indonesia. Indonesian region study area is represented by the area of Semarang, Central Java. Solar radiation values estimated using REST 2 model was then verified by field data and gives average RMSE value of 6.53%. Based on the value, it can be concluded that the model REST 2 can be used to estimate the value of solar radiation in clear sky conditions in parts of Indonesia.

Keywords: estimation, solar radiation power, REST 2, solar transmittance

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
520 Rest API Based System-level Test Automation for Mobile Applications

Authors: Jisoo Song

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Today’s mobile applications are communicating with servers more and more in order to access external services or information. Also, server-side code changes are more frequent than client-side code changes in a mobile application. The frequent changes lead to an increase in testing cost increase. To reduce costs, UI based test automation can be one of the solutions. It is a common automation technique in system-level testing. However, it can be unsuitable for mobile applications. When you automate tests based on UI elements for mobile applications, there are some limitations such as the overhead of script maintenance or the difficulty of finding invisible defects that UI elements cannot represent. To overcome these limitations, we present a new automation technique based on Rest API. You can automate system-level tests through test scripts that you write. These scripts call a series of Rest API in a user’s action sequence. This technique does not require testers to know the internal implementation details, only input and expected output of Rest API. You can easily modify test cases by modifying Rest API input values and also find problems that might not be evident from the UI level by validating output values. For example, when an application receives price information from a payment server and user cannot see it at UI level, Rest API based scripts can check whether price information is correct or not. More than 10 mobile applications at our company are being tested automatically based on Rest API scripts whenever application source code, mostly server source code, is built. We are finding defects right away by setting a script as a build job in CI server. The build job starts when application code builds are completed. This presentation will also include field cases from our company.

Keywords: case studies at SK Planet, introduction of rest API based test automation, limitations of UI based test automation

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519 Evaluation of Bollworm Tolerance in F1 and F2 BT Cotton under Unprotected Condition

Authors: N. K. Bhute, B. B. Bhosle

Abstract:

Field experiment was conducted during kharif 2005, at the experimental farm of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani, Maharashtra. F1 and F2 hybrids of 23 Bt and 5 non-Bt hybrids were grown in a randomized block design with two replications. The results showed that among F1 hybrids, open boll damage due to bollworm complex was not noticed in 4233 Bt and 4247 Bt cotton hybrids which were found significantly superior over MECH 6301 Bt (3.2 %), 4255 Bt (3.28 %) and it was at par with rest of the hybrids. Among F2 hybrids minimum open boll damage (3.10 %) was noticed in Proagro 144 Bt, which was found significantly superior over rest of the hybrids except 4234 Bt (4.17 %) and 4254 Bt (4.98 %) which were at par with each other. In respect of seed cotton yield, among F1 hybrids maximum yield (15.51 q/ha) was recorded in 4233 Bt which was found significantly superior over rest of the hybrids except 4237 Bt (15.24 q/ha). Among F2 maximum yield (15.44 q/ha) was recorded in 4233 Bt which was found significantly superior over rest of the hybrids except 4258 Bt (15.41 q/ha), 4239 Bt (15.098 q/ha) which were at par with each other. Thus F2 Bt cotton express Bt protein in segregated pattern in which bollworm attack was more as compared to F1 which affects yield as well as quality of lint.

Keywords: Bt cotton, bollworms, F1 and F2 generations, unprotected condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
518 Application of the Best Technique for Estimating the Rest-Activity Rhythm Period in Shift Workers

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Soni

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Under free living conditions, human biological clocks show a periodicity of 24 hour for numerous physiological, behavioral and biochemical variables. However, this period is not the original period; rather it merely exhibits synchronization with the solar clock. It is, therefore, most important to investigate characteristics of human circadian clock, essentially in shift workers, who normally confront with contrasting social clocks. Aim of the present study was to investigate rest-activity rhythm and to vouch for the best technique for the computation of periods in this rhythm in subjects randomly selected from different groups of shift workers. The rest-activity rhythm was studied in forty-eight shift workers from three different organizations, namely Newspaper Printing Press (NPP), Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) and Raipur Alloys (RA). Shift workers of NPP (N = 20) were working on a permanent night shift schedule (NS; 20:00-04:00). However, in CSEB (N = 14) and RA (N = 14), shift workers were working in a 3-shift system comprising of rotations from night (NS; 22:00-06:00) to afternoon (AS; 14:00-22:00) and to morning shift (MS; 06:00-14:00). Each subject wore an Actiwatch (AW64, Mini Mitter Co. Inc., USA) for 7 and/or 21 consecutive days, only after furnishing a certificate of consent. One-minute epoch length was chosen for the collection of wrist activity data. Period was determined by using Actiware sleep software (Periodogram), Lomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) and Spectral analysis software (Spectre). Other statistical techniques, such as ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple-range test were also used whenever required. A statistically significant circadian rhythm in rest-activity, gauged by cosinor, was documented in all shift workers, irrespective of shift work. Results indicate that the efficiency of the technique to determine the period (τ) depended upon the clipping limits of the τs. It appears that the technique of spectre is more reliable.

Keywords: biological clock, rest activity rhythm, spectre, periodogram

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517 Determination of Concentrated State Using Multiple EEG Channels

Authors: Tae Jin Choi, Jong Ok Kim, Sang Min Jin, Gilwon Yoon

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Analysis of EEG brainwave provides information on mental or emotional states. One of the particular states that can have various applications in human machine interface (HMI) is concentration. 8-channel EEG signals were measured and analyzed. The concentration index was compared during resting and concentrating periods. Among eight channels, locations the frontal lobe (Fp1 and Fp2) showed a clear increase of the concentration index during concentration regardless of subjects. The rest six channels produced conflicting observations depending on subjects. At this time, it is not clear whether individual difference or how to concentrate made these results for the rest six channels. Nevertheless, it is expected that Fp1 and Fp2 are promising locations for extracting control signal for HMI applications.

Keywords: concentration, EEG, human machine interface, biophysical

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
516 Rest Behavior and Restoration: Searching for Patterns through a Textual Analysis

Authors: Sandra Christina Gressler

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Resting is essentially the physical and mental relaxation. So, can behaviors that go beyond the merely physical relaxation to some extent be understood as a behavior of restoration? Studies on restorative environments emphasize the physical, mental and social benefits that some environments can provide and suggest that activities in natural environments reduce the stress of daily lives, promoting recovery against the daily wear. These studies, though specific in their results, do not unify the different possibilities of restoration. Considering the importance of restorative environments by promoting well-being, this research aims to verify the applicability of the theory on restorative environments in a Brazilian context, inquiring about the environment/behavior of rest. The research sought to achieve its goals by; a) identifying daily ways of how participants interact/connect with nature; b) identifying the resting environments/behavior; c) verifying if rest strategies match the restorative environments suggested by restorative studies; and d) verifying different rest strategies related to time. Workers from different companies in which certain functions require focused attention, and high school students from different schools, participated in this study. An interview was used to collect data and information. The data obtained were compared with studies of attention restoration theory and stress recovery. The collected data were analyzed through the basic descriptive inductive statistics and the use of the software ALCESTE® (Analyse Lexicale par Contexte d'un Ensemble de Segments de Texte). The open questions investigate perception of nature on a daily basis – analysis using ALCESTE; rest periods – daily, weekends and holidays – analysis using ALCESTE with tri-croisé; and resting environments and activities – analysis using a simple descriptive statistics. According to the results, environments with natural characteristics that are compatible with personal desires (physical aspects and distance) and residential environments when they fulfill the characteristics of refuge, safety, and self-expression, characteristics of primary territory, meet the requirements of restoration. Analyzes suggest that the perception of nature has a wide range that goes beyond the objects nearby and possible to be touched, as well as observation and contemplation of details. The restoration processes described in the studies of attention restoration theory occur gradually (hierarchically), starting with being away, following compatibility, fascination, and extent. They are also associated with the time that is available for rest. The relation between rest behaviors and the bio-demographic characteristics of the participants are noted. It reinforces, in studies of restoration, the need to insert not only investigations regarding the physical characteristics of the environment but also behavior, social relationship, subjective reactions, distance and time available. The complexity of the theme indicates the necessity for multimethod studies. Practical contributions provide subsidies for developing strategies to promote the welfare of the population.

Keywords: attention restoration theory, environmental psychology, rest behavior, restorative environments

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515 Thriving Organisations: Recommendations to Create a Workplace Culture That Prioritises Both Well-being and Performance Equally

Authors: Clare Victoria Martin

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With reports of increased mental health problems and a lack of proactive, consistent well-being initiatives, well-being is a topical issue in the workplace, as well as a wider public health concern. Additionally, workplace well-being is closely linked to performance, both from a business perspective and in psychological research. Businesses are therefore becoming increasingly motivated to promote well-being, yet there are still barriers, including a lack of evidence-based workplace interventions, issues with measuring effectiveness and problems creating lasting cultural change. This review aimed to collate workplace well-being research to propose a comprehensive new model for delivering evidence-based workplace well-being training with a real potential for lasting impact. Method: A narrative review was conducted to meta-synthesise relevant research. Thematic analysis was then adopted as a systematic method of identifying key themes from the review to lead to practical recommendations. Interventions focusing on strengths, psychological capital, mindfulness and positivity (SPMP) dominated the research in this area, suggesting benefits of incorporating all four into training. However, to avoid a ‘quick fix’ mentality, the concept of training ‘well-being ambassadors’ as a preventative counterpart to mental health ‘first aiders’ was proposed alongside a new ‘REST and RISE’ model: well-being interventions should be ‘relatable’, ‘enjoyable’, ‘sociable’ and ‘trackable’ (REST) in order to increase ‘resilience’, ‘innovation’, ‘strengths’ and ‘engagement’ (RISE). If the REST principles are applied to interventions focusing on SPMP, research suggests individuals will RISE. Future research should empirically test this new well-being ambassador programme and REST/RISE model in an applied setting.

Keywords: performance, positive psychology, thriving, workplace well-being

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514 Algorithm for Predicting Cognitive Exertion and Cognitive Fatigue Using a Portable EEG Headset for Concussion Rehabilitation

Authors: Lou J. Pino, Mark Campbell, Matthew J. Kennedy, Ashleigh C. Kennedy

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A concussion is complex and nuanced, with cognitive rest being a key component of recovery. Cognitive overexertion during rehabilitation from a concussion is associated with delayed recovery. However, daily living imposes cognitive demands that may be unavoidable and difficult to quantify. Therefore, a portable tool capable of alerting patients before cognitive overexertion occurs could allow patients to maintain their quality of life while preventing symptoms and recovery setbacks. EEG allows for a sensitive measure of cognitive exertion. Clinical 32-lead EEG headsets are not practical for day-to-day concussion rehabilitation management. However, there are now commercially available and affordable portable EEG headsets. Thus, these headsets can potentially be used to continuously monitor cognitive exertion during mental tasks to alert the wearer of overexertion, with the aim of preventing the occurrence of symptoms to speed recovery times. The objective of this study was to test an algorithm for predicting cognitive exertion from EEG data collected from a portable headset. EEG data were acquired from 10 participants (5 males, 5 females). Each participant wore a portable 4 channel EEG headband while completing 10 tasks: rest (eyes closed), rest (eyes open), three levels of the increasing difficulty of logic puzzles, three levels of increasing difficulty in multiplication questions, rest (eyes open), and rest (eyes closed). After each task, the participant was asked to report their perceived level of cognitive exertion using the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). Each participant then completed a second session on a different day. A customized machine learning model was created using data from the first session. The performance of each model was then tested using data from the second session. The mean correlation coefficient between TLX scores and predicted cognitive exertion was 0.75 ± 0.16. The results support the efficacy of the algorithm for predicting cognitive exertion. This demonstrates that the algorithms developed in this study used with portable EEG devices have the potential to aid in the concussion recovery process by monitoring and warning patients of cognitive overexertion. Preventing cognitive overexertion during recovery may reduce the number of symptoms a patient experiences and may help speed the recovery process.

Keywords: cognitive activity, EEG, machine learning, personalized recovery

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513 Effectiveness of ISSR Technique in Revealing Genetic Diversity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Representing Various Parts of the World

Authors: Mohamed El-Shikh

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Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the world’s second most important bean after soybeans; used for human food and animal feed. It has generally been linked to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer and diseases of digestive tract. The effectiveness of ISSR in achievement of the genetic diversity among 60 common bean accessions; represent various germplasms around the world was investigated. In general, the studied Phaseolus vulgaris accessions were divided into 2 major groups. All of the South-American accessions were separated into the second major group. These accessions may have different genetic features that are distinct from the rest of the accessions clustered in the major group. Asia and Europe accessions (1-20) seem to be more genetically similar (99%) to each other as they clustered in the same sub-group. The American and African varieties showed similarities as well and clustered in the same sub-tree group. In contrast, Asian and American accessions No. 22 and 23 showed a high level of genetic similarities, although these were isolated from different regions. The phylogenetic tree showed that all the Asian accessions (along with Australian No. 59 and 60) were similar except Indian and Yemen accessions No. 9 and 20. Only Netherlands accession No. 3 was different from the rest of European accessions. Morocco accession No. 52 was genetically different from the rest of the African accessions. Canadian accession No. 44 seems to be different from the other North American accessions including Guatemala, Mexico and USA.

Keywords: phylogenetic tree, Phaseolus vulgaris, ISSR technique, genetics

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512 Software Defined Storage: Object Storage over Hadoop Platform

Authors: Amritesh Srivastava, Gaurav Sharma

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The purpose of this project is to develop an open source object storage system that is highly durable, scalable and reliable. There are two representative systems in cloud computing: Google and Amazon. Their storage systems for Google GFS and Amazon S3 provide high reliability, performance and stability. Our proposed system is highly inspired from Amazon S3. We are using Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) Java API to implement our system. We propose the architecture of object storage system based on Hadoop. We discuss the requirements of our system, what we expect from our system and what problems we may encounter. We also give detailed design proposal along with the abstract source code to implement it. The final goal of the system is to provide REST based access to our object storage system that exists on top of HDFS.

Keywords: Hadoop, HBase, object storage, REST

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
511 STML: Service Type-Checking Markup Language for Services of Web Components

Authors: Saqib Rasool, Adnan N. Mian

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Web components are introduced as the latest standard of HTML5 for writing modular web interfaces for ensuring maintainability through the isolated scope of web components. Reusability can also be achieved by sharing plug-and-play web components that can be used as off-the-shelf components by other developers. A web component encapsulates all the required HTML, CSS and JavaScript code as a standalone package which must be imported for integrating a web component within an existing web interface. It is then followed by the integration of web component with the web services for dynamically populating its content. Since web components are reusable as off-the-shelf components, these must be equipped with some mechanism for ensuring their proper integration with web services. The consistency of a service behavior can be verified through type-checking. This is one of the popular solutions for improving the quality of code in many programming languages. However, HTML does not provide type checking as it is a markup language and not a programming language. The contribution of this work is to introduce a new extension of HTML called Service Type-checking Markup Language (STML) for adding support of type checking in HTML for JSON based REST services. STML can be used for defining the expected data types of response from JSON based REST services which will be used for populating the content within HTML elements of a web component. Although JSON has five data types viz. string, number, boolean, object and array but STML is made to supports only string, number and object. This is because of the fact that both object and array are considered as string, when populated in HTML elements. In order to define the data type of any HTML element, developer just needs to add the custom STML attributes of st-string, st-number and st-boolean for string, number and boolean respectively. These all annotations of STML are used by the developer who is writing a web component and it enables the other developers to use automated type-checking for ensuring the proper integration of their REST services with the same web component. Two utilities have been written for developers who are using STML based web components. One of these utilities is used for automated type-checking during the development phase. It uses the browser console for showing the error description if integrated web service is not returning the response with expected data type. The other utility is a Gulp based command line utility for removing the STML attributes before going in production. This ensures the delivery of STML free web pages in the production environment. Both of these utilities have been tested to perform type checking of REST services through STML based web components and results have confirmed the feasibility of evaluating service behavior only through HTML. Currently, STML is designed for automated type-checking of integrated REST services but it can be extended to introduce a complete service testing suite based on HTML only, and it will transform STML from Service Type-checking Markup Language to Service Testing Markup Language.

Keywords: REST, STML, type checking, web component

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510 FTIR Spectroscopy for in vitro Screening in Microbial Biotechnology

Authors: V. Shapaval, N. K. Afseth, D. Tzimorotas, A. Kohler

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Globally there is a dramatic increase in the demand for food, energy, materials and clean water since natural resources are limited. As a result, industries are looking for ways to reduce rest materials and to improve resource efficiency. Microorganisms have a high potential to be used as bio factories for the production of primary and secondary metabolites that represent high-value bio-products (enzymes, polyunsaturated fatty acids, bio-plastics, glucans, etc.). In order to find good microbial producers, to design suitable substrates from food rest materials and to optimize fermentation conditions, rapid analytical techniques for quantifying target bio products in microbial cells are needed. In the EU project FUST (R4SME, Fp7), we have developed a fully automated high-throughput FUST system based on micro-cultivation and FTIR spectroscopy that facilitates the screening of microorganisms, substrates and fermentation conditions for the optimization of the production of different high-value metabolites (single cell oils, bio plastics). The automated system allows the preparation of 100 samples per hour. Currently, The FUST system is in use for screening of filamentous fungi in order to find oleaginous strains with the ability to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the optimization of cheap substrates, derived from food rest materials, and the optimization of fermentation conditions for the high yield of single cell oil.

Keywords: FTIR spectroscopy, FUST system, screening, biotechnology

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
509 Analysis in Mexico on Workers Performing Highly Repetitive Movements with Sensory Thermography in the Surface of the Wrist and Elbows

Authors: Sandra K. Enriquez, Claudia Camargo, Jesús E. Olguín, Juan A. López, German Galindo

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Currently companies have increased the number of disorders of cumulative trauma (CTDs), these are increasing significantly due to the Highly Repetitive Movements (HRM) performed in workstations, which causes economic losses to businesses, due to temporary and permanent disabilities of workers. This analysis focuses on the prevention of disorders caused by: repeatability, duration and effort; And focuses on reducing cumulative trauma disorders such as occupational diseases using sensory thermography as a noninvasive method, the above is to evaluate the injuries could have workers to perform repetitive motions. Objectives: The aim is to define rest periods or job rotation before they generate a CTD, this sensory thermography by analyzing changes in temperature patterns on wrists and elbows when the worker is performing HRM over a period of time 2 hours and 30 minutes. Information on non-work variables such as wrist and elbow injuries, weight, gender, age, among others, and work variables such as temperature workspace, repetitiveness and duration also met. Methodology: The analysis to 4 industrial designers, 2 men and 2 women to be specific was conducted in a business in normal health for a period of 12 days, using the following time ranges: the first day for every 90 minutes continuous work were asked to rest 5 minutes, the second day for every 90 minutes of continuous work were asked to rest 10 minutes, the same to work 60 and 30 minutes straight. Each worker was tested with 6 different ranges at least twice. This analysis was performed in a controlled room temperature between 20 and 25 ° C, and a time to stabilize the temperature of the wrists and elbows than 20 minutes at the beginning and end of the analysis. Results: The range time of 90 minutes working continuous and a rest of 5 minutes of activity is where the maximum temperature (Tmax) was registered in the wrists and elbows in the office, we found the Tmax was 35.79 ° C with a difference of 2.79 ° C between the initial and final temperature of the left elbow presented at the individual 4 during the 86 minutes, in of range in 90 minutes continuously working and rested for 5 minutes of your activity. Conclusions: It is possible with this alternative technology is sensory thermography predict ranges of rotation or rest for the prevention of CTD to perform HRM work activities, obtaining with this reduce occupational disease, quotas by health agencies and increasing the quality of life of workers, taking this technology a cost-benefit acceptable in the future.

Keywords: sensory thermography, temperature, cumulative trauma disorder (CTD), highly repetitive movement (HRM)

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508 Showing Broccoli and Cabbage Genotypes Biodiversity Using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPD)

Authors: M. M. A. Abdalla, M. H. Aboul-Nasr, Shimaa H. Mosallam

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Ten RAPD markers were used to detect the genetic variability and relationships among four broccoli and three cabbage genotypes. The results of RAPD analysis showed that all the five primers surveyed detected polymorphism for all broccoli genotypes. A total of 39 DNA bands were amplified by the 5 primers from all genotype and 21 of these fragments showed polymorphism (53.85%). The rest of these bands (46.15%) were common between the four genotypes. On the other hand, all of the 7 primers surveyed, used with cabbage, detected polymorphism among all cabbage genotype. A total of 69 DNA bands were amplified by the 7 primers from all genotypes and 23 of these fragments showed polymorphism (33.33%). The rest of these bands (66.67%) were common between the three genotypes. The investigation suggested that the RAPD approach showed considerable potential for identifying and discriminating broccoli and cabbage genotypes.

Keywords: Brassica oleracea, genotypes, genetic markers, varietal identification, DNA polymorphism, RAPD markers

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507 Hemodynamics of a Cerebral Aneurysm under Rest and Exercise Conditions

Authors: Shivam Patel, Abdullah Y. Usmani

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Physiological flow under rest and exercise conditions in patient-specific cerebral aneurysm models is numerically investigated. A finite-volume based code with BiCGStab as the linear equation solver is used to simulate unsteady three-dimensional flow field through the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Flow characteristics are first established in a healthy cerebral artery for both physiological conditions. The effect of saccular aneurysm on cerebral hemodynamics is then explored through a comparative analysis of the velocity distribution, nature of flow patterns, wall pressure and wall shear stress (WSS) against the reference configuration. The efficacy of coil embolization as a potential strategy of surgical intervention is also examined by modelling coil as a homogeneous and isotropic porous medium where the extended Darcy’s law, including Forchheimer and Brinkman terms, is applicable. The Carreau-Yasuda non-Newtonian blood model is incorporated to capture the shear thinning behavior of blood. Rest and exercise conditions correspond to normotensive and hypertensive blood pressures respectively. The results indicate that the fluid impingement on the outer wall of the arterial bend leads to abnormality in the distribution of wall pressure and WSS, which is expected to be the primary cause of the localized aneurysm. Exercise correlates with elevated flow velocity, vortex strength, wall pressure and WSS inside the aneurysm sac. With the insertion of coils in the aneurysm cavity, the flow bypasses the dilatation, leading to a decline in flow velocities and WSS. Particle residence time is observed to be lower under exercise conditions, a factor favorable for arresting plaque deposition and combating atherosclerosis.

Keywords: 3D FVM, Cerebral aneurysm, hypertension, coil embolization, non-Newtonian fluid

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506 Correlation Analysis between Physical Fitness Norm and Cardio-Pulmonary Signals under Graded Exercise and Recovery

Authors: Shyan-Lung Lin, Cheng-Yi Huang, Tung-Yi Lin

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Physical fitness is the adaptability of the body to physical work and the environment, and is generally known to include cardiopulmonary-fitness, muscular-fitness, body flexibility, and body composition. This paper is aimed to study the ventilatory and cardiovascular activity under various exercise intensities for subjects at distinct ends of cardiopulmonary fitness norm. Three graded upright biking exercises, light, moderate, and vigorous exercise, were designed for subjects at distinct ends of cardiopulmonary fitness norm from their physical education classes. The participants in the experiments were 9, 9, and 11 subjects in the top 20%, middle 20%, and bottom 20%, respectively, among all freshmen of the Feng Chia University in the academic year of 2015. All participants were requested to perform 5 minutes of upright biking exercise to attain 50%, 65%, and 85% of their maximum heart rate (HRmax) during the light, moderate, and vigorous exercise experiment, respectively, and 5 minutes of recovery following each graded exercise. The cardiovascular and ventilatory signals, including breathing frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and ECG signals were recorded during rest, exercise, and recovery periods. The physiological signals of three groups were analyzed based on their recovery, recovery rate, and percentage variation from rest. Selected time domain parameters, SDNN and RMSSD, were computed and spectral analysis was performed to study the hear rate variability from collected ECG signals. The comparison studies were performed to examine the correlations between physical fitness norm and cardio-pulmonary signals during graded exercises and exercise recovery. No significant difference was found among three groups with VT during all levels of exercise intensity and recovery. The top 20% group was found to have better performance in heart recovery (HRR), frequency recovery rate (fRR) and percentage variation from rest (Δf) during the recovery period of vigorous exercise. The top 20% group was also found to achieve lower mean arterial pressure MAP only at rest but showed no significant difference during graded exercises and recovery periods. In time-domain analysis of HRV, the top 20% group again seemed to have better recovery rate and less variation in terms of SDNN during recovery period of light and vigorous exercises. Most assessed frequency domain parameters changed significantly during the experiment (p<0.05, ANOVA). The analysis showed that the top 20% group, in comparison with middle and bottom 20% groups, appeared to have significantly higher TP, LF, HF, and nHF index, while the bottom 20% group showed higher nLF and LF/HF index during rest, three graded levels of exercises, and their recovery periods.

Keywords: physical fitness, cardio-pulmonary signals, graded exercise, exercise recovery

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505 Analysis of Labor Effectiveness at Green Tea Dry Sorting Workstation for Increasing Tea Factory Competitiveness

Authors: Bayu Anggara, Arita Dewi Nugrahini, Didik Purwadi

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Dry sorting workstation needs labor to produce green tea in Gambung Tea Factory. Observation results show that there is labor who are not working at the moment and doing overtime jobs to meet production targets. The measurement of the level of labor effectiveness has never been done before. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of labor effectiveness and provide recommendations for improvement based on the results of the Pareto diagram and Ishikawa diagram. The method used to measure the level of labor effectiveness is Overall Labor Effectiveness (OLE). OLE had three indicators which are availability, performance, and quality. Recommendations are made based on the results of the Pareto diagram and Ishikawa diagram for indicators that do not meet world standards. Based on the results of the study, the OLE value was 68.19%. Recommendations given to improve labor performance are adding mechanics, rescheduling rest periods, providing special training for labor, and giving rewards to labor. Furthermore, the recommendations for improving the quality of labor are procuring water content measuring devices, create material standard policies, and rescheduling rest periods.

Keywords: Ishikawa diagram, labor effectiveness, OLE, Pareto diagram

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504 A Dynamic Cardiac Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography Using Conventional Gamma Camera to Estimate Coronary Flow Reserve

Authors: Maria Sciammarella, Uttam M. Shrestha, Youngho Seo, Grant T. Gullberg, Elias H. Botvinick

Abstract:

Background: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is typically performed with static imaging protocols and visually assessed for perfusion defects based on the relative intensity distribution. Dynamic cardiac SPECT, on the other hand, is a new imaging technique that is based on time varying information of radiotracer distribution, which permits quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF). In this abstract, we report a progress and current status of dynamic cardiac SPECT using conventional gamma camera (Infinia Hawkeye 4, GE Healthcare) for estimation of myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve. Methods: A group of patients who had high risk of coronary artery disease was enrolled to evaluate our methodology. A low-dose/high-dose rest/pharmacologic-induced-stress protocol was implemented. A standard rest and a standard stress radionuclide dose of ⁹⁹ᵐTc-tetrofosmin (140 keV) was administered. The dynamic SPECT data for each patient were reconstructed using the standard 4-dimensional maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm. Acquired data were used to estimate the myocardial blood flow (MBF). The correspondence between flow values in the main coronary vasculature with myocardial segments defined by the standardized myocardial segmentation and nomenclature were derived. The coronary flow reserve, CFR, was defined as the ratio of stress to rest MBF values. CFR values estimated with SPECT were also validated with dynamic PET. Results: The range of territorial MBF in LAD, RCA, and LCX was 0.44 ml/min/g to 3.81 ml/min/g. The MBF between estimated with PET and SPECT in the group of independent cohort of 7 patients showed statistically significant correlation, r = 0.71 (p < 0.001). But the corresponding CFR correlation was moderate r = 0.39 yet statistically significant (p = 0.037). The mean stress MBF value was significantly lower for angiographically abnormal than that for the normal (Normal Mean MBF = 2.49 ± 0.61, Abnormal Mean MBF = 1.43 ± 0. 0.62, P < .001). Conclusions: The visually assessed image findings in clinical SPECT are subjective, and may not reflect direct physiologic measures of coronary lesion. The MBF and CFR measured with dynamic SPECT are fully objective and available only with the data generated from the dynamic SPECT method. A quantitative approach such as measuring CFR using dynamic SPECT imaging is a better mode of diagnosing CAD than visual assessment of stress and rest images from static SPECT images Coronary Flow Reserve.

Keywords: dynamic SPECT, clinical SPECT/CT, selective coronary angiograph, ⁹⁹ᵐTc-Tetrofosmin

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503 Argos-Linked Fastloc GPS Reveals the Resting Activity of Migrating Sea Turtles

Authors: Gail Schofield, Antoine M. Dujon, Nicole Esteban, Rebecca M. Lester, Graeme C. Hays

Abstract:

Variation in diel movement patterns during migration provides information on the strategies used by animals to maximize energy efficiency and ensure the successful completion of migration. For instance, many flying and land-based terrestrial species stop to rest and refuel at regular intervals along the migratory route, or at transitory ‘stopover’ sites, depending on resource availability. However, in cases where stopping is not possible (such as over–or through deep–open oceans, or over deserts and mountains), non-stop travel is required, with animals needing to develop strategies to rest while actively traveling. Recent advances in biologging technologies have identified mid-flight micro sleeps by swifts in Africa during the 10-month non-breeding period, and the use of lateralized sleep behavior in orca and bottlenose dolphins during migration. Here, highly accurate locations obtained by Argos-linked Fastloc-GPS transmitters of adult green (n=8 turtles, 9487 locations) and loggerhead (n=46 turtles, 47,588 locations) sea turtles migrating around thousand kilometers (over several weeks) from breeding to foraging grounds across the Indian and Mediterranean oceans were used to identify potential resting strategies. Stopovers were only documented for seven turtles, lasting up to 6 days; thus, this strategy was not commonly used, possibly due to the lack of potential ‘shallow’ ( < 100 m seabed depth) sites along routes. However, observations of the day versus night speed of travel indicated that turtles might use other mechanisms to rest. For instance, turtles traveled an average 31% slower at night compared to day during oceanic crossings. Slower travel speeds at night might be explained by turtles swimming in a less direct line at night and/or deeper dives reducing their forward motion, as indicated through studies using Argos-linked transmitters and accelerometers. Furthermore, within the first 24 h of entering waters shallower than 100 m towards the end of migration (the depth at which sea turtles can swim and rest on the seabed), some individuals travelled 72% slower at night, repeating this behavior intermittently (each time for a one-night duration at 3–6-day intervals) until reaching the foraging grounds. If the turtles were, in fact, resting on the seabed at this point, they could be inactive for up to 8-hours, facilitating protracted periods of rest after several weeks of constant swimming. Turtles might not rest every night once within these shallower depths, due to the time constraints of reaching foraging grounds and restoring depleted energetic reserves (as sea turtles are capital breeders, they tend not to feed for several months during migration to and from the breeding grounds and while breeding). In conclusion, access to data-rich, highly accurate Argos-linked Fastloc-GPS provided information about differences in the day versus night activity at different stages of migration, allowing us, for the first time, to compare the strategies used by a marine vertebrate with terrestrial land-based and flying species. However, the question of what resting strategies are used by individuals that remain in oceanic waters to forage, with combinations of highly accurate Argos-linked Fastloc-GPS transmitters and accelerometry or time-depth recorders being required for sufficient numbers of individuals.

Keywords: argos-linked fastloc GPS, data loggers, migration, resting strategy, telemetry

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502 Heart Rate Variability Responses Pre-, during, and Post-Exercise among Special Olympics Athletes

Authors: Kearney Dover, Viviene Temple, Lynneth Stuart-Hill

Abstract:

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is the beat-to-beat variation in adjacent heartbeats. HRV is a non-invasive measure of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and provides information about the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) nervous systems. The HRV of a well-conditioned heart is generally high at rest, whereas low HRV has been associated with adverse outcomes/conditions, including congestive heart failure, diabetic neuropathy, depression, and hospital admissions. HRV has received very little research attention among individuals with intellectual disabilities in general or Special Olympic athletes. Purpose: 1) Having a longer post-exercise rest and recovery time to establish how long it takes for the athletes’ HRV components to return to pre-exercise levels, 2) To determine if greater familiarization with the testing processes influences HRV. Participants: Two separate samples of 10 adult Special Olympics athletes will be recruited for 2 separate studies. Athletes will be between 18 and 50 years of age and will be members of Special Olympics BC. Anticipated Findings: To answer why the Special Olympics athletes display poor cardiac responsiveness to changes in autonomic modulation during exercise. By testing the cortisol levels in the athletes, we can determine their stress levels which will then explain their measured HRV.

Keywords: 6MWT, autonomic modulation, cortisol levels, intellectual disability

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501 Optimizing the Location of Parking Areas Adapted for Dangerous Goods in the European Road Transport Network

Authors: María Dolores Caro, Eugenio M. Fedriani, Ángel F. Tenorio

Abstract:

The transportation of dangerous goods by lorries throughout Europe must be done by using the roads conforming the European Road Transport Network. In this network, there are several parking areas where lorry drivers can park to rest according to the regulations. According to the "European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road", parking areas where lorries transporting dangerous goods can park to rest, must follow several security stipulations to keep safe the rest of road users. At this respect, these lorries must be parked in adapted areas with strict and permanent surveillance measures. Moreover, drivers must satisfy several restrictions about resting and driving time. Under these facts, one may expect that there exist enough parking areas for the transport of this type of goods in order to obey the regulations prescribed by the European Union and its member countries. However, the already-existing parking areas are not sufficient to cover all the stops required by drivers transporting dangerous goods. Our main goal is, starting from the already-existing parking areas and the loading-and-unloading location, to provide an optimal answer to the following question: how many additional parking areas must be built and where must they be located to assure that lorry drivers can transport dangerous goods following all the stipulations about security and safety for their stops? The sense of the word “optimal” is due to the fact that we give a global solution for the location of parking areas throughout the whole European Road Transport Network, adjusting the number of additional areas to be as lower as possible. To do so, we have modeled the problem using graph theory since we are working with a road network. As nodes, we have considered the locations of each already-existing parking area, each loading-and-unloading area each road bifurcation. Each road connecting two nodes is considered as an edge in the graph whose weight corresponds to the distance between both nodes in the edge. By applying a new efficient algorithm, we have found the additional nodes for the network representing the new parking areas adapted for dangerous goods, under the fact that the distance between two parking areas must be less than or equal to 400 km.

Keywords: trans-european transport network, dangerous goods, parking areas, graph-based modeling

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500 A Review of Paleo-Depositional Environment and Thermal Alteration Index of Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic of A1-9 well, NW Libya

Authors: Mohamed Ali Alrabib

Abstract:

This paper introduces a paleoenvironmental and hydrocarbon show in this well was identified in the interval of Dembaba formation to the Hassaona formation was poor to very poor oil show. And from palaeoenvironmental analysis there is neither particularly good reservoir nor source rock have been developed in the area. Recent palaeoenvironment work undertakes that the sedimentary succession in this area comprises the Upper Paleozoic rock of the Carboniferous and Permian and the Mesozoic (Triassic) sedimentary sequences. No early Paleozoic rocks have been found in this area, these rocks were eroding during the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian time. During Latest Permian and earliest Triassic time evidence for major marine transgression has occurred. From depths 5930-5940 feet, to 10800-10810 feet, the TAI of the Al Guidr, the Bir Al Jaja Al Uotia, Hebilia and the top varies between 3+ to 4-(mature-dry gas). This interval corporate the rest part of the Dembaba Formation. From depth 10800- 10810 feet, until total sediment depth (11944 feet Log) which corporate the rest of the Dembaba and underlying equivalents of the Assedjefar and M rar Formations and the underlying Indeterminate unit (Hassouna Formation) the TAI varies between 4 and 5 (dry gas-black& deformed).

Keywords: paleoenveronments, thermail index, carboniferous, Libya

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499 The Effect of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation and Lumbar Stabilization Exercises on Muscle Strength and Muscle Endurance in Patients with Lumbar Disc Hernia

Authors: Mustafa Gulsen, Mitat Koz

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The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of lumbar stabilisation and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) training on muscle strength and muscle endurance. The participants were 64 between the ages of 15-69 (53.04 ± 14.59), who were graded protrusion and bulging lumbar herniation according to 'Macnab Classification'. The participants were divided into four groups as each group had 16 participants: lumbar stabilitation training, PNF training, physical therapy and control groups. Sociodemographic features were recorded. Then their muscle strength tests (by isokinetic dynamometer (Cybex 770 Norm Lumex Inc, Ronkonkoma, NY, USA) were recorded. Before and after applications; visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability İndex were applied by a physical therapist. The participants in lumbar stabilisation group performed 45 minutes, 5 days in a week for 4 weeks strength training with a physical therapist observation. The participants in PNF group performed 5 days in a week for 4 weeks with pelvic patterns of PNF by a physiotherapist. The participants in physical therapy group underwent Hotpack, Tens and Ultrasound therapy 5 days in a week for 4 weeks. The participants in control group didn’t take any training programme. After 4 weeks, the evaluations were repeated. There were significant increases in muscle strength and muscle endurance in lumbar stabilization training group. Also in pain intensity at rest and during activity in this group and in Oswestry disability index of patients, there were significant improvements (p < 0.05). In PNF training group likewise, there were significant improvements in muscle strength, muscle endurance, pain intensity at rest and with activity and in Oswestry disability index (p < 0.05). But improvements in the Lumbar Stabilization group was better than PNF Group. We found significant differences only in pain intensity at rest and with activity and in Oswestry disability index (p < 0.05). in the patients in Physical Therapy group. We think that appropriate physiotherapy and rehabilitation program which will be prepared for patients, to protect the waist circumference of patients with low muscle strength and low muscle endurance will increase muscle strength and muscle endurance. And it is expected that will reduce pain and will provide advances toward correcting functional disability of the patients.

Keywords: disc herniation, endurance, lumbar stabilitation exercises, PNF, strength

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498 Preparation and Evaluation of Herbal Extracts for Washing of Vegetables and Fruits

Authors: Pareshkumar Umedbhai Patel

Abstract:

Variety of microbes were isolated from surface of fruit and vegetables to get idea about normal flora of their surface. The process of isolation of microbes involved use of sterilized cotton swabs to wipe the surface of the samples. For isolation of Bacteria, yeast and fungi microbiological media used were nutrient agar medium, GYE agar medium and MRBA agar medium respectively. The microscopical and macroscopical characteristics of all the isolates were studied. Different plants with known antimicrobial activity were selected for obtaining samples for extraction e.g. Ficus (Ficus religosa) stem, Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) fruit, Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) leaves and Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil. Antimicrobial activity of these samples was tested initially against known bacteria followed by study against microbes isolated from surface of vegetables and fruits. During the studies carried out throughout the work, lemongrass oil and Amla extract were found superior. Lemongrass oil and Amla extract respectively inhibited growth of 65% and 42% microbes isolated from fruit and vegetable surfaces. Rest two studied plant extracts showed only 11% of inhibition against the studied isolates. The results of isolate inhibition show the antibacterial effect of lemongrass oil better than the rest of the studied plant extracts.

Keywords: herbal extracts, vegetables, fruits, antimicrobial activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
497 Health Psychology Intervention: Identifying Early Symptoms in Neurological Disorders

Authors: Simon B. N. Thompson

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Early indicator of neurological disease has been proposed by the expanded Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis which suggests that yawning is linked to rises in cortisol levels. Cortisol is essential to the regulation of the immune system and pathological yawning is a symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). Electromyography activity (EMG) in the jaw muscles typically rises when the muscles are moved – extended or flexed; and yawning has been shown to be highly correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. It is likely that these elevated cortisol levels are also seen in people with MS. The possible link between EMG in the jaw muscles and rises in saliva cortisol levels during yawning were investigated in a randomized controlled trial of 60 volunteers aged 18-69 years who were exposed to conditions that were designed to elicit the yawning response. Saliva samples were collected at the start and after yawning, or at the end of the presentation of yawning-provoking stimuli, in the absence of a yawn, and EMG data was additionally collected during rest and yawning phases. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale, General Health Questionnaire, demographic, and health details were collected and the following exclusion criteria were adopted: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol samples for the yawners, t (23) = -4.263, p = 0.000, as compared with the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli, which was non-significant. There were also significant differences between yawners and non-yawners for the EMG potentials with the yawners having higher rest and post-yawning potentials. Significant evidence was found to support the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis suggesting that rises in cortisol levels are associated with the yawning response. Further research is underway to explore the use of cortisol as a potential diagnostic tool as an assist to the early diagnosis of symptoms related to neurological disorders. Bournemouth University Research & Ethics approval granted: JC28/1/13-KA6/9/13. Professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues have been addressed and approved in the Ethics submission. Trials identification number: ISRCTN61942768. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/

Keywords: cortisol, electromyography, neurology, yawning

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496 A Comparative Analysis of Asymmetric Encryption Schemes on Android Messaging Service

Authors: Mabrouka Algherinai, Fatma Karkouri

Abstract:

Today, Short Message Service (SMS) is an important means of communication. SMS is not only used in informal environment for communication and transaction, but it is also used in formal environments such as institutions, organizations, companies, and business world as a tool for communication and transactions. Therefore, there is a need to secure the information that is being transmitted through this medium to ensure security of information both in transit and at rest. But, encryption has been identified as a means to provide security to SMS messages in transit and at rest. Several past researches have proposed and developed several encryption algorithms for SMS and Information Security. This research aims at comparing the performance of common Asymmetric encryption algorithms on SMS security. The research employs the use of three algorithms, namely RSA, McEliece, and RABIN. Several experiments were performed on SMS of various sizes on android mobile device. The experimental results show that each of the three techniques has different key generation, encryption, and decryption times. The efficiency of an algorithm is determined by the time that it takes for encryption, decryption, and key generation. The best algorithm can be chosen based on the least time required for encryption. The obtained results show the least time when McEliece size 4096 is used. RABIN size 4096 gives most time for encryption and so it is the least effective algorithm when considering encryption. Also, the research shows that McEliece size 2048 has the least time for key generation, and hence, it is the best algorithm as relating to key generation. The result of the algorithms also shows that RSA size 1024 is the most preferable algorithm in terms of decryption as it gives the least time for decryption.

Keywords: SMS, RSA, McEliece, RABIN

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495 Assessment of Transverse Abdominis Activation during Three Different Exercises in Low Back Pain Patients: Measurement with Real-Time Ultrasonography

Authors: Venus Pagare, Amit Kharat, Dhaval K. Thakkar, Tushar J. Palekar

Abstract:

Introduction: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major public health problem and is the leading musculoskeletal cause of disability. Altered neuromuscular control of core muscles, particulary transverses abdominis (TrA) is thought to be a contributing factor for the development of CLBP. Therefore, various exercises targeting the TrA are commonly incorporated into the rehabilitation. Objectives: To investigate the effects of 3 different core exercises on activation capacity of TrA muscle in individuals with CLBP as compared with healthy controls. Methodology: Thickness of TrA muscle was measured by ultrasound imaging in 30 patients with CLBP and 30 healthy controls. Measurements were taken during 3 different TrA activation exercises i.e Abdominal drawing in maneuver (ADIM), Abdominal drawing in with straight leg raise (ADSLR) and breathe hold at maximum expiration (ME). Thickness of the muscle at rest (at the end of normal tidal expiration) was taken as a baseline measure. Results: There was a significant difference between the healthy subjects and patients with low back pain with regard to the thickness of TrA at rest and thickness during contraction. ADIM produced a significant increase in the thickness of TrA compared to ADSLR and ME (p<0.001). Also, increase in thickness of TrA was more in the control group than patients with low back pain. Conclusion: CLBP patients exhibited atrophy of TrA muscle with delayed activation. Also, of the various core exercises, ADIM can be an effective method for activation of TrA.

Keywords: LBP, CLBP, ADSLR, ADIM

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494 Clinical Risk Score for Mortality and Predictors of Severe Disease in Adult Patients with Dengue

Authors: Siddharth Jain, Abhenil Mittal, Surendra Kumar Sharma

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Background: With its recent emergence and re-emergence, dengue has become a major international public health concern, imposing significant financial burden especially in developing countries. Despite aggressive control measures in place, India experienced one of its largest outbreaks in 2015 with Delhi being most severely affected. There is a lack of reliable predictors of disease severity and mortality in dengue. The present study was carried out to identify these predictors during the 2015 outbreak. Methods: This prospective observational study conducted at an apex tertiary care center in Delhi, India included confirmed adult dengue patients admitted between August-November 2015. Patient demographics, clinical details, and laboratory findings were recorded in a predesigned proforma. Appropriate statistical tests were used to summarize and compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics and derive predictors of mortality and severe disease, while developing a clinical risk score for mortality. Serotype analysis was also done for 75 representative samples to identify the dominant serotypes. Results: Data of 369 patients were analyzed (mean age 30.9 years; 67% males). Of these, 198 (54%) patients had dengue fever, 125 (34%) had dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF Grade 1,2)and 46 (12%) developed dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Twenty two (6%) patients died. Late presentation to the hospital (≥5 days after onset) and dyspnoea at rest were identified as independent predictors of severe disease. Age ≥ 24 years, dyspnoea at rest and altered sensorium were identified as independent predictors of mortality. A clinical risk score was developed (12*age + 14*sensorium + 10*dyspnoea) which, if ≥ 22, predicted mortality with a high sensitivity (81.8%) and specificity (79.2%). The predominant serotypes in Delhi (2015) were DENV-2 and DENV-4. Conclusion: Age ≥ 24 years, dyspnoea at rest and altered sensorium were identified as independent predictors of mortality. Platelet counts did not determine the outcome in dengue patients. Timely referral/access to health care is important. Development and use of validated predictors of disease severity and simple clinical risk scores, which can be applied in all healthcare settings, can help minimize mortality and morbidity, especially in resource limited settings.

Keywords: dengue, mortality, predictors, severity

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