Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Silvio Nilo Figueroa

26 Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosols over South America: A Case Study in the 2019 Amazon Rainforest Wildfires Season

Authors: Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Dirceu Luis Herdies, Debora Souza Alvim, Eder Paulo Vendrasco, Silvio Nilo Figueroa, Jayant Pendharkar, Julio Pablo Reyes Fernandez

Abstract:

Biomass-burning episodes are quite common in the central Amazon rainforest and represent a dominant source of aerosols during the dry season, between August and October. The increase in the occurrence of fires in 2019 in the world’s largest biomes has captured the attention of the international community. In particular, a rare and extreme smoke-related event occurred in the afternoon of Monday, August 19, 2019, in the most populous city in the Western Hemisphere, the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in southeastern Brazil. The sky over the SPMA suddenly blackened, with the day turning into night, as reported by several news media around the world. In order to clarify whether or not the smoke that plunged the SPMA into sudden darkness was related to wildfires in the Amazon rainforest region, a set of 48-hour simulations over South America were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model at 20 km horizontal resolution, on a daily basis, during the period from August 16 to August 19, 2019. The model results were satisfactorily compared against satellite-based data products and in situ measurements collected from air quality monitoring sites. Although a very strong smoke transport coming from the Amazon rainforest was observed in the middle of the afternoon on August 19, its impact on air quality over the SPMA took place in upper levels far above the surface, where, conversely, low air pollutant concentrations were observed.

Keywords: Amazon rainforest, biomass burning aerosols, São Paulo metropolitan area, WRF-Chem model

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25 Fuzzy Expert Systems Applied to Intelligent Design of Data Centers

Authors: Mario M. Figueroa de la Cruz, Claudia I. Solorzano, Raul Acosta, Ignacio Funes

Abstract:

This technological development project seeks to create a tool that allows companies, in need of implementing a Data Center, intelligently determining factors for allocating resources support cooling and power supply (UPS) in its conception. The results should show clearly the speed, robustness and reliability of a system designed for deployment in environments where they must manage and protect large volumes of data.

Keywords: telecommunications, data center, fuzzy logic, expert systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
24 Methodology for the Selection of Chemical Textile Products

Authors: Oscar F. Toro, Alexia Pardo Figueroa, Brigitte M. Larico

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The development of new processes in the textile industry entails designing methodologies to select adequate supplies that fit these new processes requirements. This paper presents a methodology to select chemicals that fulfill a new process technical specifications. The proposed methodology involves three major phases: (1) Data collection of chemical products, (2) Qualitative pre-selection and (3) Laboratory tests. We have applied this methodology to the selection of a binder which will form a protective film above the textile fibers and bond them. Our findings were that, there exist five possible products that can be used in our new process: Arkofil, Elvanol, Size plus A, Size plus AC and Starch. This new methodology has both qualitative and experimental variables, and can be used to select supplies for new textile processes.

Keywords: binder, chemical products, selection methodology, textile supplies, textile fiber

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23 A Correlational Study between Parentification and Memory Retention among Parentified Female Adolescents: A Neurocognitive Perspective on Parentification

Authors: Mary Dorothy Roxas, Jeian Mae Dungca, Reginald Agor, Beatriz Figueroa, Lennon Andre Patricio, Honey Joy Cabahug

Abstract:

Parentification occurs when children are expected to provide instrumental or emotional caregiving within the family. It was found that parentification has the latter effect on adolescents’ cognitive and emotional vulnerability. Attachment theory helps clarify the process of parentification as it involves the relationship between the child and the parent. Carandang theory of “taga-salo” helps explain parentification in the Philippines setting. The present study examined the potential risk of parentification on adolescent’s memory retention by hypothesizing that there is a correlation between the two. The research was conducted with 249 female adolescents ages 12-24, residing in Valenzuela City. Results indicated that there is a significant inverse correlation between parentification and memory retention.

Keywords: memory retention, neurocognitive, parentification, stress

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22 A Case Study on the Guidelines for Application of Project Management Methods in Infrastructure Projects

Authors: Fernanda Varella Borges, Silvio Burrattino Melhado

Abstract:

Motivated by the importance of public infrastructure projects in the civil construction chain, this research shows the study of project management methods and the infrastructure projects’ characteristics. The research aims at the objective of improving management efficiency by proposing guidelines for the application of project management methods in infrastructure projects. Through literature review and case studies, the research analyses two major infrastructure projects underway in Brazil, identifying the critical points for achieving its success. As a result, the proposed guidelines indicate that special attention should be given to the management of stakeholders, focusing on their knowledge and experience, their different interests, the efficient management of their communication, and their behavior in the day-by-day project management process.

Keywords: construction, infrastructure, project management, public projects

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21 Analysis of the Relationship between the Unitary Impulse Response for the nth-Volterra Kernel of a Duffing Oscillator System

Authors: Guillermo Manuel Flores Figueroa, Juan Alejandro Vazquez Feijoo, Jose Navarro Antonio

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A continuous nonlinear system response may be obtained by an infinite sum of the so-called Volterra operators. Each operator is obtained from multidimensional convolution of nth-order between the nth-order Volterra kernel and the system input. These operators can also be obtained from the Associated Linear Equations (ALEs) that are linear models of subsystems which inputs and outputs are of the same nth-order. Each ALEs produces a particular nth-Volterra operator. As linear models a unitary impulse response can be obtained from them. This work shows the relationship between this unitary impulse responses and the corresponding order Volterra kernel.

Keywords: Volterra series, frequency response functions FRF, associated linear equations ALEs, unitary response function, Voterra kernel

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20 Incorporating Information Gain in Regular Expressions Based Classifiers

Authors: Rosa L. Figueroa, Christopher A. Flores, Qing Zeng-Treitler

Abstract:

A regular expression consists of sequence characters which allow describing a text path. Usually, in clinical research, regular expressions are manually created by programmers together with domain experts. Lately, there have been several efforts to investigate how to generate them automatically. This article presents a text classification algorithm based on regexes. The algorithm named REX was designed, and then, implemented as a simplified method to create regexes to classify Spanish text automatically. In order to classify ambiguous cases, such as, when multiple labels are assigned to a testing example, REX includes an information gain method Two sets of data were used to evaluate the algorithm’s effectiveness in clinical text classification tasks. The results indicate that the regular expression based classifier proposed in this work performs statically better regarding accuracy and F-measure than Support Vector Machine and Naïve Bayes for both datasets.

Keywords: information gain, regular expressions, smith-waterman algorithm, text classification

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19 Identification and Characterization of Nuclear Envelope Protein Interactions

Authors: Mohammed Hakim Jafferali, Balaje Vijayaraghavan, Ricardo A. Figueroa, Ellinor Crafoord, Veronica J. Larsson, Einar Hallberg, Santhosh Gudise

Abstract:

The nuclear envelope which surrounds the chromatin of eukaryotic cells contains more than a hundred transmembrane proteins. Mutations in some genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins give rise to human diseases including neurological disorders. The function of many nuclear envelope proteins is not well established. This is partly because nuclear envelope proteins and their interactions are difficult to study due to the inherent resistance to extraction of nuclear envelope proteins. We have developed a novel method called MCLIP, to identify interacting partners of nuclear envelope proteins in live cells. Using MCLIP, we found three new binding partners of the inner nuclear membrane protein Samp1: the intermediate filament protein Lamin B1, the LINC complex protein Sun1 and the G-protein Ran. Furthermore, using in vitro studies, we show that Samp1 binds both Emerin and Ran directly. We have also studied the interaction between Samp1 and Ran in detail. The results show that the Samp1 binds stronger to RanGTP than RanGDP. Samp1 is the first transmembrane protein known to bind Ran and it is tempting to speculate that Samp1 may provide local binding sites for RanGTP at membranes.

Keywords: MCLIP, nuclear envelope, ran, Samp1

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18 Instrumentation of Urban Pavements Built with Construction and Demolition Waste

Authors: Sofia Figueroa, Efrain Bernal, Silvia Del Pilar Forero, Humberto Ramirez

Abstract:

This work shows a detailed review of the scope of global research on the road infrastructure using materials from Construction and Demolition Waste (C&DW), also called RCD. In the first phase of this research, a segment of road was designed using recycled materials such as Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) on the top, the natural coarse base including 30% of RAP and recycled concrete blocks. The second part of this segment was designed using regular materials for each layer of the pavement. Both structures were built next to each other in order to analyze and measure the material properties as well as performance and environmental factors in the pavement under real traffic and weather conditions. Different monitoring devices were installed among the structure, based on the literature revision, such as soil cells, linear potentiometer, moisture sensors, and strain gauges that help us to know the C&DW as a part of the pavement structure. This research includes not only the physical characterization but also the measured parameters in a field such as an asphalt mixture (RAP) strain (ετ), vertical strain (εᵥ) and moisture control in coarse layers (%w), and the applied loads and strain in the subgrade (εᵥ). The results will show us what is happening with these materials in order to obtain not only a sustainable solution but also to know its behavior and lifecycle.

Keywords: sustainable pavements, construction & demolition waste-C&DW, recycled rigid concrete, reclaimed asphalt pavement-rap

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17 Collective Intelligence-Based Early Warning Management for Agriculture

Authors: Jarbas Lopes Cardoso Jr., Frederic Andres, Alexandre Guitton, Asanee Kawtrakul, Silvio E. Barbin

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The important objective of the CyberBrain Mass Agriculture Alarm Acquisition and Analysis (CBMa4) project is to minimize the impacts of diseases and disasters on rice cultivation. For example, early detection of insects will reduce the volume of insecticides that is applied to the rice fields through the use of CBMa4 platform. In order to reach this goal, two major factors need to be considered: (1) the social network of smart farmers; and (2) the warning data alarm acquisition and analysis component. This paper outlines the process for collecting the warning and improving the decision-making result to the warning. It involves two sub-processes: the warning collection and the understanding enrichment. Human sensors combine basic suitable data processing techniques in order to extract warning related semantic according to collective intelligence. We identify each warning by a semantic content called 'warncons' with multimedia metaphors and metadata related to these metaphors. It is important to describe the metric to measuring the relation among warncons. With this knowledge, a collective intelligence-based decision-making approach determines the action(s) to be launched regarding one or a set of warncons.

Keywords: agricultural engineering, warning systems, social network services, context awareness

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16 A Framework for Automating Software Testing: A Practical Approach

Authors: Ana Paula Cavalcanti Furtado, Silvio Meira

Abstract:

Context: The quality of a software product can be directly influenced by the quality of its development process. Therefore, immature or ad-hoc test processes are means that are unsuited for introducing systematic test automation, and should not be used to support improving the quality of software. Objective: In order to conduct this research, the benefits and limitations of and gaps in automating software testing had to be assessed in order to identify the best practices and to propose a strategy for systematically introducing test automation into software development processes. Method: To conduct this research, an exploratory bibliographical survey was undertaken so as to underpin the search by theory and the recent literature. After defining the proposal, two case studies were conducted so as to analyze the proposal in a real-world environment. In addition, the proposal was also assessed through a focus group with specialists in the field. Results: The proposal of a Framework for Automating Software Testing (FAST), which is a theoretical framework consisting of a hierarchical structure to introduce test automation. Conclusion: The findings of this research showed that the absence of systematic processes is one of the factors that hinder the introduction of test automation. Based on the results of the case studies, FAST can be considered as a satisfactory alternative that lies within the scope of introducing and maintaining test automation in software development.

Keywords: software process improvement, software quality, software testing, test automation

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15 AniMoveMineR: Animal Behavior Exploratory Analysis Using Association Rules Mining

Authors: Suelane Garcia Fontes, Silvio Luiz Stanzani, Pedro L. Pizzigatti Corrła Ronaldo G. Morato

Abstract:

Environmental changes and major natural disasters are most prevalent in the world due to the damage that humanity has caused to nature and these damages directly affect the lives of animals. Thus, the study of animal behavior and their interactions with the environment can provide knowledge that guides researchers and public agencies in preservation and conservation actions. Exploratory analysis of animal movement can determine the patterns of animal behavior and with technological advances the ability of animals to be tracked and, consequently, behavioral studies have been expanded. There is a lot of research on animal movement and behavior, but we note that a proposal that combines resources and allows for exploratory analysis of animal movement and provide statistical measures on individual animal behavior and its interaction with the environment is missing. The contribution of this paper is to present the framework AniMoveMineR, a unified solution that aggregates trajectory analysis and data mining techniques to explore animal movement data and provide a first step in responding questions about the animal individual behavior and their interactions with other animals over time and space. We evaluated the framework through the use of monitored jaguar data in the city of Miranda Pantanal, Brazil, in order to verify if the use of AniMoveMineR allows to identify the interaction level between these jaguars. The results were positive and provided indications about the individual behavior of jaguars and about which jaguars have the highest or lowest correlation.

Keywords: data mining, data science, trajectory, animal behavior

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14 A Stochastic Diffusion Process Based on the Two-Parameters Weibull Density Function

Authors: Meriem Bahij, Ahmed Nafidi, Boujemâa Achchab, Sílvio M. A. Gama, José A. O. Matos

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Stochastic modeling concerns the use of probability to model real-world situations in which uncertainty is present. Therefore, the purpose of stochastic modeling is to estimate the probability of outcomes within a forecast, i.e. to be able to predict what conditions or decisions might happen under different situations. In the present study, we present a model of a stochastic diffusion process based on the bi-Weibull distribution function (its trend is proportional to the bi-Weibull probability density function). In general, the Weibull distribution has the ability to assume the characteristics of many different types of distributions. This has made it very popular among engineers and quality practitioners, who have considered it the most commonly used distribution for studying problems such as modeling reliability data, accelerated life testing, and maintainability modeling and analysis. In this work, we start by obtaining the probabilistic characteristics of this model, as the explicit expression of the process, its trends, and its distribution by transforming the diffusion process in a Wiener process as shown in the Ricciaardi theorem. Then, we develop the statistical inference of this model using the maximum likelihood methodology. Finally, we analyse with simulated data the computational problems associated with the parameters, an issue of great importance in its application to real data with the use of the convergence analysis methods. Overall, the use of a stochastic model reflects only a pragmatic decision on the part of the modeler. According to the data that is available and the universe of models known to the modeler, this model represents the best currently available description of the phenomenon under consideration.

Keywords: diffusion process, discrete sampling, likelihood estimation method, simulation, stochastic diffusion process, trends functions, bi-parameters weibull density function

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13 A Preparatory Method for Building Construction Implemented in a Case Study in Brazil

Authors: Aline Valverde Arroteia, Tatiana Gondim do Amaral, Silvio Burrattino Melhado

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During the last twenty years, the construction field in Brazil has evolved significantly in response to its market growing and competitiveness. However, this evolving path has faced many obstacles such as cultural barriers and the lack of efforts to achieve quality at the construction site. At the same time, the greatest amount of information generated on the designing or construction phases is lost due to the lack of an effective coordination of these activities. Face this problem, the aim of this research was to implement a French method named PEO which means preparation for building construction (in Portuguese) seeking to understand the design management process and its interface with the building construction phase. The research method applied was qualitative, and it was carried out through two case studies in the city of Goiania, in Goias, Brazil. The research was divided into two stages called pilot study at Company A and implementation of PEO at Company B. After the implementation; the results demonstrated the PEO method's effectiveness and feasibility while a booster on the quality improvement of design management. The analysis showed that the method has a purpose to improve the design and allow the reduction of failures, errors and rework commonly found in the production of buildings. Therefore, it can be concluded that the PEO is feasible to be applied to real estate and building companies. But, companies need to believe in the contribution they can make to the discovery of design failures in conjunction with other stakeholders forming a construction team. The result of PEO can be maximized when adopting the principles of simultaneous engineering and insertion of new computer technologies, which use a three-dimensional model of the building with BIM process.

Keywords: communication, design and construction interface management, preparation for building construction (PEO), proactive coordination (CPA)

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12 Project Marayum: Creating a Community Built Mobile Phone Based, Online Web Dictionary for Endangered Philippine Languages

Authors: Samantha Jade Sadural, Kathleen Gay Figueroa, Noel Nicanor Sison II, Francis Miguel Quilab, Samuel Edric Solis, Kiel Gonzales, Alain Andrew Boquiren, Janelle Tan, Mario Carreon

Abstract:

Of the 185 languages in the Philippines, 28 are endangered, 11 are dying off, and 4 are extinct. Language documentation, as a prerequisite to language education, can be one of the ways languages can be preserved. Project Marayum is envisioned to be a collaboratively built, mobile phone-based, online dictionary platform for Philippine languages. Although there are many online language dictionaries available on the Internet, Project Marayum aims to give a sense of ownership to the language community's dictionary as it is built and maintained by the community for the community. From a seed dictionary, members of a language community can suggest changes, add new entries, and provide language examples. Going beyond word definitions, the platform can be used to gather sample sentences and even audio samples of word usage. These changes are reviewed by language experts of the community, sourced from the local state universities or local government units. Approved changes are then added to the dictionary and can be viewed instantly through the Marayum website. A companion mobile phone application allows users to browse the dictionary in remote areas where Internet connectivity is nonexistent. The dictionary will automatically be updated once the user regains Internet access. Project Marayum is still a work in progress. At the time of this abstract's writing, the Project has just entered its second year. Prototypes are currently being tested with the Asi language of Romblon island as its initial language testbed. In October 2020, Project Marayum will have both a webpage and mobile application with Asi, Ilocano, and Cebuano language dictionaries available for use online or for download. In addition, the Marayum platform would be then easily expandable for use of the more endangered language communities. Project Marayum is funded by the Philippines Department of Science and Technology.

Keywords: collaborative language dictionary, community-centered lexicography, content management system, software engineering

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11 The Bioequivalent: A Medical Drug Search Tool Based on a Collaborative Database

Authors: Rosa L. Figueroa, Joselyn A. Hernández

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During the last couple of years, the Ministry of Health have been developing new health policies in order to regulate and improve in benefit of the patient the pharmaceutical system in our country. However, there are still some deficiencies in how medicines have been accessed, distributed, and sold. Therefore, it is necessary to empower the patient by offering new instances to improve access to drug information. This work introduces ‘the bioequivalent’ a medical drug search tool created to increase both diffusion and getting information about the therapeutic equivalence of medicines for the patient. The development of the search tool started with a study on the availability of sources of drug information accessible to the patient where advantages and disadvantages were analyzed. The information obtained was used to feed the functional design of the new tool. The design of the new tool shows an external interface that includes a header, body, sidebar and footer. The header has a menu containing ‘Home,’ ‘Who we are,’ and ‘Mission and vision.’ The Body contains the medical drug search tool, and the Sidebar is for the user logging in. It could be anonym, registered user, as well as, administrator. Anonym user could only use the tool. Registered users could add some information on existing medicines in the database; however, adding information will be restricted and limited to specific items and subject to administrator approval because the information added must be endorsed by the Chilean Public Health Institute. On the other hand, the administrator will have all the privileges, including creating or deleting drugs or information about them. The Bioequivalent was tested on different mobile devices, and no fails have been found. Moreover, a small survey was answered by ten people who tested the tool, and all of them agree that the tool was useful to get information about bioequivalent drugs, and they would recommend the tool to others. Nevertheless, an 80% of people who tested the tool says it was easy to use, and a 70% indicates that additional help is not required. These results are evidence that ‘the Bioequivalent’ may contribute to the knowledge about the therapeutic bioequivalence and bioequivalent drugs existing in Chile. As future work, the tool will be developed to make it available to the public for a first testing stage in a more massive scenario.

Keywords: collaborative database, bioequivalent drugs, search tool, web platform

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10 Use of SUDOKU Design to Assess the Implications of the Block Size and Testing Order on Efficiency and Precision of Dulce De Leche Preference Estimation

Authors: Jéssica Ferreira Rodrigues, Júlio Silvio De Sousa Bueno Filho, Vanessa Rios De Souza, Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro

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This study aimed to evaluate the implications of the block size and testing order on efficiency and precision of preference estimation for Dulce de leche samples. Efficiency was defined as the inverse of the average variance of pairwise comparisons among treatments. Precision was defined as the inverse of the variance of treatment means (or effects) estimates. The experiment was originally designed to test 16 treatments as a series of 8 Sudoku 16x16 designs being 4 randomized independently and 4 others in the reverse order, to yield balance in testing order. Linear mixed models were assigned to the whole experiment with 112 testers and all their grades, as well as their partially balanced subgroups, namely: a) experiment with the four initial EU; b) experiment with EU 5 to 8; c) experiment with EU 9 to 12; and b) experiment with EU 13 to 16. To record responses we used a nine-point hedonic scale, it was assumed a mixed linear model analysis with random tester and treatments effects and with fixed test order effect. Analysis of a cumulative random effects probit link model was very similar, with essentially no different conclusions and for simplicity, we present the results using Gaussian assumption. R-CRAN library lme4 and its function lmer (Fit Linear Mixed-Effects Models) was used for the mixed models and libraries Bayesthresh (default Gaussian threshold function) and ordinal with the function clmm (Cumulative Link Mixed Model) was used to check Bayesian analysis of threshold models and cumulative link probit models. It was noted that the number of samples tested in the same session can influence the acceptance level, underestimating the acceptance. However, proving a large number of samples can help to improve the samples discrimination.

Keywords: acceptance, block size, mixed linear model, testing order, testing order

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9 Using the Smith-Waterman Algorithm to Extract Features in the Classification of Obesity Status

Authors: Rosa Figueroa, Christopher Flores

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Text categorization is the problem of assigning a new document to a set of predetermined categories, on the basis of a training set of free-text data that contains documents whose category membership is known. To train a classification model, it is necessary to extract characteristics in the form of tokens that facilitate the learning and classification process. In text categorization, the feature extraction process involves the use of word sequences also known as N-grams. In general, it is expected that documents belonging to the same category share similar features. The Smith-Waterman (SW) algorithm is a dynamic programming algorithm that performs a local sequence alignment in order to determine similar regions between two strings or protein sequences. This work explores the use of SW algorithm as an alternative to feature extraction in text categorization. The dataset used for this purpose, contains 2,610 annotated documents with the classes Obese/Non-Obese. This dataset was represented in a matrix form using the Bag of Word approach. The score selected to represent the occurrence of the tokens in each document was the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF). In order to extract features for classification, four experiments were conducted: the first experiment used SW to extract features, the second one used unigrams (single word), the third one used bigrams (two word sequence) and the last experiment used a combination of unigrams and bigrams to extract features for classification. To test the effectiveness of the extracted feature set for the four experiments, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier was tuned using 20% of the dataset. The remaining 80% of the dataset together with 5-Fold Cross Validation were used to evaluate and compare the performance of the four experiments of feature extraction. Results from the tuning process suggest that SW performs better than the N-gram based feature extraction. These results were confirmed by using the remaining 80% of the dataset, where SW performed the best (accuracy = 97.10%, weighted average F-measure = 97.07%). The second best was obtained by the combination of unigrams-bigrams (accuracy = 96.04, weighted average F-measure = 95.97) closely followed by the bigrams (accuracy = 94.56%, weighted average F-measure = 94.46%) and finally unigrams (accuracy = 92.96%, weighted average F-measure = 92.90%).

Keywords: comorbidities, machine learning, obesity, Smith-Waterman algorithm

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8 Two-Dimensional Analysis and Numerical Simulation of the Navier-Stokes Equations for Principles of Turbulence around Isothermal Bodies Immersed in Incompressible Newtonian Fluids

Authors: Romulo D. C. Santos, Silvio M. A. Gama, Ramiro G. R. Camacho

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In this present paper, the thermos-fluid dynamics considering the mixed convection (natural and forced convections) and the principles of turbulence flow around complex geometries have been studied. In these applications, it was necessary to analyze the influence between the flow field and the heated immersed body with constant temperature on its surface. This paper presents a study about the Newtonian incompressible two-dimensional fluid around isothermal geometry using the immersed boundary method (IBM) with the virtual physical model (VPM). The numerical code proposed for all simulations satisfy the calculation of temperature considering Dirichlet boundary conditions. Important dimensionless numbers such as Strouhal number is calculated using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Nusselt number, drag and lift coefficients, velocity and pressure. Streamlines and isothermal lines are presented for each simulation showing the flow dynamics and patterns. The Navier-Stokes and energy equations for mixed convection were discretized using the finite difference method for space and a second order Adams-Bashforth and Runge-Kuta 4th order methods for time considering the fractional step method to couple the calculation of pressure, velocity, and temperature. This work used for simulation of turbulence, the Smagorinsky, and Spalart-Allmaras models. The first model is based on the local equilibrium hypothesis for small scales and hypothesis of Boussinesq, such that the energy is injected into spectrum of the turbulence, being equal to the energy dissipated by the convective effects. The Spalart-Allmaras model, use only one transport equation for turbulent viscosity. The results were compared with numerical data, validating the effect of heat-transfer together with turbulence models. The IBM/VPM is a powerful tool to simulate flow around complex geometries. The results showed a good numerical convergence in relation the references adopted.

Keywords: immersed boundary method, mixed convection, turbulence methods, virtual physical model

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7 Synthesis of Belite Cements at Low Temperature from Silica Fume and Natural Commercial Zeolite

Authors: Tatiana L. Avalos-Rendon, Elias A. Pasten Chelala, Carlos J. Mendoza EScobedo, Ignacio A. Figueroa, Victor H. Lara, Luis M. Palacios-Romero

Abstract:

The cement industry is facing cost increments in energy supply, requirements for reduction of CO₂, and insufficient supply of raw materials of good quality. According to all these environmental issues, cement industry must change its consumption patterns and reduce CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere. This can be achieved by generating environmental consciousness, which encourages the use of industrial by-products and/or recycling for the production of cement, as well as alternate, environment-friendly methods of synthesis which reduce CO₂. Calcination is the conventional method for the obtainment of Portland cement clinker. This method consists of grinding and mixing of raw materials (limestone, clay, etc.) in an adequate dosage. Resulting mix has a clinkerization temperature of 1450 °C so that the formation of the main component occur: alite (Ca₃SiO₅, C₃S). Considering that the energy required to produce C₃S is 1810 kJ kg -1, calcination method for the obtainment of clinker represents two major disadvantages: long thermal treatment and elevated temperatures of synthesis, both of which cause high emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂) to the atmosphere. Belite Portland clinker is characterized by having a low content of calcium oxide (CaO), causing the presence of alite to diminish and favoring the formation of belite (β-Ca₂SiO₄, C₂S), so production of clinker requires a reduced energy consumption (1350 kJ kg-1), releasing less CO₂ to the atmosphere. Conventionally, β-Ca₂SiO₄ is synthetized by the calcination of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) and silicon dioxide (SiO₂) through the reaction in solid state at temperatures greater than 1300 °C. Resulting belite shows low hydraulic reactivity. Therefore, this study concerns a new simple modified combustion method for the synthesis of two belite cements at low temperatures (1000 °C). Silica fume, as subproduct of metallurgic industry and commercial natural zeolite were utilized as raw materials. These are considered low-cost materials and were utilized with no additional purification process. Belite cements properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS and BET techniques. Hydration capacity of belite cements was calculated while the mechanical strength was determined in ordinary Portland cement specimens (PC) with a 10% partial replacement of the belite cements obtained. Results showed belite cements presented relatively high surface áreas, at early ages mechanical strengths similar to those of alite cement and comparable to strengths of belite cements obtained by different synthesis methods. Cements obtained in this work present good hydraulic reactivity properties.

Keywords: belite, silica fume, zeolite, hydraulic reactivity

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6 A Framework for Teaching the Intracranial Pressure Measurement through an Experimental Model

Authors: Christina Klippel, Lucia Pezzi, Silvio Neto, Rafael Bertani, Priscila Mendes, Flavio Machado, Aline Szeliga, Maria Cosendey, Adilson Mariz, Raquel Santos, Lys Bendett, Pedro Velasco, Thalita Rolleigh, Bruna Bellote, Daria Coelho, Bruna Martins, Julia Almeida, Juliana Cerqueira

Abstract:

This project presents a framework for teaching intracranial pressure monitoring (ICP) concepts using a low-cost experimental model in a neurointensive care education program. Data concerning ICP monitoring contribute to the patient's clinical assessment and may dictate the course of action of a health team (nursing, medical staff) and influence decisions to determine the appropriate intervention. This study aims to present a safe method for teaching ICP monitoring to medical students in a Simulation Center. Methodology: Medical school teachers, along with students from the 4th year, built an experimental model for teaching ICP measurement. The model consists of a mannequin's head with a plastic bag inside simulating the cerebral ventricle and an inserted ventricular catheter connected to the ICP monitoring system. The bag simulating the ventricle can also be changed for others containing bloody or infected simulated cerebrospinal fluid. On the mannequin's ear, there is a blue point indicating the right place to set the "zero point" for accurate pressure reading. The educational program includes four steps: 1st - Students receive a script on ICP measurement for reading before training; 2nd - Students watch a video about the subject created in the Simulation Center demonstrating each step of the ICP monitoring and the proper care, such as: correct positioning of the patient, anatomical structures to establish the zero point for ICP measurement and a secure range of ICP; 3rd - Students train the procedure in the model. Teachers help students during training; 4th - Student assessment based on a checklist form. Feedback and correction of wrong actions. Results: Students expressed interest in learning ICP monitoring. Tests concerning the hit rate are still being performed. ICP's final results and video will be shown at the event. Conclusion: The study of intracranial pressure measurement based on an experimental model consists of an effective and controlled method of learning and research, more appropriate for teaching neurointensive care practices. Assessment based on a checklist form helps teachers keep track of student learning progress. This project offers medical students a safe method to develop intensive neurological monitoring skills for clinical assessment of patients with neurological disorders.

Keywords: neurology, intracranial pressure, medical education, simulation

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5 The Role of Building Information Modeling as a Design Teaching Method in Architecture, Engineering and Construction Schools in Brazil

Authors: Aline V. Arroteia, Gustavo G. Do Amaral, Simone Z. Kikuti, Norberto C. S. Moura, Silvio B. Melhado

Abstract:

Despite the significant advances made by the construction industry in recent years, the crystalized absence of integration between the design and construction phases is still an evident and costly problem in building construction. Globally, the construction industry has sought to adopt collaborative practices through new technologies to mitigate impacts of this fragmented process and to optimize its production. In this new technological business environment, professionals are required to develop new methodologies based on the notion of collaboration and integration of information throughout the building lifecycle. This scenario also represents the industry’s reality in developing nations, and the increasing need for overall efficiency has demanded new educational alternatives at the undergraduate and post-graduate levels. In countries like Brazil, it is the common understanding that Architecture, Engineering and Building Construction educational programs are being required to review the traditional design pedagogical processes to promote a comprehensive notion about integration and simultaneity between the phases of the project. In this context, the coherent inclusion of computation design to all segments of the educational programs of construction related professionals represents a significant research topic that, in fact, can affect the industry practice. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to comparatively measure the effectiveness of the Building Information Modeling courses offered by the University of Sao Paulo, the most important academic institution in Brazil, at the Schools of Architecture and Civil Engineering and the courses offered in well recognized BIM research institutions, such as the School of Design in the College of Architecture of the Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, to evaluate the dissemination of BIM knowledge amongst students in post graduate level. The qualitative research methodology was developed based on the analysis of the program and activities proposed by two BIM courses offered in each of the above-mentioned institutions, which were used as case studies. The data collection instruments were a student questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, participatory evaluation and pedagogical practices. The found results have detected a broad heterogeneity of the students regarding their professional experience, hours dedicated to training, and especially in relation to their general knowledge of BIM technology and its applications. The research observed that BIM is mostly understood as an operational tool and not as methodological project development approach, relevant to the whole building life cycle. The present research offers in its conclusion an assessment about the importance of the incorporation of BIM, with efficiency and in its totality, as a teaching method in undergraduate and graduate courses in the Brazilian architecture, engineering and building construction schools.

Keywords: building information modeling (BIM), BIM education, BIM process, design teaching

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4 Trends of Conservation and Development in Mexican Biosphere Reserves: Spatial Analysis and Linear Mixed Model

Authors: Cecilia Sosa, Fernanda Figueroa, Leonardo Calzada

Abstract:

Biosphere reserves (BR) are considered as the main strategy for biodiversity and ecosystems conservation. Mexican BR are mainly inhabited by rural communities who strongly depend on forests and their resources. Even though the dual objective of conservation and development has been sought in BR, land cover change is a common process in these areas, while most rural communities are highly marginalized, partly as a result of restrictions imposed by conservation to the access and use of resources. Achieving ecosystems conservation and social development face serious challenges. Factors such as financial support for development projects (public/private), environmental conditions, infrastructure and regional economic conditions might influence both land use change and wellbeing. Examining the temporal trends of conservation and development in BR is central for the evaluation of outcomes for these conservation strategies. In this study, we analyzed changes in primary vegetation cover (as a proxy for conservation) and the index of marginalization (as a proxy for development) in Mexican BR (2000-2015); we also explore the influence of various factors affecting these trends, such as conservation-development projects financial support (public or private), geographical distribution in ecoregions (as a proxy for shared environmental conditions) and in economic zones (as a proxy for regional economic conditions). We developed a spatial analysis at the municipal scale (2,458 municipalities nationwide) in ArcGIS, to obtain road densities, geographical distribution in ecoregions and economic zones, the financial support received, and the percent of municipality area under protection by protected areas and, particularly, by BR. Those municipalities with less than 25% of area under protection were regarded as part of the protected area. We obtained marginalization indexes for all municipalities and, using MODIS in Google Earth Engine, the number of pixels covered by primary vegetation. We used a linear mixed model in RStudio for the analysis. We found a positive correlation between the marginalization index and the percent of primary vegetation cover per year (r=0.49-0.5); i.e., municipalities with higher marginalization also show higher percent of primary vegetation cover. Also, those municipalities with higher area under protection have more development projects (r=0.46) and some environmental conditions were relevant for percent of vegetation cover. Time, economic zones and marginalization index were all important. Time was particularly, in 2005, when both marginalization and deforestation decreased. Road densities and financial support for conservation-development projects were irrelevant as factors in the general correlation. Marginalization is still being affected by the conservation strategies applied in BR, even though that this management category considers both conservation and development of local communities as its objectives. Our results suggest that roads densities and support for conservation-development projects have not been a factor of poverty alleviation. As better conservation is being attained in the most impoverished areas, we face the dilemma of how to improve wellbeing in rural communities under conservation, since current strategies have not been able to leave behind the conservation-development contraposition.

Keywords: deforestation, local development, marginalization, protected areas

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3 Hydraulic Headloss in Plastic Drainage Pipes at Full and Partially Full Flow

Authors: Velitchko G. Tzatchkov, Petronilo E. Cortes-Mejia, J. Manuel Rodriguez-Varela, Jesus Figueroa-Vazquez

Abstract:

Hydraulic headloss, expressed by the values of friction factor f and Manning’s coefficient n, is an important parameter in designing drainage pipes. Their values normally are taken from manufacturer recommendations, many times without sufficient experimental support. To our knowledge, currently there is no standard procedure for hydraulically testing such pipes. As a result of research carried out at the Mexican Institute of Water Technology, a laboratory testing procedure was proposed and applied on 6 and 12 inches diameter polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and high-density dual wall polyethylene pipe (HDPE) drainage pipes. While the PVC pipe is characterized by naturally smooth interior and exterior walls, the dual wall HDPE pipe has corrugated exterior wall and, although considered smooth, a slightly wavy interior wall. The pipes were tested at full and partially full pipe flow conditions. The tests for full pipe flow were carried out on a 31.47 m long pipe at flow velocities between 0.11 and 4.61 m/s. Water was supplied by gravity from a 10 m-high tank in some of the tests, and from a 3.20 m-high tank in the rest of the tests. Pressure was measured independently with piezometer readings and pressure transducers. The flow rate was measured by an ultrasonic meter. For the partially full pipe flow the pipe was placed inside an existing 49.63 m long zero slope (horizontal) channel. The flow depth was measured by piezometers located along the pipe, for flow rates between 2.84 and 35.65 L/s, measured by a rectangular weir. The observed flow profiles were then compared to computer generated theoretical gradually varied flow profiles for different Manning’s n values. It was found that Manning’s n, that normally is assumed constant for a given pipe material, is in fact dependent on flow velocity and pipe diameter for full pipe flow, and on flow depth for partially full pipe flow. Contrary to the expected higher values of n and f for the HDPE pipe, virtually the same values were obtained for the smooth interior wall PVC pipe and the slightly wavy interior wall HDPE pipe. The explanation of this fact was found in Henry Morris’ theory for smooth turbulent conduit flow over isolated roughness elements. Following Morris, three categories of the flow regimes are possible in a rough conduit: isolated roughness (or semi smooth turbulent) flow, wake interference (or hyper turbulent) flow, and skimming (or quasi-smooth) flow. Isolated roughness flow is characterized by friction drag turbulence over the wall between the roughness elements, independent vortex generation, and dissipation around each roughness element. In this regime, the wake and vortex generation zones at each element develop and dissipate before attaining the next element. The longitudinal spacing of the roughness elements and their height are important influencing agents. Given the slightly wavy form of the HDPE pipe interior wall, the flow for this type of pipe belongs to this category. Based on that theory, an equation for the hydraulic friction factor was obtained. The obtained coefficient values are going to be used in the Mexican design standards.

Keywords: drainage plastic pipes, hydraulic headloss, hydraulic friction factor, Manning’s n

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2 Degradation of Diclofenac in Water Using FeO-Based Catalytic Ozonation in a Modified Flotation Cell

Authors: Miguel A. Figueroa, José A. Lara-Ramos, Miguel A. Mueses

Abstract:

Pharmaceutical residues are a section of emerging contaminants of anthropogenic origin that are present in a myriad of waters with which human beings interact daily and are starting to affect the ecosystem directly. Conventional waste-water treatment systems are not capable of degrading these pharmaceutical effluents because their designs cannot handle the intermediate products and biological effects occurring during its treatment. That is why it is necessary to hybridize conventional waste-water systems with non-conventional processes. In the specific case of an ozonation process, its efficiency highly depends on a perfect dispersion of ozone, long times of interaction of the gas-liquid phases and the size of the ozone bubbles formed through-out the reaction system. In order to increase the efficiency of these parameters, the use of a modified flotation cell has been proposed recently as a reactive system, which is used at an industrial level to facilitate the suspension of particles and spreading gas bubbles through the reactor volume at a high rate. The objective of the present work is the development of a mathematical model that can closely predict the kinetic rates of reactions taking place in the flotation cell at an experimental scale by means of identifying proper reaction mechanisms that take into account the modified chemical and hydrodynamic factors in the FeO-catalyzed Ozonation of Diclofenac aqueous solutions in a flotation cell. The methodology is comprised of three steps: an experimental phase where a modified flotation cell reactor is used to analyze the effects of ozone concentration and loading catalyst over the degradation of Diclofenac aqueous solutions. The performance is evaluated through an index of utilized ozone, which relates the amount of ozone supplied to the system per milligram of degraded pollutant. Next, a theoretical phase where the reaction mechanisms taking place during the experiments must be identified and proposed that details the multiple direct and indirect reactions the system goes through. Finally, a kinetic model is obtained that can mathematically represent the reaction mechanisms with adjustable parameters that can be fitted to the experimental results and give the model a proper physical meaning. The expected results are a robust reaction rate law that can simulate the improved results of Diclofenac mineralization on water using the modified flotation cell reactor. By means of this methodology, the following results were obtained: A robust reaction pathways mechanism showcasing the intermediates, free-radicals and products of the reaction, Optimal values of reaction rate constants that simulated Hatta numbers lower than 3 for the system modeled, degradation percentages of 100%, TOC (Total organic carbon) removal percentage of 69.9 only requiring an optimal value of FeO catalyst of 0.3 g/L. These results showed that a flotation cell could be used as a reactor in ozonation, catalytic ozonation and photocatalytic ozonation processes, since it produces high reaction rate constants and reduces mass transfer limitations (Ha > 3) by producing microbubbles and maintaining a good catalyst distribution.

Keywords: advanced oxidation technologies, iron oxide, emergent contaminants, AOTS intensification

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1 Biochemical and Antiviral Study of Peptides Isolated from Amaranthus hypochondriacus on Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Replication

Authors: José Silvestre Mendoza Figueroa, Anders Kvarnheden, Jesús Méndez Lozano, Edgar Antonio Rodríguez Negrete, Manuel Soriano García

Abstract:

Agroindustrial plants such as cereals and pseudo cereals offer a substantial source of biomacromolecules, as they contain large amounts per tissue-gram of proteins, polysaccharides and lipids in comparison with other plants. In particular, Amaranthus hypochondriacus seeds have high levels of proteins in comparison with other cereal and pseudo cereal species, which makes the plant a good source of bioactive molecules such as peptides. Geminiviruses are one principal class of pathogens that causes important economic losses in crops, affecting directly the development and production of the plant. One such virus is the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects mainly Solanacea family plants such as tomato species. The symptoms of the disease are curling of leaves, chlorosis, dwarfing and floral abortion. The aim of this work was to get peptides derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of globulins and albumins from amaranth seeds with specific recognition of the replication origin in the TYLCV genome, and to test the antiviral activity on host plants with the idea to generate a direct control of this viral infection. Globulins and albumins from amaranth were extracted, the fraction was enzymatically digested with papain, and the aromatic peptides fraction was selected for further purification. Six peptides were tested against the replication origin (OR) using affinity assays, surface resonance plasmon and fluorescent titration, and two of these peptides showed high affinity values to the replication origin of the virus, dissociation constant values were calculated and showed specific interaction between the peptide Ampep1 and the OR. An in vitro replication test of the total TYLCV DNA was performed, in which the peptide AmPep1 was added in different concentrations to the system reaction, which resulted in a decrease of viral DNA synthesis when the peptide concentration increased. Also, we showed that the peptide can decrease the complementary DNA chain of the virus in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, confirming that the peptide binds to the OR and that its expected mechanism of action is to decrease the replication rate of the viral genome. In an infection assay, N. benthamiana plants were agroinfected with TYLCV-Israel and TYLCV-Guasave. After confirming systemic infection, the peptide was infiltrated in new infected leaves, and the plants treated with the peptide showed a decrease of virus symptoms and viral titer. In order to confirm the antiviral activity in a commercial crop, tomato plants were infected with TYLCV. After confirming systemic infection, plants were infiltrated with peptide solution as above, and the symptom development was monitored 21 days after treatment, showing that tomato plants treated with peptides had lower symptom rates and viral titer. The peptide was also tested against other begomovirus such as Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV-Guasave), showing a decrease of symptoms in N. benthamiana infected plants. The model of direct biochemical control of TYLCV infection shown in this work can be extrapolated to other begomovirus infections, and the methods reported here can be used for design of antiviral agrochemicals for other plant virus infections.

Keywords: agrochemical screening, antiviral, begomovirus, geminivirus, peptides, plasmon, TYLCV

Procedia PDF Downloads 161