Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 761

Search results for: Ahmad Daryani

71 Numerical Model of Low Cost Rubber Isolators for Masonry Housing in High Seismic Regions

Authors: Ahmad B. Habieb, Gabriele Milani, Tavio Tavio, Federico Milani

Abstract:

Housings in developing countries have often inadequate seismic protection, particularly for masonry. People choose this type of structure since the cost and application are relatively cheap. Seismic protection of masonry remains an interesting issue among researchers. In this study, we develop a low-cost seismic isolation system for masonry using fiber reinforced elastomeric isolators. The elastomer proposed consists of few layers of rubber pads and fiber lamina, making it lower in cost comparing to the conventional isolators. We present a finite element (FE) analysis to predict the behavior of the low cost rubber isolators undergoing moderate deformations. The FE model of the elastomer involves a hyperelastic material property for the rubber pad. We adopt a Yeoh hyperelasticity model and estimate its coefficients through the available experimental data. Having the shear behavior of the elastomers, we apply that isolation system onto small masonry housing. To attach the isolators on the building, we model the shear behavior of the isolation system by means of a damped nonlinear spring model. By this attempt, the FE analysis becomes computationally inexpensive. Several ground motion data are applied to observe its sensitivity. Roof acceleration and tensile damage of walls become the parameters to evaluate the performance of the isolators. In this study, a concrete damage plasticity model is used to model masonry in the nonlinear range. This tool is available in the standard package of Abaqus FE software. Finally, the results show that the low-cost isolators proposed are capable of reducing roof acceleration and damage level of masonry housing. Through this study, we are also capable of monitoring the shear deformation of isolators during seismic motion. It is useful to determine whether the isolator is applicable. According to the results, the deformations of isolators on the benchmark one story building are relatively small.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Masonry, hyperelasticity, low cost elastomeric isolator, damped non-linear spring, concrete damage plasticity

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70 Determining Water Use Efficiency of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) under Arid Climatic Conditions

Authors: Awais Ahmad, Mostafa Muhammad Selim, Ali Abdullah Alderfasi

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Water limitation is undoubtedly a critical environmental constraint limiting the crop production under arid and semiarid areas. Mung bean is susceptible to both drought and water logging stresses. Therefore, present study was conducted to assess the water deficit stress consequences of yield components and water use efficiency in Mung bean. A field experiment was conducted at Educational Farm, Crop Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Kind Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Trail comprised of four irrigation levels — total amount of irrigation divided into irrigation intervals — (3, 5, 7 and 9 days interval) and three Mung bean genotypes; Kawmay-1, VC-2010 and King from Egypt, Thailand and China respectively. Experiment was arranged under split plot design having irrigation as main while genotype as subplot treatment, and replicated thrice. Plant height, 100 seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, harvest index and water use efficiency were recorded at harvesting. Results revealed that decrease in irrigation have significantly hampered all the studied parameters. Mung bean genotypes have also shown significant differences for all parameters, whereas irrigation genotype interaction was highly significant for seed yield, harvest index and water use efficiency (WUE) while it was significant for biological yield. Plant height and 100 seed weight were recorded non-significant for irrigation genotype interaction. A statistically highly significant correlation among recorded parameters was observed. Minimum irrigation interval (3 days) significantly produced maximum values while VC-2010 comparatively performed better under low irrigation levels. It was concluded that Mung bean may be successfully adopted under Saudi Arabian climate but it needs high water or frequent irrigation, however, genotypic differences are a hope to develop some improved varieties with high water use efficiency.

Keywords: Yield, water use efficiency, genotypes, mung bean, irrigation intervals

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69 Monte Carlo Simulation of Thyroid Phantom Imaging Using Geant4-GATE

Authors: Parimalah Velo, Ahmad Zakaria

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Introduction: Monte Carlo simulations of preclinical imaging systems allow opportunity to enable new research that could range from designing hardware up to discovery of new imaging application. The simulation system which could accurately model an imaging modality provides a platform for imaging developments that might be inconvenient in physical experiment systems due to the expense, unnecessary radiation exposures and technological difficulties. The aim of present study is to validate the Monte Carlo simulation of thyroid phantom imaging using Geant4-GATE for Siemen’s e-cam single head gamma camera. Upon the validation of the gamma camera simulation model by comparing physical characteristic such as energy resolution, spatial resolution, sensitivity, and dead time, the GATE simulation of thyroid phantom imaging is carried out. Methods: A thyroid phantom is defined geometrically which comprises of 2 lobes with 80mm in diameter, 1 hot spot, and 3 cold spots. This geometry accurately resembling the actual dimensions of thyroid phantom. A planar image of 500k counts with 128x128 matrix size was acquired using simulation model and in actual experimental setup. Upon image acquisition, quantitative image analysis was performed by investigating the total number of counts in image, the contrast of the image, radioactivity distributions on image and the dimension of hot spot. Algorithm for each quantification is described in detail. The difference in estimated and actual values for both simulation and experimental setup is analyzed for radioactivity distribution and dimension of hot spot. Results: The results show that the difference between contrast level of simulation image and experimental image is within 2%. The difference in the total count between simulation and actual study is 0.4%. The results of activity estimation show that the relative difference between estimated and actual activity for experimental and simulation is 4.62% and 3.03% respectively. The deviation in estimated diameter of hot spot for both simulation and experimental study are similar which is 0.5 pixel. In conclusion, the comparisons show good agreement between the simulation and experimental data.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, Gamma Camera, Geant4 application of tomographic emission (GATE), thyroid imaging

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68 Correlation between the Larvae Density (Diptera: Culicidae) and Physicochemical Characteristics of Habitats in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

Authors: Seyed Hassan Nikookar, Mahmoud Fazeli-Dinan, Seyyed Payman Ziapour, Ahmad-Ali Enayati

Abstract:

Background: Mosquitoes look for all kinds of aquatic habitats for laying eggs. Characteristics of water habitats are important factors in determining whether a mosquito can survive and successfully completed their developmental stages. Physicochemical factors can display an important role in vector control programs. This investigate determined whether physicochemical factors differ between habitats can be effective in the larvae density in Mazandaran province. Methods: Larvae were collected by the standard dipper up to 350 ml for 15-20 minutes from fixed habitats in 16 villages of 30 townships, the specimens identified by morphological key. Water samples were collected during larval collection and were evaluated for temperature (°C), acidity (pH), turbidity (NTU), electrical conductivity (μS/cm), alkalinity (mg/l), total hardness (mg/l), nitrate (mg/l), chloride (mg/l), phosphate (mg/l), sulfate (mg/l) in selected habitats using standard methods. Spearman Correlation coefficient was used for analyze data. Results: Totally 7566 mosquito larvae of three genera and 15 species were collected of fixed habitats. Cx. pipiens was the dominant species except in villages of Tileno, Zavat, Asad Abad, Shah Mansur Mahale which An. maculipennis, Cx. torrentium were as the predominant species. Turbidity in Karat Koti, Chloride in Al Tappeh, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate in Chalmardi, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, total hardness in Komishan villages were significantly higher than other villages (P < 0.05). There were a significant positive correlation between Cx. pipiens and Electrical conductivity, Alkalinity, Total hardness, Chloride, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Chloride, whereas a significant negative correlation observed between Sulfate and Cx. perexiguss. Conclusion: The correlations observed between physicochemical factor and larval density, possibly can confirm the effect of these parameters on the breeding activities of mosquitoes, and could probability facilitate larval control programs by the handwork of such factors.

Keywords: correlation, Habitats, physicochemical, Anopheles, culex, culiseta, larvae density

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67 Development and Validation of a Coronary Heart Disease Risk Score in Indian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Authors: Jamal Ahmad, Aquil Ahmed, Faiz N. K. Yusufi

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Diabetes in India is growing at an alarming rate and the complications caused by it need to be controlled. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the complications that will be discussed for prediction in this study. India has the second most number of diabetes patients in the world. To the best of our knowledge, there is no CHD risk score for Indian type 2 diabetes patients. Any form of CHD has been taken as the event of interest. A sample of 750 was determined and randomly collected from the Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, J.N.M.C., A.M.U., Aligarh, India. Collected variables include patients data such as sex, age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), blood sugar fasting (BSF), post prandial sugar (PP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking, alcohol habits, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), physical activity, duration of diabetes, diet control, history of antihypertensive drug treatment, family history of diabetes, waist circumference, hip circumference, medications, central obesity and history of CHD. Predictive risk scores of CHD events are designed by cox proportional hazard regression. Model calibration and discrimination is assessed from Hosmer Lemeshow and area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Overfitting and underfitting of the model is checked by applying regularization techniques and best method is selected between ridge, lasso and elastic net regression. Youden’s index is used to choose the optimal cut off point from the scores. Five year probability of CHD is predicted by both survival function and Markov chain two state model and the better technique is concluded. The risk scores for CHD developed can be calculated by doctors and patients for self-control of diabetes. Furthermore, the five-year probabilities can be implemented as well to forecast and maintain the condition of patients.

Keywords: coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, ROC curve, Cox proportional hazard regression

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66 Performance Study of Neodymium Extraction by Carbon Nanotubes Assisted Emulsion Liquid Membrane Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Payman Davoodi-Nasab, Ahmad Rahbar-Kelishami, Jaber Safdari, Hossein Abolghasemi

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The high purity rare earth elements (REEs) have been vastly used in the field of chemical engineering, metallurgy, nuclear energy, optical, magnetic, luminescence and laser materials, superconductors, ceramics, alloys, catalysts, and etc. Neodymium is one of the most abundant rare earths. By development of a neodymium–iron–boron (Nd–Fe–B) permanent magnet, the importance of neodymium has dramatically increased. Solvent extraction processes have many operational limitations such as large inventory of extractants, loss of solvent due to the organic solubility in aqueous solutions, volatilization of diluents, etc. One of the promising methods of liquid membrane processes is emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) which offers an alternative method to the solvent extraction processes. In this work, a study on Nd extraction through multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) assisted ELM using response surface methodology (RSM) has been performed. The ELM composed of diisooctylphosphinic acid (CYANEX 272) as carrier, MWCNTs as nanoparticles, Span-85 (sorbitan triooleate) as surfactant, kerosene as organic diluent and nitric acid as internal phase. The effects of important operating variables namely, surfactant concentration, MWCNTs concentration, and treatment ratio were investigated. Results were optimized using a central composite design (CCD) and a regression model for extraction percentage was developed. The 3D response surfaces of Nd(III) extraction efficiency were achieved and significance of three important variables and their interactions on the Nd extraction efficiency were found out. Results indicated that introducing the MWCNTs to the ELM process led to increasing the Nd extraction due to higher stability of membrane and mass transfer enhancement. MWCNTs concentration of 407 ppm, Span-85 concentration of 2.1 (%v/v) and treatment ratio of 10 were achieved as the optimum conditions. At the optimum condition, the extraction of Nd(III) reached the maximum of 99.03%.

Keywords: emulsion liquid membrane, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, response surface method, extraction of neodymium

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65 Analysis of Problems Faced by the Female Students in Capacity Enhancing at Intermediate Level in Girls College of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Authors: Uzma Ahmad

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hyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) is the most turbulent province of Pakistan, sharing a longborder with Afghanistan. For about four decades, KPK is facing a series of international events. The peak was reached after 9/11when region was labelled as posing a major theatre of militancy and terrorism which was intensified when Tehrik Taliban Pakistan (TTP) began attempts to seize the authority of state. One of the main focus of TTP was to damage and uprooting of female education system and infrastructure in KPK which later became the site of a massacre of school children of Army Public School Peshawar on 16 December 2014.It resulted to the launching of Zarb-e-Azb against the TTP insurgency,casualty and crime rates in the KPKas a whole dropped by 40.0% as compared to 2011–13. All this has badly hampered the female education both in terms of quantity and quality. Malala Yousafzai who is now an advocate of female education has been a victim of Talibans brutality in that area. And thelanguage in which she managed to express herself to the International community is English.Keeping in view the situation, the present project was designed with a sole aim to focus on female students of the area which are few in numbers and to investigate some specific area, where they have been confronting problems in the use of grammar, vocabulary,tenses and organization of ideas in writings. The reasons might be the careless attitude, insufficient reading habits, lack of interest and poor knowledge of English language. The methodology was a descriptive one as it shows the effects of the internal efficiency(independent variables) on an intermediate college’s progress(dependent variables). It was a case study since data was collected from a focused group of 60 female students of arts and humanities at Swabi college at Intermediate level. The ultimate focus was to explore the possibilities of creating a Gender friendly environment for female students. This research has proved how the correct use of English language has given them confidence to move ahead side by side with men and to acknowledge their right of self-determination.

Keywords: Capacity building, internal efficiency, female education, gender friendly

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64 Numerical Analysis of CO₂ Storage as Clathrates in Depleted Natural Gas Hydrate Formation

Authors: Sheraz Ahmad, Li Yiming, Li XiangFang, Xia Wei, Zeen Chen

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Holding CO₂ at massive scale in the enclathrated solid matter called hydrate can be perceived as one of the most reliable methods for CO₂ sequestration to take greenhouse gases emission control measures and global warming preventive actions. In this study, a dynamically coupled mass and heat transfer mathematical model is developed which elaborates the unsteady behavior of CO₂ flowing into a porous medium and converting itself into hydrates. The combined numerical model solution by implicit finite difference method is explained and through coupling the mass, momentum and heat conservation relations, an integrated model can be established to analyze the CO₂ hydrate growth within P-T equilibrium conditions. CO₂ phase transition, effect of hydrate nucleation by exothermic heat release and variations of thermo-physical properties has been studied during hydrate nucleation. The results illustrate that formation pressure distribution becomes stable at the early stage of hydrate nucleation process and always remains stable afterward, but formation temperature is unable to keep stable and varies during CO₂ injection and hydrate nucleation process. Initially, the temperature drops due to cold high-pressure CO₂ injection since when the massive hydrate growth triggers and temperature increases under the influence of exothermic heat evolution. Intermittently, it surpasses the initial formation temperature before CO₂ injection initiates. The hydrate growth rate increases by increasing injection pressure in the long formation and it also expands overall hydrate covered length in the same induction period. The results also show that the injection pressure conditions and hydrate growth rate affect other parameters like CO₂ velocity, CO₂ permeability, CO₂ density, CO₂ and H₂O saturation inside the porous medium. In order to enhance the hydrate growth rate and expand hydrate covered length, the injection temperature is reduced, but it did not give satisfactory outcomes. Hence, CO₂ injection in vacated natural gas hydrate porous sediment may form hydrate under low temperature and high-pressure conditions, but it seems very challenging on a huge scale in lengthy formations.

Keywords: CO2 sequestration, CO2 injection, CO₂ hydrates, CO₂ Phase transition

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63 Optimized Scheduling of Domestic Load Based on User Defined Constraints in a Real-Time Tariff Scenario

Authors: Madia Safdar, G. Amjad Hussain, Mashhood Ahmad

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One of the major challenges of today’s era is peak demand which causes stress on the transmission lines and also raises the cost of energy generation and ultimately higher electricity bills to the end users, and it was used to be managed by the supply side management. However, nowadays this has been withdrawn because of existence of potential in the demand side management (DSM) having its economic and- environmental advantages. DSM in domestic load can play a vital role in reducing the peak load demand on the network provides a significant cost saving. In this paper the potential of demand response (DR) in reducing the peak load demands and electricity bills to the electric users is elaborated. For this purpose the domestic appliances are modeled in MATLAB Simulink and controlled by a module called energy management controller. The devices are categorized into controllable and uncontrollable loads and are operated according to real-time tariff pricing pattern instead of fixed time pricing or variable pricing. Energy management controller decides the switching instants of the controllable appliances based on the results from optimization algorithms. In GAMS software, the MILP (mixed integer linear programming) algorithm is used for optimization. In different cases, different constraints are used for optimization, considering the comforts, needs and priorities of the end users. Results are compared and the savings in electricity bills are discussed in this paper considering real time pricing and fixed tariff pricing, which exhibits the existence of potential to reduce electricity bills and peak loads in demand side management. It is seen that using real time pricing tariff instead of fixed tariff pricing helps to save in the electricity bills. Moreover the simulation results of the proposed energy management system show that the gained power savings lie in high range. It is anticipated that the result of this research will prove to be highly effective to the utility companies as well as in the improvement of domestic DR.

Keywords: Optimization, Demand Response, Demand Side Management, controllable and uncontrollable domestic loads, MILP (mixed integer linear programming)

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62 The Impact of Passive Design Factors on House Energy Efficiency for New Cities in Egypt

Authors: Mahmoud Mourad, Ahmad Hamza H. Ali, S.Ookawara, Ali Kamel Abdel-Rahman, Nady M. Abdelkariem

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The energy consumption of a house can be affected simultaneously by many building design factors related to its main architectural features, building elements and materials. This study focuses on the impact of passive design factors on the annual energy consumption of a suggested prototype house for single-family detached houses of 240 m2 in two floors, each floor of 120 m2 in new Egyptian cities located in (Alexandria - Cairo - Siwa - Assuit – Aswan) which resemble five different climatic zones (Northern coast – Northern upper Egypt - dessert region- Southern upper Egypt – South Egypt) respectively. This study present the effect of the passive design factors affecting the building energy consumption as building orientation, building material (walls, roof and slabs), building type (residential, educational, commercial), building occupancy (type of occupant, no. of occupant, age), building landscape and site selection, building envelope and fenestration (glazing material, shading), and building plan form. This information can be used to estimate the approximate saving in energy consumption, which would result on a change in the design datum for the future houses development, and to identify the major design problems for energy efficiency. To achieve the above objective, this paper presents a study for the factors affecting on the building energy consumption in the hot arid area in new Egyptian cities in five different climatic zones , followed by defining the energy needs for different utilization in this suggested prototype house. Consequently, a detailed analysis of the available Renewable Energy utilizations technologies used in the suggested home, and a calculation of the energy as a function of yearly distribution that required for this home will presented. The results obtained from building annual energy analyses show that architecture passive design factors saves about 35% of the annual energy consumption. It shows also passive cooling techniques saves about 45%, and renewable energy systems saves about 40% of the annual energy needs for this proposed home depending on the cities location on the climatic zones.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Technologies, architecture passive design factors, energy efficient homes, Egypt new cites

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61 Disaggregate Travel Behavior and Transit Shift Analysis for a Transit Deficient Metropolitan City

Authors: Sultan Ahmad Azizi, Gaurang J. Joshi

Abstract:

Urban transportation has come to lime light in recent times due to deteriorating travel quality. The economic growth of India has boosted significant rise in private vehicle ownership in cities, whereas public transport systems have largely been ignored in metropolitan cities. Even though there is latent demand for public transport systems like organized bus services, most of the metropolitan cities have unsustainably low share of public transport. Unfortunately, Indian metropolitan cities have failed to maintain balance in mode share of various travel modes in absence of timely introduction of mass transit system of required capacity and quality. As a result, personalized travel modes like two wheelers have become principal modes of travel, which cause significant environmental, safety and health hazard to the citizens. Of late, the policy makers have realized the need to improve public transport system in metro cities for sustaining the development. However, the challenge to the transit planning authorities is to design a transit system for cities that may attract people to switch over from their existing and rather convenient mode of travel to the transit system under the influence of household socio-economic characteristics and the given travel pattern. In this context, the fast-growing industrial city of Surat is taken up as a case for the study of likely shift to bus transit. Deterioration of public transport system of bus after 1998, has led to tremendous growth in two-wheeler traffic on city roads. The inadequate and poor service quality of present bus transit has failed to attract the riders and correct the mode use balance in the city. The disaggregate travel behavior for trip generations and the travel mode choice has been studied for the West Adajan residential sector of city. Mode specific utility functions are calibrated under multi-nominal logit environment for two-wheeler, cars and auto rickshaws with respect to bus transit using SPSS. Estimation of shift to bus transit is carried indicate an average 30% of auto rickshaw users and nearly 5% of 2W users are likely to shift to bus transit if service quality is improved. However, car users are not expected to shift to bus transit system.

Keywords: public transport, bus transit, Mode Choice Behavior, disaggregate travel nehavior

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60 Alteration Quartz-Kfeldspar-Apatite-Molybdenite at B Anomaly Prospection with Artificial Neural Network to Determining Molydenite Economic Deposits in Malala District, Western Sulawesi

Authors: Ahmad Lutfi, Nikolas Dhega

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The Malala deposit in northwest Sulawesi is the only known porphyry molybdenum and the only source for rhenium, occurrence in Indonesia. The neural network method produces results that correspond very closely to those of the knowledge-based fuzzy logic method and weights of evidence method. This method required data of solid geology, regional faults, airborne magnetic, gamma-ray survey data and GIS data. This interpretation of the network output fits with the intuitive notion that a prospective area has characteristics that closely resemble areas known to contain mineral deposits. Contrasts with the weights of evidence and fuzzy logic methods, where, for a given grid location, each input-parameter value automatically results in an increase in the prospective estimated. Malala District indicated molybdenum anomalies in stream sediments from in excess of 15 km2 were obtained, including the Takudan Fault as most prominent structure with striking 40̊ to 60̊ over a distance of about 30 km and in most places weakly at anomaly B, developed over an area of 4 km2, with a ‘shell’ up to 50 m thick at the intrusive contact with minor mineralization occurring in the Tinombo Formation. Series of NW trending, steeply dipping fracture zones, named the East Zone has an estimated resource of 100 Mt at 0.14% MoS2 and minimum target of 150 Mt 0.25%. The Malala porphyries occur as stocks and dykes with predominantly granitic, with fluorine-poor class of molybdenum deposits and belongs to the plutonic sub-type. Unidirectional solidification textures consisting of subparallel, crenulated layers of quartz that area separated by layers of intrusive material textures. The deuteric nature of the molybdenum mineralization and the dominance of carbonate alteration.The nature of the Stage I with alteration barren quartz K‐feldspar; and Stage II with alteration quartz‐K‐feldspar‐apatite-molybdenite veins combined with the presence of disseminated molybdenite with primary biotite in the host intrusive.

Keywords: molybdenite, Malala, porphyries, anomaly B

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59 Sublethal Effects of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Fungus against the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus (Olivier) (Curculionidae: Coleoptera)

Authors: M. Manzoor, J. N. Ahmad, R. M. Giblin Davis, N. Javed, M. S. Haider

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The invasive Red Palm Weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus [Olivier] (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most destructive palm pests in the world. Synthetic pesticides are environmentally hazardous pest control strategies being used in the past with emerging need of eco-friendly biological approaches including microbial entomopathogens for RPW management. The sublethal effects of a single entomopathogenic fungus (EPF) Beauveria bassiana (WG-11) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and two entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar) and Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Nematoda: Rhabditida) were evaluated in various combinations against laboratory-reared 3rd, 5th and 8th instar larvae of RPW in laboratory assays. Individual and combined effects of both entomopathogens (EP) were observed after the pre-application of B. bassiana fungus at 1-2-week intervals. A number of parameters were measured after the application of sub-lethal doses of EPF such as diet consumption, development, frass production, mortality, and weight gain. Combined treatments were tested for additive and synergistic effects. Synergism was more frequently observed in B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae combined treatments than in B. bassiana and H. bacteriophora combinations. Early instar larvae of RPW were more susceptible than older instars. Synergistic effects were observed in the 3rd and 5th instars exposed to B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae at 0, 7 and 14-day intervals. Whereas, in 8th instar larvae, the synergistic effect was observed only in B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae treatments after 0 and 7 days intervals. EPN treatments decreased pupation, egg hatching and emergence of adults. Lethal effects of nematodes were also observed in all growth stages of R. ferrugineus. Reduced larval weight, increased larval, pre-pupal and pupal duration, reduced adult weight and life span were observed. Sub-lethal concentrations of both entomopathogens induced variations in the different developmental stages and reduced food consumption, frass production, growth, and weight gain. So, on the basis of results, it is concluded that synthetic pesticides should be replaced with environmentally friendly sustainable biopesticides.

Keywords: Mortality, B. bassiana, H. bacteriophora, S. carpocapsae

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58 Ceratocystis manginecans Causal Agent of a Destructive Mangoes in Pakistan

Authors: Iftikhar Ahmad, Asma Rashid, Shazia Iram

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Mango sudden death is an emerging problem in Pakistan. As its prevalence is observed in almost all mango growing areas and severity varied from 2-5% in Punjab and 5-10% in Sindh. Symptoms on affected trees include bark splitting, discoloration of the vascular tissue, wilting, gummosis and at the end rapid death. Total of n= 45 isolates were isolated from different mango growing areas of Punjab and Sindh. Pathogenicity of these fungal isolates was tested through artificial inoculation method on different hosts (potato tubers, detached mango leaves, detached mango twigs and mango plants) under controlled conditions and all were proved pathogenic with varying degree of aggressiveness in reference to control. The findings of the present study proved that out of these four methods, potato tubers inoculation method was the most ideal as this fix the inoculums on the target site. Increased fungal growth and spore numbers may be due to soft tissues of potato tubers from which Ceratocystis isolates can easily pass. Lesion area on potato tubers was in the range of 7.09-0.14 cm2 followed by detached mango twigs which were ranged from 0.48-0.09 cm2). All pathological results were proved highly significant at P<0.05 through ANOVA but isolate to isolate showed non-significant behaviour but they have the positive effect on lesion area. Re-isolation of respective fungi was achieved with 100 percent success which results in the verification of Koch’s postulates. DNA of fungal pathogens was successfully extracted through phenol chloroform method. Amplification was done through ITS, b-tubulin gene, and Transcription Elongation Factor (EF1-a) gene primers and the amplified amplicons were sequenced and compared from NCBI which showed 99-100 % similarity with Ceratocystis manginecans. Fungus Ceratocystis manginecans formed one of strongly supported sub-clades through phylogenetic tree. Results obtained through this work would be supportive in establishment of relation of isolates with their region and will give information about pathogenicity level of isolates that would be useful to develop the management policies to reduce the afflictions in orchards caused by mango sudden death.

Keywords: Screening, phylogenetic, mango, artificial inoculation, Ceratocystis manginecans

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57 Formal Development of Electronic Identity Card System Using Event-B

Authors: Tomokazu Nagata, Jawid Ahmad Baktash

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The goal of this paper is to explore the use of formal methods for Electronic Identity Card System. Nowadays, one of the core research directions in a constantly growing distributed environment is the improvement of the communication process. The responsibility for proper verification becomes crucial. Formal methods can play an essential role in the development and testing of systems. The thesis presents two different methodologies for assessing correctness. Our first approach employs abstract interpretation techniques for creating a trace based model for Electronic Identity Card System. The model was used for building a semi decidable procedure for verifying the system model. We also developed the code for the eID System and can cover three parts login to system sending of Acknowledgment from user side, receiving of all information from server side and log out from system. The new concepts of impasse and spawned sessions that we introduced led our research to original statements about the intruder’s knowledge and eID system coding with respect to secrecy. Furthermore, we demonstrated that there is a bound on the number of sessions needed for the analysis of System.Electronic identity (eID) cards promise to supply a universal, nation-wide mechanism for user authentication. Most European countries have started to deploy eID for government and private sector applications. Are government-issued electronic ID cards the proper way to authenticate users of online services? We use the eID project as a showcase to discuss eID from an application perspective. The new eID card has interesting design features, it is contact-less, it aims to protect people’s privacy to the extent possible, and it supports cryptographically strong mutual authentication between users and services. Privacy features include support for pseudonymous authentication and per service controlled access to individual data items. The article discusses key concepts, the eID infrastructure, observed and expected problems, and open questions. The core technology seems ready for prime time and government projects deploy it to the masses. But application issues may hamper eID adoption for online applications.

Keywords: eID, event-B, Pro-B, formal method, message passing

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56 Irradiated-Chitosan and Methyl Jasmonate Modulate the Growth, Physiology and Alkaloids Production in Catharanthus roseus (l.) G. Don.

Authors: Moin Uddin, M. Masroor A. Khan, Tariq Ahmad Dar, Lalit Varshney, Faisal Rasheed, Akbar Ali

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Oligomers, obtained by exposing the natural polysaccharides (alginate, carrageenan, chitosan, etc.) to cobalt-60 generated gamma radiation may prove as potent plant growth promoters when applied as foliar sprays to the plants. They function as endogenous growth elicitors, triggering the synthesis of different enzymes and modulating various plant responses by exploiting the gene expression. Exogenous application of Jasmonic acid or of its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJ) has been reported to increase the secondary metabolites production in medicinal and aromatic plants. Keeping this in mind, three pot experiments were conducted to test whether the foliar application of irradiated-chitosan (IC) and MeJ, applied alone or in combination, could augment the active constituents as well as growth, physiological and yield attributes of Catharanthus roseus, which carries anticancer alkaloids, viz. vincristine and vinblastine, in its leaves in addition to various other useful alkaloids. Totally, 5 spray treatments, comprising various aqueous solutions of IC [20, 40, 80 and 160 mg L-1 (Experiment 1)], MeJ (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg L-1 (Experiment 2)] and those of IC+MeJ [40+20, 40+30, 80+20, 80+30, 160+20 and 160+30 mg L-1 (Experiment 3)], were applied at seven days interval. Total leaf-alkaloids content as well as growth, physiological and yield parameters, evaluated at 120 days after sowing, were significantly enhanced by IC application. IC application could not increase the leaf-content of vincristine and vinblastine; nonetheless, it significantly augmented the yield of these alkaloids owing to enhancing the dry mass of leaves per plant. MeJ application, particularly at 30 mg L-1, increased both content (17%) and yield (48%) of total leaf-alkaloids as well as the content and yield of vincristine ( 29 and 63%, respectively) and vinblastine (14 and 44%, respectively) alkaloids, though it significantly decreased most other parameters studied, particularly at higher concentrations (30 and 40 mg L-1 of MeJ). As compared to the control (water-spray treatment), collective application of IC (80 mg L-1) and MeJ (20 mg L-1) resulted in the highest values of most of the parameters studied. However, 80 mg L-1 of IC applied with 30 mg L-1 of MeJ gave the best results for the content and yield of total as well as anticancer leaf-alkaloids (vincristine and vinblastine). Comparing the control, it increased the content and yield of total leaf-alkaloids (37 and 118%, respectively) and those of vincristine (65 and 163%, respectively) and vinblastine (31 and 107%, respectively). Conclusively, the applied technique significantly enhanced the production of total as well as anticancer alkaloids of Catharanthus roseus.

Keywords: Catharanthus roseus, anticancer alkaloids (vincristine and vinblastine), irradiated chitosan, methyl jasmonate

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55 Application of Shore Protective Structures in Optimum Land Using of Defense Sites Located in Coastal Cities

Authors: Mir Ahmad Lashteh Neshaei, Hamed Afsoos Biria, Ata Ghabraei, Mir Abdolhamid Mehrdad

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Awareness of effective land using issues in coastal area including protection of natural ecosystems and coastal environment due to the increasing of human life along the coast is of great importance. There are numerous valuable structures and heritages which are located in defence sites and waterfront area. Marine structures such as groins, sea walls and detached breakwaters are constructed in coast to improve the coast stability against bed erosion due to changing wave and climate pattern. Marine mechanisms and interaction with the shore protection structures need to be intensively studied. Groins are one of the most prominent structures that are used in shore protection to create a safe environment for coastal area by maintaining the land against progressive coastal erosion. The main structural function of a groin is to control the long shore current and littoral sediment transport. This structure can be submerged and provide the necessary beach protection without negative environmental impact. However, for submerged structures adopted for beach protection, the shoreline response to these structures is not well understood at present. Nowadays, modelling and computer simulation are used to assess beach morphology in the vicinity of marine structures to reduce their environmental impact. The objective of this study is to predict the beach morphology in the vicinity of submerged groins and comparison with non-submerged groins with focus on a part of the coast located in Dahane sar Sefidrood, Guilan province, Iran where serious coast erosion has occurred recently. The simulations were obtained using a one-line model which can be used as a first approximation of shoreline prediction in the vicinity of groins. The results of the proposed model are compared with field measurements to determine the shape of the coast. Finally, the results of the present study show that using submerged groins can have a good efficiency to control the beach erosion without causing severe environmental impact to the coast. The important outcome from this study can be employed in optimum designing of defence sites in the coastal cities to improve their efficiency in terms of re-using the heritage lands.

Keywords: coastal cities, submerged structures, groin, shore protective structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
54 Crop Genotype and Inoculum Density Influences Plant Growth and Endophytic Colonization Potential of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Sohail Yousaf, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Birgit Mitter, Angela Sessitsch

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Most bacterial endophytes originate from the soil and enter plants via the roots followed by further spread through the inner tissues. The mechanisms allowing bacteria to colonize plants endophytically are still poorly understood for most bacterial and plant species. Specific bacterial functions are required for plant colonization, but also the plant itself is a determining factor as bacterial ability to establish endophytic populations is very often dependent on the plant genotype (cultivar) and inoculums density. The effect of inoculum density (107, 108, 109 CFU mL-1) of Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN was evaluated on growth and endophytic colonization of different maize and potato cultivars under axenic and natural soil conditions. PsJN inoculation significantly increased maize seedling growth and tuber yield of potato at all inoculum density compared to uninoculated control. Under axenic condition, PsJN inoculation (108 CFU mL-1) significantly improved the germination, root/shoot length and biomass up to 62, 115, 98 and 135% of maize seedling compared to uninoculated control. In case of potato, PsJN inoculation (109 CFU mL-1) showed maximum response and significantly increased root/shoot biomass and tuber yield under natural soil condition. We confirmed that PsJN is able to colonize the rhizosphere, roots and shoots of maize and potato cultivars. The endophytic colonization increased linearly with increasing inoculum density (within a range of 8 x 104 – 3 x 107 CFU mL-1) and were highest for maize (Morignon) and potato (Romina) as compared to other cultivars. Efficient colonization of cv. Morignon and Romina by strain PsJN indicates the specific cultivar colonizing capacity of the bacteria. The findings of the study indicate the non-significant relationship between colonization and plant growth promotion in maize under axenic conditions. However, the inoculum level (109 CFU mL-1) that promoted colonization of rhizosphere and plant interior (endophytic) also best promoted growth and tuber yield of potato under natural soil conditions.

Keywords: Growth, colonization, potato, crop genotype, inoculum density, Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN

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53 Qualitative Modeling of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-Associated Biological Regulatory Network: Insight into Renal Fibrosis

Authors: Jamil Ahmad, Ayesha Waqar Khan, Mariam Altaf, Shaheen Shahzad

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Kidney fibrosis is an anticipated outcome of possibly all types of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) signaling pathway is responsible for production of matrix-producing fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in diseased kidney. In this study, a discrete model of TGF-beta (transforming growth factor) and CTGF (connective tissue growth factor) was constructed using Rene Thomas formalism to investigate renal fibrosis turn over. The kinetic logic proposed by Rene Thomas is a renowned approach for modeling of Biological Regulatory Networks (BRNs). This modeling approach uses a set of constraints which represents the dynamics of the BRN thus analyzing the pathway and predicting critical trajectories that lead to a normal or diseased state. The molecular connection between TGF-beta, Smad 2/3 (transcription factor) phosphorylation and CTGF is modeled using GenoTech. The order of BRN is CTGF, TGF-B, and SMAD3 respectively. The predicted cycle depicts activation of TGF-B (TGF-β) via cleavage of its own pro-domain (0,1,0) and presentation to TGFR-II receptor phosphorylating SMAD3 (Smad2/3) in the state (0,1,1). Later TGF-B is turned off (0,0,1) thereby activating SMAD3 that further stimulates the expression of CTGF in the state (1,0,1) and itself turns off in (1,0,0). Elevated CTGF expression reactivates TGF-B (1,1,0) and the cycle continues. The predicted model has generated one cycle and two steady states. Cyclic behavior in this study represents the diseased state in which all three proteins contribute to renal fibrosis. The proposed model is in accordance with the experimental findings of the existing diseased state. Extended cycle results in enhanced CTGF expression through Smad2/3 and Smad4 translocation in the nucleus. The results suggest that the system converges towards organ fibrogenesis if CTGF remains constructively active along with Smad2/3 and Smad 4 that plays an important role in kidney fibrosis. Therefore, modeling regulatory pathways of kidney fibrosis will escort to the progress of therapeutic tools and real-world useful applications such as predictive and preventive medicine.

Keywords: System Biology, Qualitative Modeling, CTGF, renal fibrosis signaling pathway

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52 Identifying Diabetic Retinopathy Complication by Predictive Techniques in Indian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Authors: Jamal Ahmad, Aquil Ahmed, Faiz N. K. Yusufi

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Predicting the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Indian type 2 diabetes patients is immensely necessary. India, being the second largest country after China in terms of a number of diabetic patients, to the best of our knowledge not a single risk score for complications has ever been investigated. Diabetic retinopathy is a serious complication and is the topmost reason for visual impairment across countries. Any type or form of DR has been taken as the event of interest, be it mild, back, grade I, II, III, and IV DR. A sample was determined and randomly collected from the Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, J.N.M.C., A.M.U., Aligarh, India. Collected variables include patients data such as sex, age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), blood sugar fasting (BSF), post prandial sugar (PP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking, alcohol habits, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), physical activity, duration of diabetes, diet control, history of antihypertensive drug treatment, family history of diabetes, waist circumference, hip circumference, medications, central obesity and history of DR. Cox proportional hazard regression is used to design risk scores for the prediction of retinopathy. Model calibration and discrimination are assessed from Hosmer Lemeshow and area under receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Overfitting and underfitting of the model are checked by applying regularization techniques and best method is selected between ridge, lasso and elastic net regression. Optimal cut off point is chosen by Youden’s index. Five-year probability of DR is predicted by both survival function, and Markov chain two state model and the better technique is concluded. The risk scores developed can be applied by doctors and patients themselves for self evaluation. Furthermore, the five-year probabilities can be applied as well to forecast and maintain the condition of patients. This provides immense benefit in real application of DR prediction in T2DM.

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, type 2 diabetes mellitus, ROC curve, Cox proportional hazard regression

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51 Efficacy of Different Soil-Applied Fungicides to Manage Phytophthora Root Rot of Chili (Solanum annum) in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Nasir Subhani, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Sehrish Iftikhar, Kiran Nawaz, Waheed Anwar

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Chili (Solanum annum L.) attacks by many fungal pathogens, including members of Oomycetes which are responsible for root rot in different chili growing areas of the world. Oomycetes pathogens cause economic losses in different regions of the Pakistan. Most of the plant tissues, including roots, crowns, fruit, and leaves, are vulnerable to Phytophthora capsici. It is very difficult to manage the Phytophthora root rot of chili as many commercial varieties are tremendously vulnerable to P. capsici. The causal agent of the disease was isolated on corn meal agar (CMA) and identified on a morphological basis by using available taxonomic keys. The pathogen was also confirmed on the molecular basis through internal transcribed spacer region and with other molecular markers.The Blastn results showed 100% homology with already reported sequences of P. capsici in NCBI database. Most of the farmers have conventionally relied on foliar fungicide applications to control Phytophthora root rot in spite of their incomplete effectiveness. In this study, in vitro plate assay, seed soaking and foliar applications of 6 fungicides were evaluated against root rot of chili. In vitro assay revealed that significant inhibition of linear growth was obtained with Triflumizole at 7.0%, followed by Thiophanate methyl (8.9%), Etridiazole (6.0%), Propamocarb (5.9%) and 7.5% with Mefenoxam and Iprodione for P. capsici. The promising treatments of in vitro plate bioassay were evaluated in pot experiments under controlled conditions in the greenhouse. All fungicides were applied after at 6-day intervals. Results of pot experiment showed that all treatments considerably inhibited the percentage of P. capsici root rot incidence. In addition, application of seed soaking with all six fungicides combined with the foliar spray of the same components showed the significant reduction in root rot incidence. The combine treatments of all fungicides as in vitro bioassay, seed soaking followed by foliar spray is considered non-harmful control methods which have advantages and limitation. Hence, these applications proved effective and harmless for the management of soil-borne plant pathogens.

Keywords: bioassay, blastn, corn meal agar(CMA), oomycetes

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50 Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Concrete Filled Steel I-Girder Bridge

Authors: Waheed Ahmad Safi, Shunichi Nakamura

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Concrete filled steel I-girder (CFIG) bridge was proposed and the bending and shear strength was confirmed by experiments. The area surrounded by the upper and lower flanges and the web is filled with concrete in CFIG, which is used to the intermediate support of a continuous girder. Three-dimensional finite element models were established to simulate the bending and shear behaviors of CFIG and to clarify the load transfer mechanism. Steel plates and filled concrete were modeled as a three-dimensional 8-node solid element and steel reinforcement bars as a three-dimensional 2-node truss element. The elements were mostly divided into the 50 x 50 mm mesh size. The non-linear stress-strain relation is assumed for concrete in compression including the softening effect after the peak, and the stress increases linearly for concrete in tension until concrete cracking but then decreases due to tension stiffening effect. The stress-strain relation for steel plates was tri-linear and that for reinforcements was bi-linear. The concrete and the steel plates were rigidly connected. The developed FEM model was applied to simulate and analysis the bending behaviors of the CFIG specimens. The vertical displacements and the strains of steel plates and the filled concrete obtained by FEM agreed very well with the test results until the yield load. The specimens collapsed when the upper flange buckled or the concrete spalled off. These phenomena cannot be properly analyzed by FEM, which produces a small discrepancy at the ultimate states. The FEM model was also applied to simulate and analysis the shear tests of the CFIG specimens. The vertical displacements and strains of steel and concrete calculated by FEM model agreed well with the test results. A truss action was confirmed by the FEM and the experiment, clarifying that shear forces were mainly resisted by the tension strut of the steel plate and the compression strut of the filled concrete acting in the diagonal direction. A trail design with the CFIG was carried out for a four-span continuous highway bridge and the design method was established. Construction cost was estimated about 12% lower than that of a conventional steel I-section girder.

Keywords: Shear Strength, FEM, concrete filled steel I-girder, bending strength, limit states design, steel I-girder

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49 Integrated Geophysical Approach for Subsurface Delineation in Srinagar, Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Pradeep Kumar Singh Chauhan, Gayatri Devi, Zamir Ahmad, Komal Chauhan, Abha Mittal

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The application of geophysical methods to study the subsurface profile for site investigation is becoming popular globally. These methods are non-destructive and provide the image of subsurface at shallow depths. Seismic refraction method is one of the most common and efficient method being used for civil engineering site investigations particularly for knowing the seismic velocity of the subsurface layers. Resistivity imaging technique is a geo-electrical method used to image the subsurface, water bearing zone, bedrock and layer thickness. Integrated approach combining seismic refraction and 2-D resistivity imaging will provide a better and reliable picture of the subsurface. These are economical and less time-consuming field survey which provide high resolution image of the subsurface. Geophysical surveys carried out in this study include seismic refraction and 2D resistivity imaging method for delineation of sub-surface strata in different parts of Srinagar, Garhwal Himalaya, India. The aim of this survey was to map the shallow subsurface in terms of geological and geophysical properties mainly P-wave velocity, resistivity, layer thickness, and lithology of the area. Both sides of the river, Alaknanda which flows through the centre of the city, have been covered by taking two profiles on each side using both methods. Seismic and electrical surveys were carried out at the same locations to complement the results of each other. The seismic refraction survey was carried out using ABEM TeraLoc 24 channel Seismograph and 2D resistivity imaging was performed using ABEM Terrameter LS equipment. The results show three distinct layers on both sides of the river up to the depth of 20 m. The subsurface is divided into three distinct layers namely, alluvium extending up to, 3 m depth, conglomerate zone lying between the depth of 3 m to 15 m, and compacted pebbles and cobbles beyond 15 m. P-wave velocity in top layer is found in the range of 400 – 600 m/s, in second layer it varies from 700 – 1100 m/s and in the third layer it is 1500 – 3300 m/s. The resistivity results also show similar pattern and were in good agreement with seismic refraction results. The results obtained in this study were validated with an available exposed river scar at one site. The study established the efficacy of geophysical methods for subsurface investigations.

Keywords: subsurface, P-wave velocity, seismic refraction survey

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48 Populism and National Unity: A Discourse Analysis of Poverty Eradication Strategies of Three Malaysian Prime Ministers

Authors: Khairil Ahmad, Jenny Gryzelius, Mohd Helmi Mohd Sobri

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With the waning support for centrist ‘third-way’ politics across the Western world, there has been an increase in political parties and individual candidates relying on populist political discourse and rhetoric in order to capitalize on the sense of frustration apparent within the electorate. What is of note is the divergence in the discourses employed. On the one hand, there is a polarization between a growing wave of populist right-wing parties and politicians, employing a mixture of economic populism with divisive nationalistic ideals such as restricted immigration, for example, the UK’s UKIP and Donald Trump in the US. On the other hand, there are resurgent, often grassroots-led, left-wing movements and politicians, such as Podemos in Spain and Jeremy Corbyn in the UK, focusing on anti-austerity measures and inclusive policies. In general, the concept of populism is often ascribed in a pejorative way. This is despite the success of populist left-wing governments across Latin America in recent times, especially in terms of reducing poverty. Nonetheless, recently, scholars such as Ernesto Laclau have tried to rethink populism as a social scientific concept which is essential in helping us make sense of contemporary political articulations. Using Laclau’s framework, this paper seeks to analyze poverty reduction policies in different iterations in the context of the tenures of three Prime Ministers of Malaysia. The first is Abdul Razak Hussein’s New Economic Policy, which focused on uplifting the economic position of Malaysia’s majority Malay population. The second is Mahathir Mohamad’s state-led neo-liberalization of the Malaysian economy, which focused on the creation of a core group of crony elites in order to spearhead economic development. The third is current Prime Minister Najib Razak’s targeted poverty eradication strategy through a focused program which directly provides benefits to recipients such as through direct cash transfers. The paper employs a discursive approach to trace elements of populism in these cases and highlight instances of how their strategies are articulated in ways that seek to appeal towards particular visions of national unity.

Keywords: Discourse Analysis, Populism, Malaysia, poverty eradication

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47 Profile of Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) Expression and PD-L1 Gene Amplification in Indonesian Colorectal Cancer Patients

Authors: Akterono Budiyati, Gita Kusumo, Teguh Putra, Fritzie Rexana, Antonius Kurniawan, Aru Sudoyo, Ahmad Utomo, Andi Utama

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The presence of the programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) has been used in multiple clinical trials and approved as biomarker for selecting patients more likely to respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, the expression of PD-L1 is regulated in different ways, which leads to a different significance of its presence. Positive PD-L1 within tumors may result from two mechanisms, induced PD-L1 expression by T-cell presence or genetic mechanism that lead to constitutive PD-L1 expression. Amplification of PD-L1 genes was found as one of genetic mechanism which causes an increase in PD-L1 expression. In case of colorectal cancer (CRC), targeting immune checkpoint inhibitor has been recommended for patients with microsatellite instable (MSI). Although the correlation between PD-L1 expression and MSI status has been widely studied, so far the precise mechanism of PD-L1 gene activation in CRC patients, particularly in MSI population have yet to be clarified. In this present study we have profiled 61 archived formalin fixed paraffin embedded CRC specimens of patients from Medistra Hospital, Jakarta admitted in 2010 - 2016. Immunohistochemistry was performed to measure expression of PD-L1 in tumor cells as well as MSI status using antibodies against PD-L1 and MMR (MLH1, MSH2, PMS2 and MSH6), respectively. PD-L1 expression was measured on tumor cells with cut off of 1% whereas loss of nuclear MMR protein expressions in tumor cells but not in normal or stromal cells indicated presence of MSI. Subset of PD-L1 positive patients was then assessed for copy number variations (CNVs) using single Tube TaqMan Copy Number Assays Gene CD247PD-L1. We also observed KRAS mutation to profile possible genetic mechanism leading to the presence or absence of PD-L1 expression. Analysis of 61 CRC patients revealed 15 patients (24%) expressed PD-L1 on their tumor cell membranes. The prevalence of surface membrane PD-L1 was significantly higher in patients with MSI (87%; 7/8) compared to patients with microsatellite stable (MSS) (15%; 8/53) (P=0.001). Although amplification of PD-L1 gene was not found among PD-L1 positive patients, low-level amplification of PD-L1 gene was commonly observed in MSS patients (75%; 6/8) than in MSI patients (43%; 3/7). Additionally, we found 26% of CRC patients harbored KRAS mutations (16/61), so far the distribution of KRAS status did not correlate with PD-L1 expression. Our data suggest genetic mechanism through amplification of PD-L1 seems not to be the mechanism underlying upregulation of PD-L1 expression in CRC patients. However, further studies are warranted to confirm the results.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, gene amplification, microsatellite instable, programmed death ligand-1

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46 Flora of Seaweeds and the Preliminary Screening of the Fungal Endophytes

Authors: Asmida Ismail, Nur Farah Ain Zainee, Ahmad Ismail, Nazlina Ibrahim

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Seaweeds are economically important as they have the potential of being utilized, the capabilities and opportunities for further expansion as well as the availability of other species for future development. Hence, research on the diversity and distribution of seaweeds have to be expanded whilst the seaweeds are one of the Malaysian marine valuable heritage. The study on the distribution of seaweeds at Pengerang, Johor was carried out between February and November 2015 at Kampung Jawa Darat and Kampung Sungai Buntu. The study sites are located at the south-southeast of Peninsular Malaysia where the Petronas Refinery and Petrochemicals Integrated Project Development (RAPID) are in progress. In future, the richness of seaweeds in Pengerang will vanish soon due to the loss of habitat prior to RAPID project. The research was completed to study the diversity of seaweed and to determine the present of fungal endophyte isolated from the seaweed. The sample was calculated by using quadrat with 25-meter line transect by 3 replication for each site. The specimen were preserved, identified, processed in the laboratory and kept as herbarium specimen in Algae Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The complete thallus specimens for fungal endophyte screening were chosen meticulously, transferred into sterile zip-lock plastic bag and kept in the freezer for further process. A total of 29 species has been identified including 12 species of Chlorophyta, 2 species of Phaeophyta and 14 species of Rhodophyta. From February to November 2015, the number of species highly varied and there was a significant change in community structure of seaweeds. Kampung Sungai Buntu shows the highest diversity throughout the study compared to Kampung Jawa Darat. This evidence can be related to the high habitat preference such as types of shores which is rocky, sandy and having lagoon and bay. These can enhance the existence of the seaweeds community due to variations of the habitat. Eighteen seaweed species were selected and screened for the capability presence of fungal endophyte; Sargassum polycystum marked having the highest number of fungal endophyte compared to the other species. These evidence has proved the seaweed have capable of accommodating a lot of species of fungal endophytes. Thus, these evidence leads to positive consequences where further research should be employed.

Keywords: Diversity, Screening, macroalgae, Seaweed, fungal endophyte

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45 Synthesis and Characterization of LiCoO2 Cathode Material by Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Nur Azilina Abdul Aziz, Tuti Katrina Abdullah, Ahmad Azmin Mohamad

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Lithium-transition metals and some of their oxides, such as LiCoO2, LiMn2O2, LiFePO4, and LiNiO2 have been used as cathode materials in high performance lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Among the cathode materials, LiCoO2 has potential to been widely used as a lithium-ion battery because of its layered crystalline structure, good capacity, high cell voltage, high specific energy density, high power rate, low self-discharge, and excellent cycle life. This cathode material has been widely used in commercial lithium-ion batteries due to its low irreversible capacity loss and good cycling performance. However, there are several problems that interfere with the production of material that has good electrochemical properties, including the crystallinity, the average particle size and particle size distribution. In recent years, synthesis of nanoparticles has been intensively investigated. Powders prepared by the traditional solid-state reaction have a large particle size and broad size distribution. On the other hand, solution method can reduce the particle size to nanometer range and control the particle size distribution. In this study, LiCoO2 was synthesized using the sol–gel preparation method, which Lithium acetate and Cobalt acetate were used as reactants. The stoichiometric amounts of the reactants were dissolved in deionized water. The solutions were stirred for 30 hours using magnetic stirrer, followed by heating at 80°C under vigorous stirring until a viscous gel was formed. The as-formed gel was calcined at 700°C for 7 h under a room atmosphere. The structural and morphological analysis of LiCoO2 was characterized using X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. The diffraction pattern of material can be indexed based on the α-NaFeO2 structure. The clear splitting of the hexagonal doublet of (006)/(102) and (108)/(110) in this patterns indicates materials are formed in a well-ordered hexagonal structure. No impurity phase can be seen in this range probably due to the homogeneous mixing of the cations in the precursor. Furthermore, SEM micrograph of the LiCoO2 shows the particle size distribution is almost uniform while particle size is between 0.3-0.5 microns. In conclusion, LiCoO2 powder was successfully synthesized using the sol–gel method. LiCoO2 showed a hexagonal crystal structure. The sample has been prepared clearly indicate the pure phase of LiCoO2. Meanwhile, the morphology of the sample showed that the particle size and size distribution of particles is almost uniform.

Keywords: Sol-Gel Method, cathode material, LiCoO2, lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

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44 Description of a Structural Health Monitoring and Control System Using Open Building Information Modeling

Authors: Wahhaj Ahmed Farooqi, Bilal Ahmad, Sandra Maritza Zambrano Bernal

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In view of structural engineering, monitoring of structural responses over time is of great importance with respect to recent developments of construction technologies. Recently, developments of advanced computing tools have enabled researcher’s better execution of structural health monitoring (SHM) and control systems. In the last decade, building information modeling (BIM) has substantially enhanced the workflow of planning and operating engineering structures. Typically, building information can be stored and exchanged via model files that are based on the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) standard. In this study a modeling approach for semantic modeling of SHM and control systems is integrated into the BIM methodology using the IFC standard. For validation of the modeling approach, a laboratory test structure, a four-story shear frame structure, is modeled using a conventional BIM software tool. An IFC schema extension is applied to describe information related to monitoring and control of a prototype SHM and control system installed on the laboratory test structure. The SHM and control system is described by a semantic model applying Unified Modeling Language (UML). Subsequently, the semantic model is mapped into the IFC schema. The test structure is composed of four aluminum slabs and plate-to-column connections are fully fixed. In the center of the top story, semi-active tuned liquid column damper (TLCD) is installed. The TLCD is used to reduce effects of structural responses in context of dynamic vibration and displacement. The wireless prototype SHM and control system is composed of wireless sensor nodes. For testing the SHM and control system, acceleration response is automatically recorded by the sensor nodes equipped with accelerometers and analyzed using embedded computing. As a result, SHM and control systems can be described within open BIM, dynamic responses and information of damages can be stored, documented, and exchanged on the formal basis of the IFC standard.

Keywords: Nondestructive Testing, Structural health monitoring, unified modeling language, industry foundation classes, open building information modeling, semi-active tuned liquid column damper

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43 Developing a Decision-Making Tool for Prioritizing Green Building Initiatives

Authors: Tayyab Ahmad, Gerard Healey

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Sustainability in built environment sector is subject to many development constraints. Building projects are developed under different requirements of deliverables which makes each project unique. For an owner organization, i.e., a higher-education institution, involved in a significant building stock, it is important to prioritize some of the sustainability initiatives over the others in order to align the sustainable building development with organizational goals. The point-based green building rating tools i.e. Green Star, LEED, BREEAM are becoming increasingly popular and are well-acknowledged worldwide for verifying a sustainable development. It is imperative to synthesize a multi-criteria decision-making tool that can capitalize on the point-based methodology of rating systems while customizing the sustainable development of building projects according to the individual requirements and constraints of the client organization. A multi-criteria decision-making tool for the University of Melbourne is developed that builds on the action-learning and experience of implementing Green Buildings at the University of Melbourne. The tool evaluates the different sustainable building initiatives based on the framework of Green Star rating tool of Green Building Council of Australia. For each different sustainability initiative the decision-making tool makes an assessment based on at least five performance criteria including the ease with which a sustainability initiative can be achieved and the potential of a sustainability initiative to enhance project objectives, reduce life-cycle costs, enhance University’s reputation, and increase the confidence in quality construction. The use of a weighted aggregation mathematical model in the proposed tool can have a considerable role in the decision-making process of a Green Building project by indexing the Green Building initiatives in terms of organizational priorities. The index value of each initiative will be based on its alignment with some of the key performance criteria. The usefulness of the decision-making tool is validated by conducting structured interviews with some of the key stakeholders involved in the development of sustainable building projects at the University of Melbourne. The proposed tool is realized to help a client organization in deciding that within limited resources which sustainability initiatives and practices are more important to be pursued than others.

Keywords: higher education institution, multi-criteria decision-making tool, organizational values, prioritizing sustainability initiatives, weighted aggregation model

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42 Rapid Flood Damage Assessment of Population and Crops Using Remotely Sensed Data

Authors: Urooj Saeed, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Iqra Khalid, Sahar Mirza, Imtiaz Younas

Abstract:

Pakistan, a flood-prone country, has experienced worst floods in the recent past which have caused extensive damage to the urban and rural areas by loss of lives, damage to infrastructure and agricultural fields. Poor flood management system in the country has projected the risks of damages as the increasing frequency and magnitude of floods are felt as a consequence of climate change; affecting national economy directly or indirectly. To combat the needs of flood emergency, this paper focuses on remotely sensed data based approach for rapid mapping and monitoring of flood extent and its damages so that fast dissemination of information can be done, from local to national level. In this research study, spatial extent of the flooding caused by heavy rains of 2014 has been mapped by using space borne data to assess the crop damages and affected population in sixteen districts of Punjab. For this purpose, moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to daily mark the flood extent by using Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI). The highest flood value data was integrated with the LandScan 2014, 1km x 1km grid based population, to calculate the affected population in flood hazard zone. It was estimated that the floods covered an area of 16,870 square kilometers, with 3.0 million population affected. Moreover, to assess the flood damages, Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) aided with spectral signatures was applied on Landsat image to attain the thematic layers of healthy (0.54 million acre) and damaged crops (0.43 million acre). The study yields that the population of Jhang district (28% of 2.5 million population) was affected the most. Whereas, in terms of crops, Jhang and Muzzafargarh are the ‘highest damaged’ ranked district of floods 2014 in Punjab. This study was completed within 24 hours of the peak flood time, and proves to be an effective methodology for rapid assessment of damages due to flood hazard

Keywords: flood hazard, object based image analysis, space borne data, rapid damage assessment

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