Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: IFRS

30 Convergence with IFRS: Evidence from Financial Statements

Authors: M. S. Turan, Dimple

Abstract:

Due to implementation of IFRS by several developed and developing countries, India has no option other than to converge their accounting standards with IFRS. There are over 10,000 listed companies required to implement IFRS in India. IFRS based financial information presented by a company is different from the same information provided by Indian GAAPs. In this study, we have brought out and analyzed the effect of IFRS reporting on the financial statements of selected companies. The results reveal that convergence with IFRS brought prominent positive variations in the values of quick ratio, debt/equity ratio, proprietary ratio and net profit ratio, while negative variation is brought in the values of current ratio, debt to total assets ratio, operating profit ratio, return on capital employed and return on shareholders’ equity ratios. It also presents significant changes in the values of items of balance sheet, profit and loss account and cash flow statement.

Keywords: IFRS, reporting standards, convergence process, results

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29 UK GAAP and IFRS Standards: Similarities and Differences

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

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This paper aimed to help researchers and international companies to the differences and similarities between IFRS (International financial reporting standards) and UK GAAP or UK accounting principles, and to the accounting changes between standard setting of the International Accounting Standards Board and the Accounting Standards Board in United Kingdom. We will use in this study statistical methods to calculate similarities and difference frequencies between the UK standards and IFRS standards, according to the PricewaterhouseCoopers report in 2005. We will use the one simple test to confirm or refuse our hypothesis. In conclusion, we found that the gap between UK GAAP and IFRS is small.

Keywords: accounting, UK GAAP, IFRS, similarities, differences

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28 An Institutional Analysis of IFRS Adoption in Poor Jurisdictions

Authors: Catalina Florentina Pricope

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The last two decades witnessed a movement towards harmonization of international financial reporting standards (IFRS) throughout the global economy. This investigation seeks to identify the factors that could explain the adoption of IFRS by poor jurisdictions. While there has been a considerable amount, of literature published on the effects and key drivers of IFRS adoption in both developed and developing countries, little attention has been paid to jurisdictions with less developed capital markets and low-income levels exclusively. Drawing upon the Institutional Isomorphism theory and analyzing a sample of 45 poor jurisdictions between 2008 and 2013, the study empirically shows that poor jurisdictions are driven by legitimacy concerns rather than by economic reasoning to adopt an international accounting perspective. This in turn has implications for the IASB, as it should seek to influence institutional pressures within a particular jurisdiction in order to promote IFRS adoption.

Keywords: IFRS adoption, isomorphism, poor jurisdictions, accounting harmonization

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27 Accounting Quality and The Adoption of IFRS: Evidence from China

Authors: Khaldoon G. Albitar, Hassan Y. Kikhia, Jin P. Zhang

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Since 2007, all companies listed on both Shanghai Stock Exchange and Shenzhen Stock Exchange are required to prepare their consolidated financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). This study investigates the impact of adopting IFRS on accounting quality for a sample of listed on Chinese companies during the period 2003-2013 with sample of 10846 observations over a four-year period before and a five-year period after the adoption of IFRS. This study tests whether the level of earnings management is significantly lower after the adoption of IFRS, and reported earnings is more value relevant during the IFRS period by using the Ohlson model and Jones model, as modified by Dechow. The empirical results show that accounting quality improved with lower earnings management and higher value relevant after the adoption of IFRS in China. The current study contributes to the literature on IFRS adoption and earning quality in two ways. First, As most of the existing studies on earnings quality and IFRS have been conducted on data from the U.S and European countries, this study fills a gap in the existing literature by studying the effect of adoption of IFRS on earnings quality in an emerging market. Second, the findings of our study have important implications for policymakers, auditors, multinational firms, and users of financial reports. As the rapid growth of China's economy gains global recognition, the Chinese stock market is capturing the attention of international investor.

Keywords: international financial reporting standards (ifrs), accounting quality, earnings management, value relevance, china

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26 The Level of Adoption of IFRS by SMEs in Developing Countries: Case Study Uganda

Authors: Ssempijja Mark

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The adoption of the use of IFRSis very paramount in quality financial reporting for SMEs, both internationally and locally. The adoption of IFRS helps to guide SMEs in better treatment of transactions which in the long run improves the financial performance of an entity. Despite the presence of professional training and regulatory bodies such as ICPAU that prescribe and regulate accounting and financial reporting practices in relation to IFRS in the country, key information regarding the level of adoption of IFRS by SMEs in Uganda has inadequately been available. This formed the main purpose of the study in order to bridge the information gap. This study assessed the extent of adoption of IFRS by SMEs, the influencers for the adoption level, both impeders, and enablers. The study employed a documentary research model. The collected data was from different sources such as; related research studies, journals, and related articles. The written studies greatly revealed that there was a low level of adoption of IFRS by SMEs in Uganda. It was also revealed that full adoption of IFRS was greatly hampered by hindrances such as; quality of Accountants, low level of knowledge by the individuals in accounting positions for SMEs.Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between adoption and impedersof IFRS for SMEson the adoption level. It was also found that there was a correlation effect between adoption hindrances and the level of adoption. It should be noted and several efforts should be made in the different capacities of the major players so as to curb the impeders affecting the level of adoption of IFRS’s in SMEs. This can include recruitment of professional Accountants, Continuous Professional Trainings to the Accountants, and putting up stringent measures by the policy makers so as to ensure SMEs adhere to reporting in reference to IFRS. The adoption of IFRS by SMEs will help to improve on better accounting purposes which will attract more investors, accessing credit facilities from financial institutions, improved tax planning, and profitability maximization of SME businesses.

Keywords: adoption, IFRS, Influencers, SMEs

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25 Board Characteristics, Audit Committee Characteristics, and the Level of Bahraini Corporate Compliance with Mandatory IFRS Disclosure Requirements

Authors: Omar Juhmani

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This paper examines the relation between internal corporate governance and the level of corporate compliance with mandatory IFRS disclosure requirements. The internal corporate governance is measured by board and audit committee characteristics. Using data from Bahrain Stock Exchange, the results show that board independence is positively and significantly associated with level of compliance with IFRS disclosure requirements. This suggests that internal corporate governance mechanisms are effective in the financial reporting practices by increasing the level of compliance with IFRS disclosures. Also, the results of the regression analyses indicate that two of the control variables; company size and audit firm size are significantly positively associated with the level of corporate compliance with mandatory IFRS disclosure requirements in Bahrain.

Keywords: Bahrain, board and audit committee characteristics, compliance, disclosure, IFRS

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24 An Empirical Study of the International Financial Reporting Standards Education in the United States

Authors: Angela McCaskill

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Accounting graduates in most United States universities are not being adequately taught International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). As such they are not prepared with the knowledge and skills necessary to remain competitive in international businesses. One of the reasons behind the ill preparation is the lack of specific international accounting instruction available in the U.S. This paper explores the importance of IFRS education through the lenses of graduate accounting majors. The paper specifically explores graduate accounting major’s preparedness in IFRS based on their recent completion of a Master in Accountancy degree where IFRS had been integrated. The data for the study was collected via face-to face and telephone/Skype interviews and questionnaires. After the interview the participants also agreed to answer two supplementary questions. The participants were to determine the amounts that should be reported on the balance sheet under (1) IFRS and (2) U.S. GAAP. These questions intended to test their knowledge of both sets of standards. The sample consisted of on-line and brick and mortar university students enrolled in their graduate program during the period from spring semester 2016 to summer semester 2016. This study shows that a separate course should be devoted to teaching IFRS and convergence related issues. There is a direct correlation between the knowledge level of those students taking an IFRS course and the successful completion of the supplementary questions compared to those who only had IFRS instruction mixed into their U.S. GAAP based instruction. Students who took an international accounting course were better prepared for the IFRS conversion than those who did not have a separate course. Academically, universities need to take a deeper look into the needs of their students and do better at incorporating international standards in their curriculum.

Keywords: accounting education, global accounting standards, international accounting, IFRS and U.S. GAAP convergence, IFRS, U.S. GAAP

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23 The Comparative Analysis of International Financial Reporting Standart Adoption through Earnings Response Coefficient and Conservatism Principle: Case Study in Jakarta Islamic Index 2010 – 2014

Authors: Dwi Wijiastutik, Tarjo, Yuni Rimawati

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The purpose of this empirical study is to analyse how to the market reaction and the conservative degree changes on the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standart (IFRS) through Jakarta Islamic Index. The study also has given others additional analysis on the profitability, capital structure and size company toward IFRS adoption. The data collection methods used in this study reveals as secondary data and deep analysis to the company’s annual report and daily price stock at yahoo finance. We analyse 40 companies listed on Jakarta Islamic Index from 2010 to 2014. The result of the study concluded that IFRS has given a different on the depth analysis to the two of variance analysis: Moderated Regression Analysis and Wilcoxon Signed Rank to test developed hypotheses. Our result on the regression analysis shows that market response and conservatism principle is not significantly after IFRS Adoption in Jakarta Islamic Index. Furthermore, in addition, analysis on profitability, capital structure, and company size show that significantly after IFRS adoption. The findings of our study help investor by showing the impact of IFRS for making decided investment.

Keywords: IFRS, earnings response coefficient, conservatism principle

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22 The Effects of Changes in Accounting Standards on Loan Loss Provisions (LLP) as Earnings Management Device: Evidence from Malaysia and Nigeria Banks (Part I)

Authors: Ugbede Onalo, Mohd Lizam, Ahmad Kaseri

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In view of dearth of studies on changes in accounting standards and banks’ earnings management particularly in the context of emerging economies, and the recent Malaysia and Nigeria change from their respective local GAAP to IFRS, this study deemed it overwhelming to investigate the effects of the switch on banks’ earnings management focusing on LLP as the manipulative device. This study employed judgmental sampling to select twenty eight banks- eight Malaysia and twenty Nigeria banks as sample covering period 2008-2013. To provide an empirical research setting in pursuant of the objective of this study, the study period is further partitioned into pre (2008, 2009, 2010) and post (2011, 2012, 2013) IFRS adoption periods. This study consistent with previous studies models a LLP regression model to investigate specific discretionary accruals of banks. Findings suggest that Malaysia and Nigeria banks individually use LLP to manage reported earnings more prior to IFRS implementation. Comparative overall results evidenced that the pre IFRS adoption or domestic GAAP era for both Malaysia and Nigeria sample banks is associated with higher prevalent earnings management through LLP than the corresponding post IFRS adoption era in diverse magnitude but in favour of Malaysia banks for both periods. With results demonstrating that IFRS adoption is linked to lower earnings management via LLP, this study therefore recommends the global adoption of IFRS as reporting framework. This study also endorses that Nigeria banks embrace and borrow a leaf from Malaysia banks good corporate governance practices.

Keywords: accounting standards, IFRS, FRS, SAS, LLP, earnings management

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21 The Opportunities and Challenges of Adopting International Financial Reporting Standards in Saudi Capital Market

Authors: Abdullah Almulhim

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The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) was established in 2001 to develop International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) that bring transparency, accountability, and efficiency to financial markets around the world. In addition, the IFRS provide a unified accounting language, which is especially important in the era of globalization. However, the establishment of a single set of high-quality international accounting standards is a matter of growing importance, as participants in the increasingly integrated world capital market demand comparability and transparency of financial reporting worldwide. Saudi Arabia became the 149th member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 11 December 2005, which has increased the need to convert to IFRS. Currently, the Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority (SAMA) requires banks and insurance companies in Saudi Arabia to report under IFRS Standards. However, until the end of 2016, SOCPA standards were applied to all other companies, listed and unlisted. From 2017, listed Saudi companies would be required to report under IFRS Standards as adopted by SOCPA effective 2017. This paper is to investigate the expected benefits gained and highlight the challenges faced by adopting IFRS by the listed companies in the Saudi Stock Exchange. Questionnaires were used as the main method of data collection. They were distributed to listed companies in the Saudi Capital Market. Data obtained through the questionnaires have been imported into SPSS statistical software for analysis. The expected results of this study will show the benefits of adopting IFRS by Saudi Listed Companies. However, this study will investigate the challenges faced by adopting IFRS by the listed companies in the Saudi Arabian Stock Market. Findings will be discussed later upon completion of initial analysis.

Keywords: challenges, IAS, IFRS, opportunities, Saudi, SOCPA

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20 International Comparative Study of International Financial Reporting Standards Adoption and Earnings Quality: Effects of Differences in Accounting Standards, Industry Category, and Country Characteristics

Authors: Ichiro Mukai

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The purpose of this study is to investigate whether firms applying International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), provide high-quality and comparable earnings information that is useful for decision making of information users relative to firms applying local Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Focus is placed on the earnings quality of listed firms in several developed countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (US). Except for Japan and the US, the adoption of IFRS is mandatory for listed firms in these countries. In Japan, the application of IFRS is allowed for specific listed firms. In the US, the foreign firms listed on the US securities market are permitted to apply IFRS but the listed domestic firms are prohibited from doing so. In this paper, the differences in earnings quality are compared between firms applying local GAAP and those applying IFRS in each country and industry category, and the reasons of differences in earnings quality are analyzed using various factors. The results show that, although the earnings quality of firms applying IFRS is higher than that of firms applying local GAAP, this varies with country and industry category. Thus, even if a single set of global accounting standards is used for all listed firms worldwide, it is difficult to establish comparability of financial information among global firms. These findings imply that various circumstances surrounding firms, industries, and countries etc. influence business operations and affect the differences in earnings quality.

Keywords: accruals, earnings quality, IFRS, information comparability

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19 The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Adoption on Performance’s Measure: A Study of UK Companies

Authors: Javad Izadi, Sahar Majioud

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This study presents an approach of assessing the choice of performance measures of companies in the United Kingdom after the application of IFRS in 2005. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of IFRS on the choice of performance evaluation methods for UK companies. We analyse through an econometric model the relationship of the dependent variable, the firm’s performance, which is a nominal variable with the independent ones. Independent variables are split into two main groups: the first one is the group of accounting-based measures: Earning per share, return on assets and return on equities. The second one is the group of market-based measures: market value of property plant and equipment, research and development, sales growth, market to book value, leverage, segment and size of companies. Concerning the regression used, it is a multinomial logistic regression performed on a sample of 130 UK listed companies. Our finding shows after IFRS adoption, and companies give more importance to some variables such as return on equities and sales growth to assess their performance, whereas the return on assets and market to book value ratio does not have as much importance as before IFRS in evaluating the performance of companies. Also, there are some variables that have no impact on the performance measures anymore, such as earning per share. This article finding is empirically important for business in subjects related to IFRS and companies’ performance measurement.

Keywords: performance’s Measure, nominal variable, econometric model, evaluation methods

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18 Fair Value Accounting and Evolution of the Ohlson Model

Authors: Mohamed Zaher Bouaziz

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Our study examines the Ohlson Model, which links a company's market value to its equity and net earnings, in the context of the evolution of the Canadian accounting model, characterized by more extensive use of fair value and a broader measure of performance after IFRS adoption. Our hypothesis is that if equity is reported at its fair value, this valuation is closely linked to market capitalization, so the weight of earnings weakens or even disappears in the Ohlson Model. Drawing on Canada's adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), our results support our hypothesis that equity appears to include most of the relevant information for investors, while earnings have become less important. However, the predictive power of earnings does not disappear.

Keywords: fair value accounting, Ohlson model, IFRS adoption, value-relevance of equity and earnings

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17 Pre and Post IFRS Loss Avoidance in France and the United Kingdom

Authors: T. Miková

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This paper analyzes the effect of a single uniform accounting rule on reporting quality by investigating the influence of IFRS on earnings management. This paper examines whether earnings management is reduced after IFRS adoption through the use of “loss avoidance thresholds”, a method that has been verified in earlier studies. This paper concentrates on two European countries: one that represents the continental code law tradition with weak protection of investors (France) and one that represents the Anglo-American common law tradition, which typically implies a strong enforcement system (the United Kingdom). The research investigates a sample of 526 companies (6822 firm-year observations) during the years 2000 – 2013. The results are different for the two jurisdictions. This study demonstrates that a single set of accounting standards contributes to better reporting quality and reduces the pervasiveness of earnings management in France. In contrast, there is no evidence that a reduction in earnings management followed the implementation of IFRS in the United Kingdom. Due to the fact that IFRS benefit France but not the United Kingdom, other political and economic factors, such legal system or capital market strength, must play a significant role in influencing the comparability and transparency cross-border companies’ financial statements. Overall, the result suggests that IFRS moderately contribute to the accounting quality of reported financial statements and bring benefit for stakeholders, though the role played by other economic factors cannot be discounted.

Keywords: accounting standards, earnings management, international financial reporting standards, loss avoidance, reporting quality

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16 Analysis of Unconditional Conservatism and Earnings Quality before and after the IFRS Adoption

Authors: Monica Santi, Evita Puspitasari

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International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) has developed the principle based accounting standard. Based on this, IASB then eliminated the conservatism concept within accounting framework. Conservatism concept represents a prudent reaction to uncertainty to try to ensure that uncertainties and risk inherent in business situations are adequately considered. The conservatism concept has two ingredients: conditional conservatism or ex-post (news depending prudence) and unconditional conservatism or ex-ante (news-independent prudence). IFRS in substance disregards the unconditional conservatism because the unconditional conservatism can cause the understatement assets or overstated liabilities, and eventually the financial statement would be irrelevance since the information does not represent the real fact. Therefore, the IASB eliminate the conservatism concept. However, it does not decrease the practice of unconditional conservatism in the financial statement reporting. Therefore, we expected the earnings quality would be affected because of this situation, even though the IFRS implementation was expected to increase the earnings quality. The objective of this study was to provide empirical findings about the unconditional conservatism and the earnings quality before and after the IFRS adoption. The earnings per accrual measure were used as the proxy for the unconditional conservatism. If the earnings per accrual were negative (positive), it meant the company was classified as the conservative (not conservative). The earnings quality was defined as the ability of the earnings in reflecting the future earnings by considering the earnings persistence and stability. We used the earnings response coefficient (ERC) as the proxy for the earnings quality. ERC measured the extant of a security’s abnormal market return in response to the unexpected component of reporting earning of the firm issuing that security. The higher ERC indicated the higher earnings quality. The manufacturing companies listed in the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX) were used as the sample companies, and the 2009-2010 period was used to represent the condition before the IFRS adoption, and 2011-2013 was used to represent the condition after the IFRS adoption. Data was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and regression analysis. We used the firm size as the control variable with the consideration the firm size would affect the earnings quality of the company. This study had proved that the unconditional conservatism had not changed, either before and after the IFRS adoption period. However, we found the different findings for the earnings quality. The earnings quality had decreased after the IFRS adoption period. This empirical results implied that the earnings quality before the IFRS adoption was higher. This study also had found that the unconditional conservatism positively influenced the earnings quality insignificantly. The findings implied that the implementation of the IFRS had not decreased the unconditional conservatism practice and has not altered the earnings quality of the manufacturing company. Further, we found that the unconditional conservatism did not affect the earnings quality. Eventhough the empirical result shows that the unconditional conservatism gave positive influence to the earnings quality, but the influence was not significant. Thus, we concluded that the implementation of the IFRS did not increase the earnings quality.

Keywords: earnings quality, earnings response coefficient, IFRS Adoption, unconditional conservatism

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15 International Financial Reporting Standards and the Quality of Banks Financial Statement Information: Evidence from an Emerging Market-Nigeria

Authors: Ugbede Onalo, Mohd Lizam, Ahmad Kaseri, Otache Innocent

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Giving the paucity of studies on IFRS adoption and quality of banks accounting quality, particularly in emerging economies, this study is motivated to investigate whether the Nigeria decision to adopt IFRS beginning from 1 January 2012 is associated with high quality accounting measures. Consistent with prior literatures, this study measure quality of financial statement information using earnings measurement, timeliness of loss recognition and value relevance. A total of twenty Nigeria banks covering a period of six years (2008-2013) divided equally into three years each (2008, 2009, 2010) pre adoption period and (2011, 2012, 2013) post adoption period were investigated. Following prior studies eight models were in all employed to investigate earnings management, timeliness of loss recognition and value relevance of Nigeria bank accounting quality for the different reporting regimes. Results suggest that IFRS adoption is associated with minimal earnings management, timely recognition of losses and high value relevance of accounting information. Summarily, IFRS adoption engenders higher quality of banks financial statement information compared to local GAAP. Hence, this study recommends the global adoption of IFRS and that Nigeria banks should embrace good corporate governance practices.

Keywords: IFRS, SAS, quality of accounting information, earnings measurement, discretionary accruals, non-discretionary accruals, total accruals, Jones model, timeliness of loss recognition, value relevance

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14 The Effect of Mandatory International Financial Reporting Standards Reporting on Investors' Herding Practice: Evidence from Eu Equity Markets

Authors: Mohammed Lawal Danrimi, Ervina Alfan, Mazni Abdullah

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The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) encourages information-based trading and mitigates investors’ herding practice in emerging EU equity markets. Utilizing a modified non-linear model of cross-sectional absolute deviation (CSAD), we find that the hypothesis that mandatory IFRS adoption improves the information set of investors and reduces irrational investment behavior may in some cases be incorrect, and the reverse may be true. For instance, with regard to herding concerns, the new reporting benchmark has rather aggravated investors’ herding practice. However, we also find that mandatory IFRS adoption does not appear to be the only instigator of the observed herding practice; national institutional factors, particularly regulatory quality, political stability and control of corruption, also significantly contribute to investors’ herd formation around the new reporting regime. The findings would be of interest to academics, regulators and policymakers in performing a cost-benefit analysis of the so-called better reporting regime, as well as financial statement users who make decisions based on firms’ fundamental variables, treating them as significant indicators of future market movement.

Keywords: equity markets, herding, IFRS, CSAD

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13 International Financial Reporting Standard Adoption and Value Relevance of Earnings in Listed Consumer Goods Companies in Nigerian

Authors: Muktar Haruna

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This research work examines the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) adoption and value relevance of earnings of listed consumer goods companies in the Nigerian. The population of the study comprises 22 listed consumer goods companies, out of which 15 were selected as sample size of the study. The scope of the study is a 12-year period covering from 2006 to 2018. Secondary data from the annual report of sampled companies were used, which consists of earnings per share (EPS), the book value of equity per share (BVE) as independent variables; firm size (FSZ) as a control variable, and market share price of sampled companies from Nigerian stock exchange as dependent variable. Multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. The results of the study showed that IFRS did not improve the value relevance of earnings after the adoption, which translates to a decrease in value relevance of accounting numbers in the post-adoption period. The major recommendation is that the Nigerian Reporting Council should ensure full compliance to all provisions of IFRS and provide uniformity in the presentation of non-current assets in the statement of financial position, where some present only net current assets leaving individual figures for current assets and liabilities invisible.

Keywords: IFRS, adoption, value relevance, earning per share, book value of equity per share

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12 Modeling the Relation between Discretionary Accrual Earnings Management, International Financial Reporting Standards and Corporate Governance

Authors: Ikechukwu Ndu

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This study examines the econometric modeling of the relation between discretionary accrual earnings management, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and certain corporate governance factors with regard to listed Nigerian non-financial firms. Although discretionary accrual earnings management is a well-known and global problem that has an adverse impact on users of the financial statements, its relationship with IFRS and corporate governance is neither adequately researched nor properly systematically investigated in Nigeria. The dearth of research in the relation between discretionary accrual earnings management, IFRS and corporate governance in Nigeria has made it difficult for academics, practitioners, government setting bodies, regulators and international bodies to achieve a clearer understanding of how discretionary accrual earnings management relates to IFRS and certain corporate governance characteristics. This is the first study to the author’s best knowledge to date that makes interesting research contributions that significantly add to the literature of discretionary accrual earnings management and its relation with corporate governance and IFRS pertaining to the Nigerian context. A comprehensive review is undertaken of the literature of discretionary total accrual earnings management, IFRS, and certain corporate governance characteristics as well as the data, models, methodologies, and different estimators used in the study. Secondary financial statement, IFRS, and corporate governance data are sourced from Bloomberg database and published financial statements of Nigerian non-financial firms for the period 2004 to 2016. The methodology uses both the total and working capital accrual basis. This study has a number of interesting preliminary findings. First, there is a negative relationship between the level of discretionary accrual earnings management and the adoption of IFRS. However, this relationship does not appear to be statistically significant. Second, there is a significant negative relationship between the size of the board of directors and discretionary accrual earnings management. Third, CEO Separation of roles does not constrain earnings management, indicating the need to preserve relationships, personal connections, and maintain bonded friendships between the CEO, Chairman, and executive directors. Fourth, there is a significant negative relationship between discretionary accrual earnings management and the use of a Big Four firm as an auditor. Fifth, including shareholders in the audit committee, leads to a reduction in discretionary accrual earnings management. Sixth, the debt and return on assets (ROA) variables are significant and positively related to discretionary accrual earnings management. Finally, the company size variable indicated by the log of assets is surprisingly not found to be statistically significant and indicates that all Nigerian companies irrespective of size engage in discretionary accrual management. In conclusion, this study provides key insights that enable a better understanding of the relationship between discretionary accrual earnings management, IFRS, and corporate governance in the Nigerian context. It is expected that the results of this study will be of interest to academics, practitioners, regulators, governments, international bodies and other parties involved in policy setting and economic development in areas of financial reporting, securities regulation, accounting harmonization, and corporate governance.

Keywords: discretionary accrual earnings management, earnings manipulation, IFRS, corporate governance

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11 Financial Reporting Quality and International Financial Reporting

Authors: Matthias Nnadi

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Using samples of 250 large listed firms by market capitalization in China and Hong Kong, we conducted empirical test to determine the impact of regulatory environment on reporting quality following IFRS convergence using three financial reporting measures; earning management, timely loss recognition and value relevance. Our results indicate that accounting data are more value relevant for Hong Kong listed firms than the Chinese A-share firms. The empirical results for timely loss recognition further reveal that there is a larger coefficient estimate on bad news earnings, which suggests that Chines A-share firms are more likely to report losses in a timely manner. The results support the evidence that substantial convergence of IFRS can improve financial reporting quality in a regulated environment such as China. This further supports the expectation that IFRS are relevant to China and has positive effect on its accounting practice and quality.

Keywords: reporting, quality, earning, loss, relevance, financial, China, Hong Kong

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10 Empirical Evidence on the Need for Harmonization of Audit Criteria for Small Enterprises in India

Authors: Satinder Bhatia

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Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) was a concept introduced in India in 2009. Ever since then, there has been a fierce growth in the number of organizations registered as LLPs outpacing the number of registrations as private companies. Among other benefits extended to LLPs, the audit being mandated only for LLPs having a turnover of at least Rs 40 lakhs or capital contribution of Rs 25 lakhs, has been a major attraction. This has resulted in only about 10 per cent of LLPs coming under mandatory audit. Even for such companies, the accounting standards to be followed in the preparation of financial statements have not been specified. The Revised Indian Accounting Standards (Revised IndAS) which are aligned with IFRS to a great extent, may apply to LLPs only under limited conditions. Thus, the veracity of even the audited financial statements of LLPs can be questioned. If in future, these LLPs would like to list on a stock exchange to raise capital, there can be serious hurdles if investors do not find the financial statements to be reliable and consistent. LLPs are generally governed by country-specific rules in the area of accounts and audit. Thus, such rules vary across UK, EU and the USA. Some countries have adopted the IFRS for SMEs and since LLPs can be referred to as SMEs; they would come under the ambit of these IFRS provisions. Besides, as the scope of audit widens to cover qualitative information in addition to quantitative data, audit of LLPs has now acquired a new meaning and a new urgency as demands for at least limited purpose audits are arising from different stakeholders including lenders, suppliers, customers and joint venture partners.

Keywords: audit disclosures, audit quality, guidance for SMEs, non-audit services

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9 New Formula for Revenue Recognition Likely to Change the Prescription for Pharma Industry

Authors: Shruti Hajirnis

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In May 2014, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) issued International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) 15, Revenue from Contracts with Customers that will supersede virtually all revenue recognition requirements in IFRS and US GAAP. FASB and the IASB have basically achieved convergence with these standards, with only some minor differences such as collectability threshold, interim disclosure requirements, early application and effective date, impairment loss reversal and nonpublic entity requirements. This paper discusses the impact of five-step model prescribed in new revenue standard on the entities operating in Pharma industry. It also outlines the considerations for these entities while implementing the new standard.

Keywords: revenue recognition, pharma industry, standard, requirements

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8 Consequences to Financial Reporting by Implementing Sri Lanka Financial Reporting Standard 13 on Measuring the Fair Value of Financial Instruments: Evidence from Three Sri Lankan Organizations

Authors: Nayoma Ranawaka

Abstract:

The demand for the high quality internationally comparable financial information has been increased than ever with the expansion of economic activities beyond its national boundaries. Thus, the necessity of converging accounting practices across the world is now continuously discussed with greater emphasis. The global convergence to International Financial Reporting Standards has been one of the main objectives of the International Accounting Standards Setting Board (IASB) since its establishment in 2001. Accordingly, Sri Lanka has adopted IFRSs in 2012. Among the other standards as a newly introduced standard by the IASB, IFRS 13 plays a pivotal role as it deals with the Fair Value Accounting (FVA). Therefore, it is valuable to obtain knowledge about the consequences of implementing IFRS 13 in Sri Lanka and compare results across nations. According to the IFRS Jurisdictional provision of Sri Lanka, Institute of Chartered Accountants of Sri Lanka has taken official steps to adopt IFRS 13 by introducing SLFRS 13 with de jure convergence. Then this study was identified the de facto convergence of the SLFRS 13 in measuring the Fair Value of Financial Instruments in the Sri Lankan context. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to explore the consequences to financial reporting by implementing SLFRS 13 on measuring the financial instruments. In order to achieve the objective of the study expert interview and in-depth interviews with the interviewees from the selected three case studies and their independent auditor were carried out using customized three different interview guides. These three cases were selected from three different industries; Banking, Manufacturing and Finance. NVivo version 10 was used to analyze the data collected through in-depth interviews. Then the content analysis was carried out and conclusions were derived based on the findings. Contribution to the knowledge by this study can be identified in different aspects. Findings of this study facilitate accounting practitioners to get an overall picture of application of fair value standard in measuring the financial instruments and to identify the challenges and barriers to the adoption process. Further, assist auditors in carrying out their audit procedures to check the level of compliance to the fair value standard in measuring the financial instruments. Moreover, this would enable foreign investors in assessing the reliability of the financial statements of their target investments as a result of SLFRS 13 in measuring the FVs of the FIs. The findings of the study could be used to open new avenues of thinking for policy formulators to provide the necessary infrastructure to eliminate disparities exists among different regulatory bodies to facilitate full convergence and thereby growth of the economy. Further, this provides insights to the dynamics of FVA implementation that are also relevant for other developing countries.

Keywords: convergence, fair value, financial instruments, IFRS 13

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7 Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards and Earnings Quality in Listed Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria

Authors: Shehu Usman Hassan

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Published accounting information in financial statements are required to provide various users - shareholders, employees, suppliers, creditors, financial analysts, stockbrokers and government agencies – with timely and reliable information useful for making prudent, effective and efficient decisions. The widespread failure in the financial information quality has created the need to improve the financial information quality and to strengthen the control of managers by setting up good firms structures. This paper investigates firm attributes from perspective of structure, monitoring, performance elements of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study adopted correlational research design with balanced panel data of 14 banks as sample of the study using multiple regression as a tool of analysis. The result reveals that firms attributes (leverage, profitability, liquidity, bank size and bank growth) has as significant influence on earnings quality of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria after the adoption of IFRS, while the pre period shows that the selected firm attributes has no significant impact on earnings quality. It is therefore concluded that the adoption of IFRS is right and timely.

Keywords: earnings quality, firm attributes, listed deposit money bank, Nigeria

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6 Issues of Accounting of Lease and Revenue according to International Financial Reporting Standards

Authors: Nadezhda Kvatashidze, Elena Kharabadze

Abstract:

It is broadly known that lease is a flexible means of funding enterprises. Lease reduces the risk related to access and possession of assets, as well as obtainment of funding. Therefore, it is important to refine lease accounting. The lease accounting regulations under the applicable standard (International Accounting Standards 17) make concealment of liabilities possible. As a result, the information users get inaccurate and incomprehensive information and have to resort to an additional assessment of the off-balance sheet lease liabilities. In order to address the problem, the International Financial Reporting Standards Board decided to change the approach to lease accounting. With the deficiencies of the applicable standard taken into account, the new standard (IFRS 16 ‘Leases’) aims at supplying appropriate and fair lease-related information to the users. Save certain exclusions; the lessee is obliged to recognize all the lease agreements in its financial report. The approach was determined by the fact that under the lease agreement, rights and obligations arise by way of assets and liabilities. Immediately upon conclusion of the lease agreement, the lessee takes an asset into its disposal and assumes the obligation to effect the lease-related payments in order to meet the recognition criteria defined by the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting. The payments are to be entered into the financial report. The new lease accounting standard secures supply of quality and comparable information to the financial information users. The International Accounting Standards Board and the US Financial Accounting Standards Board jointly developed IFRS 15: ‘Revenue from Contracts with Customers’. The standard allows the establishment of detailed revenue recognition practical criteria such as identification of the performance obligations in the contract, determination of the transaction price and its components, especially price variable considerations and other important components, as well as passage of control over the asset to the customer. IFRS 15: ‘Revenue from Contracts with Customers’ is very similar to the relevant US standards and includes requirements more specific and consistent than those of the standards in place. The new standard is going to change the recognition terms and techniques in the industries, such as construction, telecommunications (mobile and cable networks), licensing (media, science, franchising), real property, software etc.

Keywords: assessment of the lease assets and liabilities, contractual liability, division of contract, identification of contracts, contract price, lease identification, lease liabilities, off-balance sheet, transaction value

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5 Independent Audit in Brazilian Companies Listed on B3: An Analysis of Companies That Received Qualified Opinion and Disclaimer of Opinion

Authors: Diego Saldo Alves, Marcelo Paveck Ayub

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The quality of accounting information is very important for the decision-making of managers, investors government and other information users. The opinion of the independent audit has a significant influence on the decision-making, especially the investors. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the reasons that companies listed on Brazilian Stock Exchange B3, if they received qualified opinion and disclaimer of opinion of the independent auditors. We analyzed the reports of the independent auditors of 23 Brazilian companies listed in B3 that received qualified opinion and disclaimer of opinion between the years 2012 and 2017. The findings show that the companies do not comply the International Financial Reporting Standard, IFRS, also they did not provide documentation to prove the operations performed, did not account expenses, problems in corporate governance and internal controls.

Keywords: audit, disclaimer of opinion, independent auditors, qualified opinion

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4 Intellectual Capital Disclosure: A Study of Australia and Sri Lanka

Authors: Puwanenthiren Pratheepkanth

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This study considers whether national development level influences a firm’s voluntary intellectual capital disclosure (ICD) provided by a sample of 100 Australian and 100 Sri Lankan firms in terms of a two-years during 2015-16. This two-nation study uses a content analysis and literature-review analysis to provide an understanding of the underlying forces and issues. It was found that Australian firms tend to rely heavily on external structure disclosures (with particular attention to brands, customer loyalty, and research collaborations), but Sri Lankan relatively larger firms prefer intellectual property disclosures and the smaller firms tend to be as adept at external structure as their Australian counterparts. It was also found that the nature of a firm tends to trump the nurture of the development level of the country in which the firm is embedded. While a wider diffusion of better ICD methodology under International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) could improve the cost-effectiveness of financial reporting and generally increase efficiency, this is unlikely to occur until competition is more of a spur.

Keywords: developed countries, developing countries, content analysis, intellectual capital disclosure

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3 The Number of Corona Virus Infections in 2020

Authors: Yasaswi Vengalasetti, Jacob Eisenach, Jay Bhattacharya

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Seroprevalence studies can provide an estimation of the Infection Fatality Rate (IFR), the probability of death given infection. Measuring the seroprevalence and reported deaths of an area within a given time frame an IFR can be estimated. With this IFR calculation, we can then observe COVID-19 death figures in different countries around the world and estimate the number of cases since the onset of the pandemic. There is a large range for estimated COVID-19 infections across different countries. This ranged from 0.659 million infections in Hong Kong to 277 million infections in India. The largest estimated share of the population infected is 63% in Peru and the lowest is 3% in Norway. For younger populations, COVID-19 is most fatal in South America; for older populations, it is most fatal in North America. The Asian regions stand out with significantly lower IFRs in older populations: at 80 years old, COVID-19 is about three times as fatal than in South Asia and about twelve times as fatal than in East Asia. The weighted average for the share of the population infected, the sum of infections divided by the sum of populations across all countries, is 23%.

Keywords: epidemiology, seroprevalence, covid-19, infection fatality rate

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2 An Investigation of the Determinants of Discount Rate Manipulation in Swedish and Finnish Listed Companies

Authors: Fredrik Hartwig, Peter Lindberg

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In 2004, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) issued new accounting standards for impairment testing of goodwill. IFRS 3 Business Combinations and IAS 36 Impairment of Assets prohibited amortization of acquired goodwill and instead required companies to test goodwill for impairment annually or more often if necessary. The goodwill impairment test is based on management’s judgement and estimations, making the impairment-only-approach subjective and unreliable. Management can use the discretion opportunistically by managing goodwill impairments. The IASB’s remedy to the reliability problem has been to demand transparent financial reports. IAS 36 paragraph 134 requires detailed disclosures regarding the impairment test in order to make potentially unreasonable assumptions and estimations visible. The disclosure requirements should thus (in theory) make it more difficult for management to ‘choose’ assumptions and estimations that suit an agenda. Whether the requirement to disclose detailed disclosures regarding the impairment test leads to less opportunism is however an empirical question. This work analyses whether one of the required disclosures in IAS 36 paragraph 134, the reported discount rate, differs from an independently estimated risk-adjusted discount rate. Estimates of discount rates that are either lower or higher than the independently estimated discount rate are here defined as opportunism. In the former case - i.e. when the reported discount rate is lower - the objective may be to avoid profit reducing impairment charges. In the latter case - i.e. when the reported discount rate is higher - the objective may be to reduce profits or take ‘big baths’. This paper differs in one important respect from previous similar studies, the majority of which are based on purely descriptive statistics; we use multivariate regression analysis to analyze what factors affect deviations between disclosed discount rates and independently estimated discount rates. The sample consists of Swedish and Finnish listed companies. Swedish and Finnish listed companies are analysed since the accounting oversight bodies differ between the two countries. The results show that discount rate deviations in Swedish and Finnish listed companies are significantly related to accounting oversight, size and industry but not financial risk, business risk and goodwill intensity.

Keywords: discount rate, manipulation, goodwill impairment test, disclosures

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1 Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Voluntary Accounting Disclosures and Mongolian Stock Exchange Listed Companies’ Characteristics

Authors: Ernest Nweke

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Mongolia has made giant strides in the development of its auditing and accounting system from Soviet-style to a market-oriented system. High levels of domestic and foreign investment desired by the Mongolian government require that better and improved quality of corporate information and disclosure consistent with international standards be made available to investors. However, the Mongolian Certified Public Accountants (CPA) profession is still developing, and the quality of services provided by accounting firms in most cases do not comply with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) framework approved by the government for use in financial reporting. Against this backdrop, Accounting and audit reforms, liberalization and deregulation, establishment of an efficient and effective professional monitoring and supervision regime are policy necessities. These will further enhance the Mongolian business environment, eliminate incompetence in the system, make the economy more attractive to investors and ultimately lift reporting standards and bring about improved accounting, auditing and disclosure practices among Mongolian firms. This paper examines the fundamental issues in the accounting and auditing environment in Mongolia and investigates the relationship between selected characteristics of Mongolian Stock Exchange (MSE) listed firms (profitability, leverage, firm size, firm auditor size, firm listing age, board size and proportion of independent directors) and voluntary accounting disclosures in their annual reports and accounts. The selected sample of firms for the research purpose consists of the top 20 indexes of the MSE, representing over 95% of the market capitalization. An empirical analysis of the hypothesized relationship was carried out using multiple regression in EViews analytical software. Research results lend credence to the fact that only a few of the company attributes positively impact voluntary accounting disclosures in Mongolian Stock Exchange-listed firms. The research is motivated by the absence of empirical evidence on the correlation between the quality of voluntary accounting disclosures made by listed companies in Mongolia and company characteristics and the findings thereof significantly useful to both firms and regulatory authorities. The concluding part of the paper precisely consists of useful research-based recommendations for listed firms and regulatory agencies on measures to put in place in order to enhance the quality of corporate financial reporting and disclosures in Mongolia.

Keywords: accounting, auditing, corporate disclosure, listed firms

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