Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 232

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Structural and Construction Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

232 Investigating the Properties of Asphalt and Asphalt Mixture Based on the Effect of Waste Toner

Authors: P. I. Itoua, D. Sun, S. Shen


This study aimed at investigating the properties of asphalt and mix asphalt based on the effects of waste toner sources (WT1 and WT2) with 8% dosage waste toner powders (WT). The test results included penetration, softening points, ductility, G*sinδ, G*/sinδ, Ideal cracking test (IDEAL-CT), and Ideal shear rutting test (IDEAL-RT). The results showed that the base binder with WT2 had a significantly higher viscosity value compared to the WT1 modified binder, and thus, higher energy for mixing and compaction is needed. Furthermore, the results of penetration, softening points, G*sinδ, and G*/sinδ were all affected by waste toner type. In terms of asphalt mixture, the IDEAL-RT test revealed that the addition of waste toner improved the rutting resistance of the asphalt mixture regardless of toner type. Further, CTindex values for waste toner-modified asphalt mixtures show no significant difference. Above all, WT-modified asphalt mixtures produced by the wet process have better rutting performance.

Keywords: Waste toner, waste toner-modified asphalt, asphalt mixture properties, IDEAL-RT test, IDEAL-CT test.

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231 Bridge Health Monitoring: A Review

Authors: Mohammad Bakhshandeh


Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is a crucial and necessary practice that plays a vital role in ensuring the safety and integrity of critical structures, and in particular, bridges. The continuous monitoring of bridges for signs of damage or degradation through Bridge Health Monitoring (BHM) enables early detection of potential problems, allowing for prompt corrective action to be taken before significant damage occurs. Although all monitoring techniques aim to provide accurate and decisive information regarding the remaining useful life, safety, integrity, and serviceability of bridges, understanding the development and propagation of damage is vital for maintaining uninterrupted bridge operation. Over the years, extensive research has been conducted on BHM methods, and experts in the field have increasingly adopted new methodologies. In this article, we provide a comprehensive exploration of the various BHM approaches, including sensor-based, non-destructive testing (NDT), model-based, and artificial intelligence (AI)-based methods. We also discuss the challenges associated with BHM, including sensor placement and data acquisition, data analysis and interpretation, cost and complexity, and environmental effects, through an extensive review of relevant literature and research studies. Additionally, we examine potential solutions to these challenges and propose future research ideas to address critical gaps in BHM.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, bridge health monitoring, sensor-based methods, machine-learning algorithms, model-based techniques, sensor placement, data acquisition, data analysis.

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230 Case-Based Reasoning Application to Predict Geological Features at Site C Dam Construction Project

Authors: S. Behnam Malekzadeh, I. Kerr, T. Kaempffer, T. Harper, A Watson


The Site C Hydroelectric dam is currently being constructed in north-eastern British Columbia on sub-horizontal sedimentary strata that dip approximately 15 meters from one bank of the Peace River to the other. More than 615 pressure sensors (Vibrating Wire Piezometers) have been installed on bedding planes (BPs) since construction began, with over 80 more planned before project completion. These pressure measurements are essential to monitor the stability of the rock foundation during and after construction and for dam safety purposes. BPs are identified by their clay gouge infilling, which varies in thickness from less than 1 to 20 mm and can be challenging to identify as the core drilling process often disturbs or washes away the gouge material. Without the use of depth predictions from nearby boreholes, stratigraphic markers, and downhole geophysical data, it is difficult to confidently identify BP targets for the sensors. In this paper, a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) method was used to develop an empirical model called the Bedding Plane Elevation Prediction (BPEP) to help geologists and geotechnical engineers to predict geological features and BPs at new locations in a fast and accurate manner. To develop CBR, a database was developed based on 64 pressure sensors already installed on key bedding planes BP25, BP28, and BP31 on the Right Bank, including BP elevations and coordinates. 13 (20%) of the most recent cases were selected to validate and evaluate the accuracy of the developed model, while the similarity was defined as the distance between previous cases and recent cases to predict the depth of significant BPs. The average difference between actual BP elevations and predicted elevations for above BPs was ± 55 cm, while the actual results showed that 69% of predicted elevations were within ± 79 cm of actual BP elevations while 100% of predicted elevations for new cases were within ± 99 cm range. Eventually, the actual results will be used to develop the database and improve BPEP to perform as a learning machine to predict more accurate BP elevations for future sensor installations.

Keywords: Case-Based Reasoning, CBR, geological feature, geology, piezometer, pressure sensor, core logging, dam construction.

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229 Impact of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Modification on the High-Temperature Properties of Bitumen

Authors: Burak Yigit Katanalp, Murat Tastan, Perviz Ahmedzade, Çigdem Canbay Turkyilmaz, Emrah Turkyilmaz


This study evaluated the mechanical and rheological performance of fly ash-based geopolymer at high temperatures. A series of laboratory tests were conducted on neat bitumen and three modified bitumen samples, which incorporated fly ash-based geopolymer at various percentages. Low-calcium fly ash was used as the alumina-silica source. The dynamic shear rheometer and rotational viscometer were employed to determine high-temperature properties, while conventional tests such as penetration and softening point were used to evaluate the physical properties of bitumen. Short-term aging resistance of the samples was assessed using the rolling thin film oven. The results show that geopolymer has a compromising effect on bitumen properties, with improved stiffness, enhanced mechanical strength, and increased thermal susceptibility of the asphalt binder.

Keywords: Bitumen, geopolymer, rutting, dynamic mechanical analysis.

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228 Optimization of Transportation Cost of Plaster of Paris Cement

Authors: K. M. Oba


The transportation modelling technique was adopted in the solution of the problem of transportation of Plaster of Paris (POP) cement from three supply locations (construction materials markets) to three demand locations (construction sites) in Port Harcourt. The study was carried out for 40 kg bags of POP cement fully loaded on 600 bags per truck from the three selected construction materials markets in Port Harcourt. The costs of transporting the POP cement were determined and subjected to the North-West Corner, Least Cost, and Vogel’s approximation methods to determine the initial feasible solution. Of the three results, the Least Cost Method turned out to have the lowest cost. Using the Stepping Stone Method, the optimum shipping cost was finally attained after two successive iterations. The optimum shipping cost was calculated to be $1,690 or ₦1,774,500 as of October 2023. As a result of this study, the application of transportation modelling can boost the effective management of the transportation of POP cement in construction projects.

Keywords: Cost of POP cement, management of transportation, optimization of shipping cost, Plaster of Paris, transportation model.

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227 A Cost Optimization Model for the Construction of Bored Piles

Authors: Kenneth M. Oba


Adequate management, control, and optimization of cost is an essential element for a successful construction project. A multiple linear regression optimization model was formulated to address the problem of costs associated with pile construction operations. A total of 32 PVC-reinforced concrete piles with diameter of 300 mm, 5.4 m long, were studied during the construction. The soil upon which the piles were installed was mostly silty sand, and completely submerged in water at Bonny, Nigeria. The piles are friction piles installed by boring method, using a piling auger. The volumes of soil removed, the weight of reinforcement cage installed, and volumes of fresh concrete poured into the PVC void were determined. The cost of constructing each pile based on the calculated quantities was determined. A model was derived and subjected to statistical tests using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The model turned out to be adequate, fit, and have a high predictive accuracy with an R2 value of 0.833.

Keywords: Cost optimization modelling, multiple linear models, pile construction, regression models.

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226 Degradation of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Components across Locations

Authors: Timothy E. Frank, Josh R. Aldred, Sophie B. Boulware, Michelle K. Cabonce, Justin H. White


Materials degrade at different rates in different environments depending on factors such as temperature, aridity, salinity, and solar radiation. Therefore, predicting asset longevity depends, in part, on the environmental conditions to which the asset is exposed. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are critical to building operations yet are responsible for a significant proportion of their energy consumption. HVAC energy use increases substantially with slight operational inefficiencies. Understanding the environmental influences on HVAC degradation in detail will inform maintenance schedules and capital investment, reduce energy use, and increase lifecycle management efficiency. HVAC inspection records spanning 14 years from 21 locations across the United States were compiled and associated with the climate conditions to which they were exposed. Three environmental features were explored in this study: average high temperature, average low temperature, and annual precipitation, as well as four non-environmental features. Initial insights showed no correlations between individual features and the rate of HVAC component degradation. Using neighborhood component analysis, however, the most critical features related to degradation were identified. Two models were considered, and results varied between them. However, longitude and latitude emerged as potentially the best predictors of average HVAC component degradation. Further research is needed to evaluate additional environmental features, increase the resolution of the environmental data, and develop more robust models to achieve more conclusive results.

Keywords: Climate, infrastructure degradation, HVAC, neighborhood component analysis.

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225 A Case Study on Optimization of Contractor’s Financing through Allocation of Subcontractors

Authors: Helen S. Ghali, Engy Serag, A. Samer Ezeldin


In many countries, the construction industry relies heavily on outsourcing models in executing their projects and expanding their businesses to fit in the diverse market. Such extensive integration of subcontractors is becoming an influential factor in contractor’s cash flow management. Accordingly, subcontractors’ financial terms are important phenomena and pivotal components for the well-being of the contractor’s cash flow. The aim of this research is to study the contractor’s cash flow with respect to the owner and subcontractor’s payment management plans, considering variable advance payment, payment frequency, and lag and retention policies. The model is developed to provide contractors with a decision support tool that can assist in selecting the optimum subcontracting plan to minimize the contractor’s financing limits and optimize the profit values. The model is built using Microsoft Excel VBA coding, and the genetic algorithm is utilized as the optimization tool. Three objective functions are investigated, which are minimizing the highest negative overdraft value, minimizing the net present worth of overdraft, and maximizing the project net profit. The model is validated on a full-scale project which includes both self-performed and subcontracted work packages. The results show potential outputs in optimizing the contractor’s negative cash flow values and, in the meantime, assisting contractors in selecting suitable subcontractors to achieve the objective function.

Keywords: Cash flow optimization, payment plan, procurement management, subcontracting plan.

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224 A Review on Recycled Materials Used in Construction

Authors: Oghenerukome Akponovo, Lynda I. Onyebuchukwu


Construction waste, along with that of many other industries, contributes significantly to the world's annual solid waste totals. Most of these materials, such as ash from rice hulls, slags, cement kiln dust, tire ash, plastic waste (PW), and silica fumes, end up in landfills or waterways. Some of them might even end up polluting the air from high in the atmosphere. It is sustainable, cheap, and environmentally friendly to recycle these items into new building supplies. When constructing a "green" structure, the materials employed have the potential to either exacerbate environmental imbalance or maintain a stable ecosystem. The purpose of this research is to take stock of what is already known about recycling's potential in the construction industry and to identify its deficiencies. Therefore, this study systematically reviews the wide range of recycled materials that go into building construction. In the construction industry, the utilization of recycled materials plays a significant role in environmental conservation, and a thorough investigation into these materials could potentially yield substantial economic benefits if appropriately harnessed.

Keywords: Paper waste, rice grain husks, recycled materials, waste management.

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223 Influence of Transverse Steel and Casting Direction on Shear Response and Ductility of Reinforced Ultra-High Performance Concrete Beams

Authors: Timothy E. Frank, Peter J. Amaddio, Elizabeth D. Decko, Alexis M. Tri, Darcy A. Farrell, Cole M. Landes


Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) is a class of cementitious composites with a relatively large percentage of cement generating high compressive strength. Additionally, UHPC contains disbursed fibers, which control crack width, carry the tensile load across narrow cracks, and limit spalling. These characteristics lend themselves to a wide range of structural applications when UHPC members are reinforced with longitudinal steel. Efficient use of fibers and longitudinal steel is required to keep lifecycle cost competitive in reinforced UHPC members; this requires full utilization of both the compressive and tensile qualities of the reinforced cementitious composite. The objective of this study is to investigate the shear response of steel-reinforced UHPC beams to guide design decisions that keep initial costs reasonable, limit serviceability crack widths, and ensure a ductile structural response and failure path. Five small-scale, reinforced UHPC beams were experimentally tested. Longitudinal steel, transverse steel, and casting direction were varied. Results indicate that an increase in transverse steel in short-spanned reinforced UHPC beams provided additional shear capacity and increased the peak load achieved. Beams with very large longitudinal steel reinforcement ratios did not achieve yield and fully utilized the tension properties of the longitudinal steel. Casting the UHPC beams from the end or from the middle affected load-carrying capacity and ductility, but image analysis determined that the fiber orientation was not significantly different. It is believed that the presence of transverse and longitudinal steel reinforcement minimized the effect of different UHPC casting directions. Results support recent recommendations in the literature suggesting that a 1% fiber volume fraction is sufficient within UHPC to prevent spalling and provide compressive fracture toughness under extreme loading conditions.

Keywords: Fiber orientation, reinforced ultra-high performance concrete beams, shear, transverse steel.

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222 Review of Affected Parameters on Flexural Behavior of Hollow Concrete Beams Reinforced by Steel/GFRP Rebars

Authors: Shahrad Ebrahimzadeh


Nowadays, the main efforts of the researchers aim to constantly evolve new, optimized, and efficient construction materials and methods related to reinforced concrete beams. Due to the fewer applied materials and higher structural efficiency than solid concrete beams with the same concrete area, hollow reinforced concrete beams (HRCBs) internally reinforced with steel rebars have been employed extensively for bridge structural members and high-rise buildings. Many experimental studies have been conducted to investigate the behavior of hollow beams subjected to bending loading and found that the structural performance of HRCBs is critically affected by many design parameters. While the proper design of the HRCBs demonstrated comparable behavior to solid sections, inappropriate design leads beams to be extremely prone to brittle failure. Another potential issue that needs further investigation is replacing steel bars with suitable materials due to their susceptibility to corrosion. Hence, to develop a reliable construction system, the application of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars as a non-corroding material has been utilized. Furthermore, this study aims to critically review the different design parameters that affect the flexural performance of the HRCBs and recognize the gaps of knowledge in the better design and more effective use of this construction system.

Keywords: Design parameters, experimental investigations, hollow reinforced concrete beams, steel, GFRP, flexural strength.

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221 Heading for Modern Construction Management: Recommendation for Employers

Authors: Robin Becker, Maike Eilers, Nane Roetmann, Manfred Helmus


The shortage of junior staff in the construction industry is a problem that will be further exacerbated in the coming years by the retirement of the baby-boom generations (1955-1969) from employment. In addition, the current working conditions in the field of construction management are not attractive for young professionals. A survey of students as part of the paper revealed a desire for an increase in flexibility and an improved work-life balance in everyday working life. Students of civil engineering and architecture are basically interested in a career in construction management but have reservations due to the image of the profession and the current working conditions. A survey among experts from the construction industry, also as a part of the paper, shows that the profession can become more attractive. This report provides recommendations for action in the form of working modules to improve the working conditions of employees. If these are taken into account, graduates can be attracted to the profession of construction management, and existing staff can be retained more effectively. The aim of this report is to show incentives for employers to respond to the wishes and needs of their current and future employees to the extent that can be implemented.

Keywords: Modern construction management, construction industry, work modules, shortage of junior staff, sustainable personnel management, making construction management more attractive, working time model.

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220 Hydraulic Conductivity Prediction of Cement Stabilized Pavement Base Incorporating Recycled Plastics and Recycled Aggregates

Authors: Md. Shams Razi Shopnil, Tanvir Imtiaz, Sabrina Mahjabin, Md. Sahadat Hossain


Saturated hydraulic conductivity is one of the most significant attributes of pavement base course. Determination of hydraulic conductivity is a routine procedure for regular aggregate base courses. However, in many cases, a cement-stabilized base course is used with compromised drainage ability. Traditional hydraulic conductivity testing procedure is a readily available option which leads to two consequential drawbacks, i.e., the time required for the specimen to be saturated and extruding the sample after completion of the laboratory test. To overcome these complications, this study aims at formulating an empirical approach to predicting hydraulic conductivity based on Unconfined Compressive Strength test results. To do so, this study comprises two separate experiments (Constant Head Permeability test and Unconfined Compressive Strength test) conducted concurrently on a specimen having the same physical credentials. Data obtained from the two experiments were then used to devise a correlation between hydraulic conductivity and unconfined compressive strength. This correlation in the form of a polynomial equation helps to predict the hydraulic conductivity of cement-treated pavement base course, bypassing the cumbrous process of traditional permeability and less commonly used horizontal permeability tests. The correlation was further corroborated by a different set of data, and it has been found that the derived polynomial equation is deemed to be a viable tool to predict hydraulic conductivity.

Keywords: Hydraulic conductivity, unconfined compressive strength, recycled plastics, recycled concrete aggregates.

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219 Construction Innovation: Support for 3D Printing House

Authors: Andrea Palazzo, Daniel Macek, Veronika Malinova


Contour processing is the new technology challenge for architects and construction companies. The many advantages it promises make it one of the most interesting solutions for construction in terms of automation of building processes. The technology for 3D printing houses offers many application possibilities, from low-cost construction, to being considered by NASA for visionary projects as a good solution for building settlements on other planets. Another very important point is that clients, as architects, will no longer have many limits in design concerning ideas and creativity. The prices for real estate are constantly increasing and the lack of availability of construction materials as well as the speculation that has been created around it in 2021 is bringing prices to such a level that in the future it will be difficult for developers to find customers for these ultra-expensive homes. Hence, this paper starts with the introduction of 3D printing, which now has the potential to gain an important position in the market, becoming a valid alternative to the classic construction process. This technology is not only beneficial from an economic point of view but it is also a great opportunity to have an impact on the environment by reducing CO2 emissions. Further on in the article we will also understand if, after the COP 26 (2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference), world governments could also push towards building technologies that reduce the waste materials that are needed to be disposed of and at the same time reduce emissions with the contribution of governmental funds. This paper will give us insight on the multiple benefits of 3D printing and emphasize the importance of finding new solutions for materials that can be used by the printer. Therefore, based on the type of material, it will be possible to understand the compatibility with current regulations and how the authorities will be inclined to support this technology. This will help to enable the rise and development of this technology in Europe and in the rest of the world on actual housing projects and not only on prototypes.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, building development building regulation, contour crafting, printing material.

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218 Slip Limit Prediction of High-Strength Bolt Joints Based on Local Approach

Authors: Chang He, Hiroshi Tamura, Hiroshi Katsuchi, Jiaqi Wang


In this study, the aim is to infer the slip limit (static friction limit) of contact interfaces in bolt friction joints by analyzing other bolt friction joints with the same contact surface but in a different shape. By using the Weibull distribution to deal with microelements on the contact surface statistically, the slip limit of a certain type of bolt joint was predicted from other types of bolt joint with the same contact surface. As a result, this research succeeded in predicting the slip limit of bolt joins with different numbers of contact surfaces and with different numbers of bolt rows.

Keywords: Bolt joints, slip coefficient, finite element method, Weibull distribution.

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217 Vibration Transmission across Junctions of Walls and Floors in an Apartment Building: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Hugo Sampaio Libero, Max de Castro Magalhaes


The perception of sound radiated from a building floor is greatly influenced by the rooms in which it is immersed and by the position of both listener and source. The main question that remains unanswered is related to the influence of the source position on the sound power radiated by a complex wall-floor system in buildings. This research is concerned with the investigation of vibration transmission across walls and floors in buildings. It is primarily based on the determination of vibration reduction index via experimental tests. Knowledge of this parameter may help in predicting noise and vibration propagation in building components. First, the physical mechanisms involving vibration transmission across structural junctions is described. An experimental set-up is performed to aid this investigation. The experimental tests have showed that the vibration generation in the walls and floors are directed related to their size and boundary conditions. It is also shown that the vibration source position can affect the overall vibration spectrum significantly. Second, the characteristics of the noise spectra inside the rooms due to an impact source (tapping machine) are also presented. Conclusions are drawn for the general trend of vibration and noise spectrum of the structural components and rooms respectively. In summary, the aim of this paper is to investigate the vibro-acoustical behavior of building floors and walls under floor impact excitation. The impact excitation was at distinct positions on the slab. The analysis has highlighted the main physical characteristics of the vibration transmission mechanism.

Keywords: Vibration transmission, Vibration Reduction Index, Impact excitation, building acoustics.

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216 Morphological and Dynamic Mechanical Analyses of a Local Clay/Plantain Fiber Filled Hybrid Polystyrene Composites

Authors: K. P. Odimayomi, A. G. Adeniyi, S. A. Abdulkareem, F. M. Oladipo Emmanuel, C. A. Adeyanju, M. A Amoloye


The abundant availability of the local clay/plantain fiber coupled with the various renewable and sustainability advantages has led to their choice as co-fillers in the development of a hybrid polystyrene composite. The prime objective of this study is to evaluate the morphological and dynamic mechanical properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. The hybrid polystyrene composite development was developed via the hand-lay-up method. All processing including the constituent mixing and curing were achieved at room temperature (25 ± 2 ℃).   The mechanical characteristics of the developed composites via Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) confirm an indirect relationship between time and storage modulus, this pattern becomes more evident at higher frequencies. It is clearly portrayed that the addition of clay and plantain fiber in the polystyrene matrix increases the stiffness of the developed composite.

Keywords: Morphology, DMA, Akerebiata clay, plantain fiber, hybrid polystyrene composites.

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215 Sensitivity Parameter Analysis of Negative Moment Dynamic Load Allowance of Continuous T-Girder Bridge

Authors: Fan Yang, Ye-lu Wang, Yang Zhao


The dynamic load allowance, as an application result of the vehicle-bridge coupled vibration theory, is an important parameter for bridge design and evaluation. Based on the coupled vehicle-bridge vibration theory, the current work establishes a full girder model of a dynamic load allowance, selects a planar five-degree-of-freedom three-axis vehicle model, solves the coupled vehicle-bridge dynamic response using the APDL language in the spatial finite element program ANSYS, selects the pivot point 2 sections as the representative of the negative moment section, and analyzes the effects of parameters such as travel speed, unevenness, vehicle frequency, span diameter, span number and forced displacement of the support on the negative moment dynamic load allowance through orthogonal tests. The influence of parameters such as vehicle speed, unevenness, vehicle frequency, span diameter, span number, and forced displacement of the support on the negative moment dynamic load allowance is analyzed by orthogonal tests, and the influence law of each influencing parameter is summarized. It is found that the effects of vehicle frequency, unevenness, and speed on the negative moment dynamic load allowance are significant, among which vehicle frequency has the greatest effect on the negative moment dynamic load allowance; the effects of span number and span diameter on the negative moment dynamic load allowance are relatively small; the effects of forced displacement of the support on the negative moment dynamic load allowance are negligible.

Keywords: Continuous T-girder bridge, dynamic load allowance, sensitivity analysis, vehicle-bridge coupling.

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214 Monitoring and Analysis of Bridge Crossing Ground Fissures

Authors: Zhiqing Zhang, Xiangong Zhou, Zihan Zhou


Ground fissures can be seen in some cities all over the world. As a special urban geological disaster, ground fissures in Xi'an have caused great harm to infrastructure. Chang'an Road Interchange in Xi'an City is a bridge across ground fissures. The damage to Chang'an Road interchange is the most serious and typical. To study the influence of ground fissures on the bridge, we established a bridge monitoring system. The main monitoring items include elevation monitoring, structural displacement monitoring, etc. The monitoring results show that the typical failure is mainly reflected in the bridge deck damage caused by horizontal tension and vertical dislocation. For the construction of urban interchange spanning ground fissures, the interchange should be divided reasonably, a simple support structure with less restriction should be adopted, and the monitoring of supports should be strengthened to prevent the occurrence of beam falling.

Keywords: Bridge monitoring, ground fissures, typical disease, structural displacement.

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213 Exploring the Relationship between Building Construction Activity and Road-Related Expenditure in Victoria

Authors: Md. Aftabuzzaman, Md. Kamruzzaman


Road-related expenditure and building construction activity are two significant drivers of the Victorian economy. This paper investigates the relationship between building construction activity and road-related expenditure. Data for construction activities were collected from Victorian Building Authority, and road-related expenditure data were explored by the Bureau of Infrastructure and Transport Research Economics. The trend between these two sectors was compared. The analysis found a strong relationship between road-related expenditure and the volume of construction activity, i.e., the more construction activities, the greater the requirement of road-related expenditure, or vice-versa. The road-related expenditure has a two-year lag period, suggesting that the road sector requires two years to respond to the growth in the building sector.

Keywords: Building construction activity, infrastructure, road expenditure, Victorian building authority.

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212 Data Compression in Ultrasonic Network Communication via Sparse Signal Processing

Authors: Beata Zima, Octavio A. Márquez Reyes, Masoud Mohammadgholiha, Jochen Moll, Luca De Marchi


This document presents the approach of using compressed sensing in signal encoding and information transferring within a guided wave sensor network, comprised of specially designed frequency steerable acoustic transducers (FSATs). Wave propagation in a damaged plate was simulated using commercial FEM-based software COMSOL. Guided waves were excited by means of FSATs, characterized by the special shape of its electrodes, and modeled using PIC255 piezoelectric material. The special shape of the FSAT, allows for focusing wave energy in a certain direction, accordingly to the frequency components of its actuation signal, which makes a larger monitored area available. The process begins when a FSAT detects and records reflection from damage in the structure, this signal is then encoded and prepared for transmission, using a combined approach, based on Compressed Sensing Matching Pursuit and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). After codification of the signal is in binary, the information is transmitted between the nodes in the network. The message reaches the last node, where it is finally decoded and processed, to be used for damage detection and localization purposes. The main aim of the investigation is to determine the location of detected damage using reconstructed signals. The study demonstrates that the special steerable capabilities of FSATs, not only facilitate the detection of damage but also permit transmitting the damage information to a chosen area in a specific direction of the investigated structure.

Keywords: Data compression, ultrasonic communication, guided waves, FEM analysis.

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211 Use of Waste Tire Rubber Alkali-Activated-Based Mortars in Repair of Concrete Structures

Authors: Mohammad Ebrahim Kianifar, Ehsan Ahmadi


Reinforced concrete structures experience local defects such as cracks over their lifetime under various environmental loadings. Consequently, they are repaired by mortars to avoid detrimental effects such as corrosion of reinforcement, which in long-term may lead to strength loss of a member or collapse of structures. However, repaired structures may need multiple repairs due to changes in load distribution, and thus, lack of compatibility between mortar and substrate concrete. On the other hand, waste tire rubber alkali-activated (WTRAA)-based materials have very high potential to be used as repair mortars because of their ductility and flexibility, which may delay failure of repair mortar, and thus, provide sufficient compatibility. Hence, this work presents a study on suitability of WTRAA-based materials as mortars for repair of concrete structures through an experimental program. To this end, WTRAA mortars with 15% aggregate replacement, alkali-activated (AA) mortars, and ordinary mortars are made to repair a number of concrete beams. The WTRAA mortars are composed of slag as base material, sodium hydroxide as alkaline activator, and different gradation of waste tire rubber (fine and coarse gradations). Flexural tests are conducted on the concrete beams repaired by the ordinary, AA, and WTRAA mortars. It is found that, despite having lower compressive strength and modulus of elasticity, the WTRAA and AA mortars increase flexural strength of the repaired beams, give compatible failures, and provide sufficient mortar-concrete interface bondings. The ordinary mortars, however, show incompatible failure modes. This study demonstrates promising application of WTRAA mortars in practical repairs of concrete structures.

Keywords: Alkali-activated mortars, concrete repair, mortar compatibility flexural strength, waste tire rubber.

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210 Generative Design of Acoustical Diffuser and Absorber Elements Using Large-Scale Additive Manufacturing

Authors: S. Aziz, B. Alexander, C. Gengnagel, S. Weinzierl


This paper explores a generative design, simulation, and optimization workflow for the integration of acoustical diffuser and/or absorber geometry with embedded coupled Helmholtz-resonators for full scale 3D printed building components. Large-scale additive manufacturing in conjunction with algorithmic CAD design tools enables a vast amount of control when creating geometry. This is advantageous regarding the increasing demands of comfort standards for indoor spaces and the use of more resourceful and sustainable construction methods and materials. The presented methodology highlights these new technological advancements and offers a multimodal and integrative design solution with the potential for an immediate application in the AEC-Industry. In principle, the methodology can be applied to a wide range of structural elements that can be manufactured by additive manufacturing processes. The current paper focuses on a case study of an application for a biaxial load-bearing beam grillage made of reinforced concrete, which allows for a variety of applications through the combination of additive prefabricated semi-finished parts and in-situ concrete supplementation. The semi-prefabricated parts or formwork bodies form the basic framework of the supporting structure and at the same time have acoustic absorption and diffusion properties that are precisely acoustically programmed for the space underneath the structure. To this end, a hybrid validation strategy is being explored using a digital and cross-platform simulation environment, verified with physical prototyping. The iterative workflow starts with the generation of a parametric design model for the acoustical geometry using the algorithmic visual scripting editor Grasshopper3D inside the Building Information Modeling (BIM) software Revit. Various geometric attributes (i.e., bottleneck and cavity dimensions) of the resonator are parameterized and fed to a numerical optimization algorithm which can modify the geometry with the goal of increasing absorption at resonance and increasing the bandwidth of the effective absorption range. Using Rhino.Inside and LiveLink for Revit the generative model was imported directly into the Multiphysics simulation environment COMSOL. The geometry was further modified and prepared for simulation in a semi-automated process. The incident and scattered pressure fields were simulated from which the surface normal absorption coefficients were calculated. This reciprocal process was repeated to further optimize the geometric parameters. Subsequently the numerical models were compared to a set of 3D concrete printed physical twin models which were tested in a .25 m x .25 m impedance tube. The empirical results served to improve the starting parameter settings of the initial numerical model. The geometry resulting from the numerical optimization was finally returned to grasshopper for further implementation in an interdisciplinary study.

Keywords: Acoustical design, additive manufacturing, computational design, multimodal optimization.

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209 Time-Domain Analysis Approaches of Soil-Structure Interaction: A Comparative Study

Authors: Abdelrahman Taha, Niloofar Malekghaini, Hamed Ebrahimian, Ramin Motamed


This paper compares the substructure and direct approaches for soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis in the time domain. In the substructure approach, the soil domain is replaced by a set of springs and dashpots, also referred to as the impedance function, derived through the study of the behavior of a massless rigid foundation. The impedance function is inherently frequency dependent, i.e., it varies as a function of the frequency content of the structural response. To use the frequency-dependent impedance function for time-domain SSI analysis, the impedance function is approximated at the fundamental frequency of the coupled soil-structure system. To explore the potential limitations of the substructure modeling process, a two-dimensional (2D) reinforced concrete frame structure is modeled and analyzed using the direct and substructure approaches. The results show discrepancy between the simulated responses of the direct and substructure models. It is concluded that the main source of discrepancy is likely attributed to the way the impedance functions are calculated, i.e., assuming a massless rigid foundation without considering the presence of the superstructure. Hence, a refined impedance function, considering the presence of the superstructure, shall alternatively be developed. This refined impedance function is expected to improve the simulation accuracy of the substructure approach.

Keywords: Direct approach, impedance function, massless rigid foundation, soil-structure interaction, substructure approach.

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208 Use of Benin Laterites for the Mix Design of Structural Concrete

Authors: Yémalin D. Agossou, André Lecomte, Rémi Boissiere, Edmond C. Adjovi, Abdelouahab Khelil


This paper presents a mixed design trial of structural concretes with laterites from Benin. These materials are often the only granular resources readily available in many tropical regions. In the first step concretes were designed with raw laterites, but the performances obtained were rather disappointing in spite of high cement dosages. A detailed physical characterization of these materials then showed that they contained a significant proportion of fine clays, and that the coarsest fraction (gravel) contained a variety of facies, some of which were not very dense or indurated. Washing these laterites, and even the elimination of the most friable grains of the gravel fraction, made it possible to obtain concretes with satisfactory properties in terms of workability, density and mechanical strength. However, they were found to be slightly less stiff than concretes made with more traditional aggregates. It is therefore possible to obtain structural concretes with only laterites and cement but at the cost of eliminating some of their granular constituents.

Keywords: Laterites, aggregates, concretes, mix design, mechanical properties.

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207 The Overload Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members

Authors: Angelo Thurairajah


Sufficient ultimate deformation is necessary to demonstrate the member ductility, which is dependent on the section and the material ductility. The concrete cracking phase of softening prior to the plastic hinge formation is an essential feature as well. The nature of the overload behaviour is studied using the order of the ultimate deflection. The ultimate deflection is primarily dependent on the slenderness (span to depth ratio), the ductility of the reinforcing steel, the degree of moment redistribution, the type of loading, and the support conditions. The ultimate deflection and the degree of moment redistribution from the analytical study are in good agreement with the experimental results and the moment redistribution provisions of the Australian Standards AS3600 Concrete Structures Code.

Keywords: Ductility, softening, ultimate deflection, overload behaviour, moment redistribution.

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206 Investigating the Effects of Hydrogen on Wet Cement for Underground Hydrogen Storage Applications in Oil and Gas Wells

Authors: Hamoud Al-Hadrami, Hossein Emadi, Athar Hussain


Green hydrogen is quickly emerging as a new source of the renewable energy for the world. Hydrogen production using water electrolysis is deemed as an environmentally friendly and safe source of energy for transportation and other industries. However, storing high volumes of hydrogen seems to be a significant challenge. Abandoned hydrocarbon reservoirs are considered as viable hydrogen storage options because of the availability of the required infrastructure such as wells and surface facilities. However, long-term wellbore integrity in these wells could be a serious challenge. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of stored hydrogen on the wellbore integrity such as casing cement. The methodology is to experimentally expose hydrogen to wet and dry cement and measure the impact on cement rheological and mechanical properties. Hydrogen reduces the compressive strength of a set cement if it gets in contact with the cement slurry. Also, mixing hydrogen with cement slurry slightly increases its density and rheological properties which need to be considered to have a successful primary cementing operation.

Keywords: Green hydrogen, underground storage, wellbore integrity, cement, compressive strength.

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205 Local Mechanical Analysis of Arch Foot of Space Y-Beam Arch Bridge

Authors: Cao Ziyuan, Luo Xuan


To study the local force characteristics of a spatial Y-arch bridge, a medium-bearing spatial Y-arch bridge is used as the object of study, and the finite element software FEA is used to establish a spatial finite element model and analyze the force conditions of the arch legs under different most unfavorable loading conditions. It is found that the forces on the arch foot under different conditions are mainly in the longitudinal direction and transverse direction, which should be considered for strengthening. The research results can provide reference for the design and construction of the same type of bridge.

Keywords: Bridge engineering, special-shaped arch bridge, mechanical properties, local analysis.

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204 Mechanical Behavior of Recycled Mortars Manufactured from Moisture Correction Using the Halogen Light Thermogravimetric Balance as an Alternative to the Traditional ASTM C 128 Method

Authors: Diana Gómez-Cano, J. C. Ochoa-Botero, Roberto Bernal Correa, Yhan Paul Arias


To obtain high mechanical performance, the fresh conditions of a mortar are decisive. Measuring the absorption of aggregates used in mortar mixes is a fundamental requirement for proper design of the mixes prior to their placement in construction sites. In this sense, absorption is a determining factor in the design of a mix because it conditions the amount of water, which in turn affects the water/cement ratio and the final porosity of the mortar. Thus, this work focuses on the mechanical behavior of recycled mortars manufactured from moisture correction using the Thermogravimetric Balancing Halogen Light (TBHL) technique in comparison with the traditional ASTM C 128 International Standard method. The advantages of using the TBHL technique are favorable in terms of reduced consumption of resources such as materials, energy and time. The results show that in contrast to the ASTM C 128 method, the TBHL alternative technique allows obtaining a higher precision in the absorption values of recycled aggregates, which is reflected not only in a more efficient process in terms of sustainability in the characterization of construction materials, but also in an effect on the mechanical performance of recycled mortars.

Keywords: Alternative raw materials, halogen light, recycled mortar, resources optimization, water absorption.

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203 Contribution of the SidePlate Beam-Column Connections to the Seismic Responses of Special Moment Frames

Authors: Gökhan Yüksel, Serdar Akça, İlker Kalkan


The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the significant levels of contribution of the moment-resisting beam-column connections with side plates to the earthquake behavior of special steel moment frames. To this end, the moment-curvature relationships of a regular beam-column connection and its SidePlate counterpart were determined with the help of finite element analyses. The connection stiffness and deformability values from these finite element analyses were used in the linear time-history analyses of an example structural steel frame under three different seismic excitations. The top-story lateral drift, base shear, and overturning moment values in two orthogonal directions were obtained from these time-history analyses and compared to each other. The results revealed the improvements in the system response with the use of SidePlate connections. The paper ends with crucial recommendations for the plan and design of further studies on this very topic.

Keywords: Seismic detailing, special moment frame, steel structures, beam-column connection, earthquake-resistant design.

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