Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2930

Search results for: GIS technique

2930 Study of Efficiency and Capability LZW++ Technique in Data Compression

Authors: Yusof. Mohd Kamir, Mat Deris. Mohd Sufian, Abidin. Ahmad Faisal Amri

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to show efficiency and capability LZWµ in data compression. The LZWµ technique is enhancement from existing LZW technique. The modification the existing LZW is needed to produce LZWµ technique. LZW read one by one character at one time. Differ with LZWµ technique, where the LZWµ read three characters at one time. This paper focuses on data compression and tested efficiency and capability LZWµ by different data format such as doc type, pdf type and text type. Several experiments have been done by different types of data format. The results shows LZWµ technique is better compared to existing LZW technique in term of file size.

Keywords: Data Compression, Huffman Encoding, LZW, LZWµ, RLL, Size.

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2929 Experimental Study of Eccentrically Loaded Columns Strengthened Using a Steel Jacketing Technique

Authors: Mohamed K. Elsamny, Adel A. Hussein, Amr M. Nafie, Mohamed K. Abd-Elhamed

Abstract:

An experimental study of Reinforced Concrete, RC, columns strengthened using a steel jacketing technique was conducted. The jacketing technique consisted of four steel vertical angles installed at the corners of the column joined by horizontal steel straps confining the column externally. The effectiveness of the technique was evaluated by testing the RC column specimens under eccentric monotonic loading until failure occurred. Strain gauges were installed to monitor the strains in the internal reinforcement as well as the external jacketing system. The effectiveness of the jacketing technique was demonstrated, and the parameters affecting the technique were studied.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete Columns, Steel Jacketing, Strengthening, Eccentric Load.

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2928 Enhancement of Low Contrast Satellite Images using Discrete Cosine Transform and Singular Value Decomposition

Authors: A. K. Bhandari, A. Kumar, P. K. Padhy

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel contrast enhancement technique for contrast enhancement of a low-contrast satellite image has been proposed based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) and discrete cosine transform (DCT). The singular value matrix represents the intensity information of the given image and any change on the singular values change the intensity of the input image. The proposed technique converts the image into the SVD-DCT domain and after normalizing the singular value matrix; the enhanced image is reconstructed by using inverse DCT. The visual and quantitative results suggest that the proposed SVD-DCT method clearly shows the increased efficiency and flexibility of the proposed method over the exiting methods such as Linear Contrast Stretching technique, GHE technique, DWT-SVD technique, DWT technique, Decorrelation Stretching technique, Gamma Correction method based techniques.

Keywords: Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), discretecosine transforms (DCT), image equalization and satellite imagecontrast enhancement.

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2927 Development of Energy Management System Based on Internet of Things Technique

Authors: Wen-Jye Shyr, Chia-Ming Lin, Hung-Yun Feng

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to develop an energy management system for university campuses based on the Internet of Things (IoT) technique. The proposed IoT technique based on WebAccess is used via network browser Internet Explore and applies TCP/IP protocol. The case study of IoT for lighting energy usage management system was proposed. Structure of proposed IoT technique included perception layer, equipment layer, control layer, application layer and network layer.

Keywords: Energy management, IoT technique, Sensor, WebAccess

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2926 Object Allocation with Replication in Distributed Systems

Authors: H. T. Barney, G. C. Low

Abstract:

The design of distributed systems involves dividing the system into partitions (or components) and then allocating these partitions to physical nodes. There have been several techniques proposed for both the partitioning and allocation processes. These existing techniques suffer from a number of limitations including lack of support for replication. Replication is difficult to use effectively but has the potential to greatly improve the performance of a distributed system. This paper presents a new technique technique for allocating objects in order to improve performance in a distributed system that supports replication. The performance of the proposed technique is demonstrated and tested on an example system. The performance of the new technique is compared with the performance of an existing technique in order to demonstrate both the validity and superiority of the new technique when developing a distributed system that can utilise object replication.

Keywords: Allocation, Distributed Systems, Replication.

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2925 Blind Channel Estimation Based on URV Decomposition Technique for Uplink of MC-CDMA

Authors: Pradya Pornnimitkul, Suwich Kunaruttanapruk, Bamrung Tau Sieskul, Somchai Jitapunkul

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate a blind channel estimation method for Multi-carrier CDMA systems that use a subspace decomposition technique. This technique exploits the orthogonality property between the noise subspace and the received user codes to obtain channel of each user. In the past we used Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) technique but SVD have most computational complexity so in this paper use a new algorithm called URV Decomposition, which serve as an intermediary between the QR decomposition and SVD, replaced in SVD technique to track the noise space of the received data. Because of the URV decomposition has almost the same estimation performance as the SVD, but has less computational complexity.

Keywords: Channel estimation, MC-CDMA, SVD, URV.

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2924 Project Selection by Using a Fuzzy TOPSIS Technique

Authors: M. Salehi, R. Tavakkoli-Moghaddam

Abstract:

Selection of a project among a set of possible alternatives is a difficult task that the decision maker (DM) has to face. In this paper, by using a fuzzy TOPSIS technique we propose a new method for a project selection problem. After reviewing four common methods of comparing investment alternatives (net present value, rate of return, benefit cost analysis and payback period) we use them as criteria in a TOPSIS technique. First we calculate the weight of each criterion by a pairwise comparison and then we utilize the improved TOPSIS assessment for the project selection.

Keywords: Fuzzy Theory, Pairwise Comparison, ProjectSelection, TOPSIS Technique.

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2923 Thread Lift: Classification, Technique, and How to Approach to the Patient

Authors: Panprapa Yongtrakul, Punyaphat Sirithanabadeekul, Pakjira Siriphan

Abstract:

Background: The thread lift technique has become popular because it is less invasive, requires a shorter operation, less downtime, and results in fewer postoperative complications. The advantage of the technique is that the thread can be inserted under the skin without the need for long incisions. Currently, there are a lot of thread lift techniques with respect to the specific types of thread used on specific areas, such as the mid-face, lower face, or neck area. Objective: To review the thread lift technique for specific areas according to type of thread, patient selection, and how to match the most appropriate to the patient. Materials and Methods: A literature review technique was conducted by searching PubMed and MEDLINE, then compiled and summarized. Result: We have divided our protocols into two sections: Protocols for short suture, and protocols for long suture techniques. We also created 3D pictures for each technique to enhance understanding and application in a clinical setting. Conclusion: There are advantages and disadvantages to short suture and long suture techniques. The best outcome for each patient depends on appropriate patient selection and determining the most suitable technique for the defect and area of patient concern.

Keywords: Thread lift, thread lift method, thread lift technique, thread lift procedure, threading.

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2922 A Novel Digital Watermarking Technique Basedon ISB (Intermediate Significant Bit)

Authors: Akram M. Zeki, Azizah A. Manaf

Abstract:

Least Significant Bit (LSB) technique is the earliest developed technique in watermarking and it is also the most simple, direct and common technique. It essentially involves embedding the watermark by replacing the least significant bit of the image data with a bit of the watermark data. The disadvantage of LSB is that it is not robust against attacks. In this study intermediate significant bit (ISB) has been used in order to improve the robustness of the watermarking system. The aim of this model is to replace the watermarked image pixels by new pixels that can protect the watermark data against attacks and at the same time keeping the new pixels very close to the original pixels in order to protect the quality of watermarked image. The technique is based on testing the value of the watermark pixel according to the range of each bit-plane.

Keywords: Watermarking, LSB, ISB, Robustness.

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2921 Application of l1-Norm Minimization Technique to Image Retrieval

Authors: C. S. Sastry, Saurabh Jain, Ashish Mishra

Abstract:

Image retrieval is a topic where scientific interest is currently high. The important steps associated with image retrieval system are the extraction of discriminative features and a feasible similarity metric for retrieving the database images that are similar in content with the search image. Gabor filtering is a widely adopted technique for feature extraction from the texture images. The recently proposed sparsity promoting l1-norm minimization technique finds the sparsest solution of an under-determined system of linear equations. In the present paper, the l1-norm minimization technique as a similarity metric is used in image retrieval. It is demonstrated through simulation results that the l1-norm minimization technique provides a promising alternative to existing similarity metrics. In particular, the cases where the l1-norm minimization technique works better than the Euclidean distance metric are singled out.

Keywords: l1-norm minimization, content based retrieval, modified Gabor function.

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2920 Face Recognition using a Kernelization of Graph Embedding

Authors: Pang Ying Han, Hiew Fu San, Ooi Shih Yin

Abstract:

Linearization of graph embedding has been emerged as an effective dimensionality reduction technique in pattern recognition. However, it may not be optimal for nonlinearly distributed real world data, such as face, due to its linear nature. So, a kernelization of graph embedding is proposed as a dimensionality reduction technique in face recognition. In order to further boost the recognition capability of the proposed technique, the Fisher-s criterion is opted in the objective function for better data discrimination. The proposed technique is able to characterize the underlying intra-class structure as well as the inter-class separability. Experimental results on FRGC database validate the effectiveness of the proposed technique as a feature descriptor.

Keywords: Face recognition, Fisher discriminant, graph embedding, kernelization.

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2919 Characterization of Adhesive Layers in Sandwich Composites by Nondestructive Technique

Authors: E. Barkanov, E. Skukis, M. Wesolowski, A. Chate

Abstract:

New nondestructive technique, namely an inverse technique based on vibration tests, to characterize nonlinear mechanical properties of adhesive layers in sandwich composites is developed. An adhesive layer is described as a viscoelastic isotropic material with storage and loss moduli which are both frequency dependent values in wide frequency range. An optimization based on the planning of experiments and response surface technique to minimize the error functional is applied to decrease considerably the computational expenses. The developed identification technique has been tested on aluminum panels and successfully applied to characterize viscoelastic material properties of 3M damping polymer ISD-112 used as a core material in sandwich panels.

Keywords: Adhesive layer, finite element method, inverse technique, sandwich panel, vibration test, viscoelastic material properties.

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2918 An Efficient Energy Adaptive Hybrid Error Correction Technique for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ammar Elyas babiker, M.Nordin B. Zakaria, Hassan Yosif, Samir B. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Variable channel conditions in underwater networks, and variable distances between sensors due to water current, leads to variable bit error rate (BER). This variability in BER has great effects on energy efficiency of error correction techniques used. In this paper an efficient energy adaptive hybrid error correction technique (AHECT) is proposed. AHECT adaptively changes error technique from pure retransmission (ARQ) in a low BER case to a hybrid technique with variable encoding rates (ARQ & FEC) in a high BER cases. An adaptation algorithm depends on a precalculated packet acceptance rate (PAR) look-up table, current BER, packet size and error correction technique used is proposed. Based on this adaptation algorithm a periodically 3-bit feedback is added to the acknowledgment packet to state which error correction technique is suitable for the current channel conditions and distance. Comparative studies were done between this technique and other techniques, and the results show that AHECT is more energy efficient and has high probability of success than all those techniques.

Keywords: Underwater communication, wireless sensornetworks, error correction technique, energy efficiency

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2917 A Robust Data Hiding Technique based on LSB Matching

Authors: Emad T. Khalaf, Norrozila Sulaiman

Abstract:

Many researchers are working on information hiding techniques using different ideas and areas to hide their secrete data. This paper introduces a robust technique of hiding secret data in image based on LSB insertion and RSA encryption technique. The key of the proposed technique is to encrypt the secret data. Then the encrypted data will be converted into a bit stream and divided it into number of segments. However, the cover image will also be divided into the same number of segments. Each segment of data will be compared with each segment of image to find the best match segment, in order to create a new random sequence of segments to be inserted then in a cover image. Experimental results show that the proposed technique has a high security level and produced better stego-image quality.

Keywords: steganography; LSB Matching; RSA Encryption; data segments

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2916 Adaptive Square-Rooting Companding Technique for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems

Authors: Wisam F. Al-Azzo, Borhanuddin Mohd. Ali

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. It also introduces a new PAPR reduction technique based on adaptive square-rooting (SQRT) companding process. The SQRT process of the proposed technique changes the statistical characteristics of the OFDM output signals from Rayleigh distribution to Gaussian-like distribution. This change in statistical distribution results changes of both the peak and average power values of OFDM signals, and consequently reduces significantly the PAPR. For the 64QAM OFDM system using 512 subcarriers, up to 6 dB reduction in PAPR was achieved by square-rooting technique with fixed degradation in bit error rate (BER) equal to 3 dB. However, the PAPR is reduced at the expense of only -15 dB out-ofband spectral shoulder re-growth below the in-band signal level. The proposed adaptive SQRT technique is superior in terms of BER performance than the original, non-adaptive, square-rooting technique when the required reduction in PAPR is no more than 5 dB. Also, it provides fixed amount of PAPR reduction in which it is not available in the original SQRT technique.

Keywords: complementary cumulative distribution function(CCDF), OFDM, peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), adaptivesquare-rooting PAPR reduction technique.

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2915 Effectiveness of Dominant Color Descriptor Technique in Medical Image Retrieval Application

Authors: Mohd Kamir Yusof

Abstract:

This paper presents a dominant color descriptor technique for medical image retrieval. The medical image system will collect and store into medical database. The purpose of dominant color descriptor (DCD) technique is to retrieve medical image and to display similar image using queried image. First, this technique will search and retrieve medical image based on keyword entered by user. After image is found, the system will assign this image as a queried image. DCD technique will calculate the image value of dominant color. Then, system will search and retrieve again medical image based on value of dominant color query image. Finally, the system will display similar images with the queried image to user. Simple application has been developed and tested using dominant color descriptor. Result based on experiment indicates this technique is effective and can be used for medical image retrieval.

Keywords: Medical Image Retrieval, Dominant ColorDescriptor.

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2914 A General Regression Test Selection Technique

Authors: Walid S. Abd El-hamid, Sherif S. El-etriby, Mohiy M. Hadhoud

Abstract:

This paper presents a new methodology to select test cases from regression test suites. The selection strategy is based on analyzing the dynamic behavior of the applications that written in any programming language. Methods based on dynamic analysis are more safe and efficient. We design a technique that combine the code based technique and model based technique, to allow comparing the object oriented of an application that written in any programming language. We have developed a prototype tool that detect changes and select test cases from test suite.

Keywords: Regression testing, Model based testing, Dynamicbehavior.

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2913 Floating-Point Scaling for BSS Gain Control

Authors: Abdelmalek Fermas, Adel Belouchrani, Otmane Ait Mohamed

Abstract:

In Blind Source Separation (BSS) processing, taking advantage of scaling factor indetermination and based on the floatingpoint representation, we propose a scaling technique applied to the separation matrix, to avoid the saturation or the weakness in the recovered source signals. This technique performs an Automatic Gain Control (AGC) in an on-line BSS environment. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique by using the implementation of a division free BSS algorithm with two input, two output. This technique is computationally cheaper and efficient for a hardware implementation.

Keywords: Automatic Gain Control, Blind Source Separation, Floating-Point Representation, FPGA Implementation.

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2912 Applying Energy Consumption Schedule and Comparing It with Load Shifting Technique in Residential Load

Authors: Amira M. Attia, Karim H. Youssef, Nabil H. Abbasy

Abstract:

Energy consumption schedule (ECS) technique shifts usage of loads from on peak hours and redistributes them throughout the day according to residents’ operating time preferences. This technique is used as form of indirect control from utility to improve the load curve and hence its load factor and reduce customer’s total electric bill as well. Similarly, load shifting technique achieves ECS purposes but as direct control form applied from utility. In this paper, ECS is simulated twice as optimal constrained mathematical formula, solved by using CVX program in MATLAB® R2013b. First, it is utilized for single residential building with ten apartments to determine max allowable energy consumption per hour for each residential apartment. Then, it is used for single apartment with number of shiftable domestic devices, where operating schedule is deduced using previous simulation output results as constraints. The paper ends by giving differences between ECS technique and load shifting technique via literature and simulation. Based on results assessment, it will be shown whether using ECS or load shifting is more beneficial to both customer and utility.

Keywords: Energy consumption schedule, load shifting technique, comparison.

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2911 Independent Encryption Technique for Mobile Voice Calls

Authors: Nael Hirzalla

Abstract:

The legality of some countries or agencies’ acts to spy on personal phone calls of the public became a hot topic to many social groups’ talks. It is believed that this act is considered an invasion to someone’s privacy. Such act may be justified if it is singling out specific cases but to spy without limits is very unacceptable. This paper discusses the needs for not only a simple and light weight technique to secure mobile voice calls but also a technique that is independent from any encryption standard or library. It then presents and tests one encrypting algorithm that is based of Frequency scrambling technique to show fair and delay-free process that can be used to protect phone calls from such spying acts.

Keywords: Frequency Scrambling, Mobile Applications, Real- Time Voice Encryption, Spying on Calls.

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2910 A Novel Dual-Purpose Image Watermarking Technique

Authors: Maha Sharkas, Dahlia R. ElShafie, Nadder Hamdy

Abstract:

Image watermarking has proven to be quite an efficient tool for the purpose of copyright protection and authentication over the last few years. In this paper, a novel image watermarking technique in the wavelet domain is suggested and tested. To achieve more security and robustness, the proposed techniques relies on using two nested watermarks that are embedded into the image to be watermarked. A primary watermark in form of a PN sequence is first embedded into an image (the secondary watermark) before being embedded into the host image. The technique is implemented using Daubechies mother wavelets where an arbitrary embedding factor α is introduced to improve the invisibility and robustness. The proposed technique has been applied on several gray scale images where a PSNR of about 60 dB was achieved.

Keywords: Image watermarking, Multimedia Security, Wavelets, Image Processing.

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2909 A Novel Approach to Image Compression of Colour Images by Plane Reduction Technique

Authors: K.Sowmyan, A.Siddarth, D.Menaka

Abstract:

Several methods have been proposed for color image compression but the reconstructed image had very low signal to noise ratio which made it inefficient. This paper describes a lossy compression technique for color images which overcomes the drawbacks. The technique works on spatial domain where the pixel values of RGB planes of the input color image is mapped onto two dimensional planes. The proposed technique produced better results than JPEG2000, 2DPCA and a comparative study is reported based on the image quality measures such as PSNR and MSE.Experiments on real time images are shown that compare this methodology with previous ones and demonstrate its advantages.

Keywords: Color Image compression, spatial domain, planereduction, root mean square, image restoration

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2908 Improving the Effectiveness of Software Testing through Test Case Reduction

Authors: R. P. Mahapatra, Jitendra Singh

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new technique for improving the efficiency of software testing, which is based on a conventional attempt to reduce test cases that have to be tested for any given software. The approach utilizes the advantage of Regression Testing where fewer test cases would lessen time consumption of the testing as a whole. The technique also offers a means to perform test case generation automatically. Compared to one of the techniques in the literature where the tester has no option but to perform the test case generation manually, the proposed technique provides a better option. As for the test cases reduction, the technique uses simple algebraic conditions to assign fixed values to variables (Maximum, minimum and constant variables). By doing this, the variables values would be limited within a definite range, resulting in fewer numbers of possible test cases to process. The technique can also be used in program loops and arrays.

Keywords: Software Testing, Test Case Generation, Test CaseReduction

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2907 SVPWM Based Two Level VSI for Micro Grids

Authors: P. V. V. Rama Rao, M. V. Srikanth, S. Dileep Kumar Varma

Abstract:

With advances in solid-state power electronic devices and microprocessors, various pulse-width-modulation (PWM) techniques have been developed for industrial applications. This paper presents the comparison of two different PWM techniques, the sinusoidal PWM (SPWM) technique and the space-vector PWM (SVPWM) technique applied to two level VSI for micro grid applications. These two methods are compared by discussing their ease of implementation and by analyzing the output harmonic spectra of various output voltages (line-to-neutral voltages, and line-to-line voltages) and their total harmonic distortion (THD). The SVPWM technique in the under-modulation region can increase the fundamental output voltage by 15.5% over the SPWM technique.

Keywords: SPWM, SVPWM, VSI, Modulation Index.

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2906 Computational Initial Value Method for Vibration Analysis of Symmetrically Laminated Composite Plate

Authors: Ahmed M. Farag, Wael F. Mohamed, Atef A. Ata, Burhamy M. Burhamy

Abstract:

In the present paper, an improved initial value numerical technique is presented to analyze the free vibration of symmetrically laminated rectangular plate. A combination of the initial value method (IV) and the finite differences (FD) devices is utilized to develop the present (IVFD) technique. The achieved technique is applied to the equation of motion of vibrating laminated rectangular plate under various types of boundary conditions. Three common types of laminated symmetrically cross-ply, orthotropic and isotropic plates are analyzed here. The convergence and accuracy of the presented Initial Value-Finite Differences (IVFD) technique have been examined. Also, the merits and validity of improved technique are satisfied via comparing the obtained results with those available in literature indicating good agreements.

Keywords: Free Vibrations, Initial Value, Finite Differences, Laminated plates.

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2905 A New Perturbation Technique in Numerical Study on Buckling of Composite Shells under Axial Compression

Authors: Zia R. Tahir, P. Mandal

Abstract:

A numerical study is presented on buckling and post buckling behaviour of laminated carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) thin-walled cylindrical shells under axial compression using asymmetric meshing technique (AMT). Asymmetric meshing technique is a perturbation technique to introduce disturbance without changing geometry, boundary conditions or loading conditions. Asymmetric meshing affects predicted buckling load, buckling mode shape and post-buckling behaviour. Linear (eigenvalue) and nonlinear (Riks) analyses have been performed to study the effect of asymmetric meshing in the form of a patch on buckling behaviour. The reduction in the buckling load using Asymmetric meshing technique was observed to be about 15%. An isolated dimple formed near the bifurcation point and the size of which increased to reach a stable state in the post-buckling region. The load-displacement curve behaviour applying asymmetric meshing is quite similar to the curve obtained using initial geometric imperfection in the shell model.

Keywords: CFRP Composite Cylindrical Shell, Finite Element Analysis, Perturbation Technique, Asymmetric Meshing Technique, Linear Eigenvalue analysis, Non-linear Riks Analysis

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2904 Project Selection by Using Fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS Technique

Authors: S. Mahmoodzadeh, J. Shahrabi, M. Pariazar, M. S. Zaeri

Abstract:

In this article, by using fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS technique we propose a new method for project selection problem. After reviewing four common methods of comparing alternatives investment (net present value, rate of return, benefit cost analysis and payback period) we use them as criteria in AHP tree. In this methodology by utilizing improved Analytical Hierarchy Process by Fuzzy set theory, first we try to calculate weight of each criterion. Then by implementing TOPSIS algorithm, assessment of projects has been done. Obtained results have been tested in a numerical example.

Keywords: Fuzzy AHP, Project Selection, TOPSIS Technique.

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2903 Fuzzy Scan Method to Detect Clusters

Authors: Laureano Rodríguez, Gladys Casas, Ricardo Grau, Yailen Martínez

Abstract:

The classical temporal scan statistic is often used to identify disease clusters. In recent years, this method has become as a very popular technique and its field of application has been notably increased. Many bioinformatic problems have been solved with this technique. In this paper a new scan fuzzy method is proposed. The behaviors of classic and fuzzy scan techniques are studied with simulated data. ROC curves are calculated, being demonstrated the superiority of the fuzzy scan technique.

Keywords: Scan statistic, fuzzy scan, simulating study

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2902 Computation of D8 Flow Line at Ron Phibun Area, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand

Authors: O. Boonklong, M. Jaroensutasinee, K. Jaroensutasinee

Abstract:

A flow line computational technique based on the D8 method using Mathematica was developed. The technique was applied to Ron Phibun area, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. This area is highly contaminated with arsenic 3 and 5. It was found that the technique using Mathematica can produce similar results to those obtained from GRASS v 5.0.2.

Keywords: Arsenic contamination, flow line, D8 method, Ron Phibun.

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2901 Anomaly Based On Frequent-Outlier for Outbreak Detection in Public Health Surveillance

Authors: Zalizah Awang Long, Abdul Razak Hamdan, Azuraliza Abu Bakar

Abstract:

Public health surveillance system focuses on outbreak detection and data sources used. Variation or aberration in the frequency distribution of health data, compared to historical data is often used to detect outbreaks. It is important that new techniques be developed to improve the detection rate, thereby reducing wastage of resources in public health. Thus, the objective is to developed technique by applying frequent mining and outlier mining techniques in outbreak detection. 14 datasets from the UCI were tested on the proposed technique. The performance of the effectiveness for each technique was measured by t-test. The overall performance shows that DTK can be used to detect outlier within frequent dataset. In conclusion the outbreak detection technique using anomaly-based on frequent-outlier technique can be used to identify the outlier within frequent dataset.

Keywords: Outlier detection, frequent-outlier, outbreak, anomaly, surveillance, public health

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