Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2015

Search results for: Hydrocarbon Production.

2015 Modeling Erosion Control in Oil Production Wells

Authors: Kenneth I.Eshiet, Yong Sheng

Abstract:

The sand production problem has led researchers into making various attempts to understand the phenomenon. The generally accepted concept is that the occurrence of sanding is due to the in-situ stress conditions and the induced changes in stress that results in the failure of the reservoir sandstone during hydrocarbon production from wellbores. By using a hypothetical cased (perforated) well, an approach to the problem is presented here by using Finite Element numerical modelling techniques. In addition to the examination of the erosion problem, the influence of certain key parameters is studied in order to ascertain their effect on the failure and subsequent erosion process. The major variables investigated include: drawdown, perforation depth, and the erosion criterion. Also included is the determination of the optimal mud pressure for given operational and reservoir conditions. The improved understanding between parameters enables the choice of optimal values to minimize sanding during oil production.

Keywords: Equivalent Plastic Strain, Erosion, Hydrocarbon Production.

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2014 Thin Bed Reservoir Delineation Using Spectral Decomposition and Instantaneous Seismic Attributes, Pohokura Field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

Authors: P. Sophon, M. Kruachanta, S. Chaisri, G. Leaungvongpaisan, P. Wongpornchai

Abstract:

The thick bed hydrocarbon reservoirs are primarily interested because of the more prolific production. When the amount of petroleum in the thick bed starts decreasing, the thin bed reservoirs are the alternative targets to maintain the reserves. The conventional interpretation of seismic data cannot delineate the thin bed having thickness less than the vertical seismic resolution. Therefore, spectral decomposition and instantaneous seismic attributes were used to delineate the thin bed in this study. Short Window Discrete Fourier Transform (SWDFT) spectral decomposition and instantaneous frequency attributes were used to reveal the thin bed reservoir, while Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) spectral decomposition and envelope (instantaneous amplitude) attributes were used to indicate hydrocarbon bearing zone. The study area is located in the Pohokura Field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. The thin bed target is the uppermost part of Mangahewa Formation, the most productive in the gas-condensate production in the Pohokura Field. According to the time-frequency analysis, SWDFT spectral decomposition can reveal the thin bed using a 72 Hz SWDFT isofrequency section and map, and that is confirmed by the instantaneous frequency attribute. The envelope attribute showing the high anomaly indicates the hydrocarbon accumulation area at the thin bed target. Moreover, the CWT spectral decomposition shows the low-frequency shadow zone and abnormal seismic attenuation in the higher isofrequencies below the thin bed confirms that the thin bed can be a prospective hydrocarbon zone.

Keywords: Hydrocarbon indication, instantaneous seismic attribute, spectral decomposition, thin bed delineation.

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2013 Estimation of Methane from Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production in India

Authors: A. K. Pathak, K. Ojha

Abstract:

Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG) after carbon dioxide. Amount of methane emission from energy sector is increasing day by day with various activities. In present work, various sources of methane emission from upstream, middle stream and downstream of oil & gas sectors are identified and categorised as per IPCC-2006 guidelines. Data were collected from various oil & gas sector like (i) exploration & production of oil & gas (ii) supply through pipelines (iii) refinery throughput & production (iv) storage & transportation (v) usage. Methane emission factors for various categories were determined applying Tier-II and Tier-I approach using the collected data. Total methane emission from Indian Oil & Gas sectors was thus estimated for the year 1990 to 2007.

Keywords: Carbon credit, Climate change, Methane emission, Oil & Gas production

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2012 Studying the Effect of Hydrocarbon Solutions on the Properties of Epoxy Polymer Concrete

Authors: Mustafa Hasan Omar

Abstract:

The destruction effect of hydrocarbon solutions on concrete besides its high permeability have led researchers to try to improve the performance of concrete exposed to these solutions, hence improving the durability and usability of oil concrete structures. Recently, polymer concrete is considered one of the most important types of concrete, and its behavior after exposure to oil products is still unknown. In the present work, an experimental study has been carried out, in which the prepared epoxy polymer concrete immersed in different types of hydrocarbon exposure solutions (gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil) for 120 days and compared with the reference concrete left in the air. The results for outdoor specimens indicate that the mechanical properties are increased after 120 days, but the specimens that were immersed in gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil for the same period show a reduction in compressive strength by -21%, -27% and -23%, whereas in splitting tensile strength by -19%, -24% and -20%, respectively. The reductions in ultrasonic pulse velocity for cubic specimens are -17%, -22% and -19% and in cylindrical specimens are -20%, -25% and -22%, respectively.

Keywords: Epoxy resin, hydrocarbon solutions, mechanical properties, polymer concrete, ultrasonic pulse velocity.

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2011 Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon-contaminated Soil Slurry by Fenton Oxidation

Authors: C. Pongcharoen, K. Kaiyavongand T. Satapanajaru

Abstract:

Theobjective of this study was to evaluate the optimal treatment condition of Fenton oxidation process to removal contaminant in soil slurry contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. This research studied somefactors that affect the removal efficiency of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil slurry including molar ratio of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to ferrous ion(Fe2+), pH condition and reaction time.The resultsdemonstrated that the optimum condition was that the molar ratio of H2O2:Fe3+ was 200:1,the pHwas 4.0and the rate of reaction was increasing rapidly from starting point to 7th hour and destruction kinetic rate (k) was 0.24 h-1. Approximately 96% of petroleum hydrocarbon was observed(initialtotal petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration = 70±7gkg-1)

Keywords: Contaminated soil, Fenton oxidation, Petroleumhydrocarbon, Remediation.

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2010 Investigation of Dimethyl Ether Solubility in Liquid Hexadecane by UNIFAC Method

Authors: F. Raouf, M. Taghizadeh

Abstract:

It is shown that a modified UNIFAC model can be applied to predict solubility of hydrocarbon gases and vapors in hydrocarbon solvents. Very good agreement with experimental data has been achieved. In this work we try to find best way for predicting dimethyl ether solubility in liquid paraffin by using group contribution theory.

Keywords: UNIFAC, Henry's law, Group contribution theory, Solubility.

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2009 Microkinetic Modelling of NO Reduction on Pt Catalysts

Authors: Vishnu S. Prasad, Preeti Aghalayam

Abstract:

The major harmful automobile exhausts are nitric oxide (NO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC). Reduction of NO using unburned fuel HC as a reductant is the technique used in hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR). In this work, we study the microkinetic modelling of NO reduction using propene as a reductant on Pt catalysts. The selectivity of NO reduction to N2O is detected in some ranges of operating conditions, whereas the effect of inlet O2% causes a number of changes in the feasible regimes of operation.

Keywords: Microkinetic modelling, NOx, Pt on alumina catalysts, selective catalytic reduction.

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2008 Steady State Simulation and Experimental Study of an Ethane Recovery Unit in an Iranian Natural Gas Refinery

Authors: Arash Esmaeili, Omid Ghabouli

Abstract:

The production and consumption of natural gas is on the rise throughout the world as a result of its wide availability, ease of transportation, use and clean-burning characteristics. The chief use of ethane is in the chemical industry in the production of Ethene (ethylene) by steam cracking. In this simulation, obtained ethane recovery percent based on Gas sub-cooled process (GSP) is 99.9 by mole that is included 32.1% by using de-methanizer column and 67.8% by de-ethanizer tower. The outstanding feature of this process is the novel split-vapor concept that employs to generate reflux for de-methanizer column. Remain amount of ethane in export gas cause rise in gross heating value up to 36.66 MJ/Nm3 in order to use in industrial and household consumptions.

Keywords: Ethane recovery, Hydrocarbon dew point, Simulation, Water dew point

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2007 Krylov Model Order Reduction of a Thermal Subsea Model

Authors: J. Šindler, A. Suleng, T. Jelstad Olsen, P. Bárta

Abstract:

A subsea hydrocarbon production system can undergo planned and unplanned shutdowns during the life of the field. The thermal FEA is used to simulate the cool down to verify the insulation design of the subsea equipment, but it is also used to derive an acceptable insulation design for the cold spots. The driving factors of subsea analyses require fast responding and accurate models of the equipment cool down. This paper presents cool down analysis carried out by a Krylov subspace reduction method, and compares this approach to the commonly used FEA solvers. The model considered represents a typical component of a subsea production system, a closed valve on a dead leg. The results from the Krylov reduction method exhibits the least error and requires the shortest computational time to reach the solution. These findings make the Krylov model order reduction method very suitable for the above mentioned subsea applications.

Keywords: Model order reduction, Krylov subspace, subsea production system, finite element.

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2006 A Two-Step, Temperature-Staged Direct Coal Liquefaction Process

Authors: Reyna Singh, David Lokhat, Milan Carsky

Abstract:

The world crude oil demand is projected to rise to 108.5 million bbl/d by the year 2035. With reserves estimated at 869 billion tonnes worldwide, coal remains an abundant resource. The aim of this work was to produce a high value hydrocarbon liquid product using a Direct Coal Liquefaction (DCL) process at, relatively mild operating conditions. Via hydrogenation, the temperature-staged approach was investigated in a dual reactor lab-scale pilot plant facility. The objectives included maximising thermal dissolution of the coal in the presence of tetralin as the hydrogen donor solvent in the first stage with 2:1 and 3:1 solvent: coal ratios. Subsequently, in the second stage, hydrogen saturation, in particular, hydrodesulphurization (HDS) performance was assessed. Two commercial hydrotreating catalysts were investigated viz. NickelMolybdenum (Ni-Mo) and Cobalt-Molybdenum (Co-Mo). GC-MS results identified 77 compounds and various functional groups present in the first and second stage liquid product. In the first stage 3:1 ratios and liquid product yields catalysed by magnetite were favoured. The second stage product distribution showed an increase in the BTX (Benzene, Toluene, Xylene) quality of the liquid product, branched chain alkanes and a reduction in the sulphur concentration. As an HDS performer and selectivity to the production of long and branched chain alkanes, Ni-Mo had an improved performance over Co-Mo. Co-Mo is selective to a higher concentration of cyclohexane. For 16 days on stream each, Ni-Mo had a higher activity than Co-Mo. The potential to cover the demand for low–sulphur, crude diesel and solvents from the production of high value hydrocarbon liquid in the said process, is thus demonstrated. 

Keywords: Catalyst, coal, liquefaction, temperature-staged.

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2005 Production Planning and Measuring Method for Non Patterned Production System Using Stock Cutting Model

Authors: S. Homrossukon, D. Aromstain

Abstract:

The simple methods used to plan and measure non patterned production system are developed from the basic definition of working efficiency. Processing time is assigned as the variable and used to write the equation of production efficiency. Consequently, such equation is extensively used to develop the planning method for production of interest using one-dimensional stock cutting problem. The application of the developed method shows that production efficiency and production planning can be determined effectively.

Keywords: Production Planning, Parallel Machine, Production Measurement, Cutting and Packing.

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2004 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field

Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari

Abstract:

Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: Density, P-impedance, S-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversion.

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2003 Density of Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Accumulation in Iko River Mangrove Ecosystem, Nigeria

Authors: Ime R. Udotong, Samuel I. Eduok, Joseph P. Essien, Basil N. Ita

Abstract:

Sediment and mangrove root samples from Iko River Estuary, Nigeria were analyzed for microbial and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. The total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) count ranged from 1.1x107 to 5.1 x107 cfu/g, total fungal (TF) count ranged from 1.0x106 to 2.7x106 cfu/g, total coliform (TC) count ranged from 2.0x104 to 8.0x104cfu/g while hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial (HUB) count ranged from 1.0x 105 to 5.0 x 105cfu/g. There was a range of positive correlation (r = 0.72 to 0.93) between THB count and total HUB count, respectively. The organisms were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Flavobacterium breve, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Erwinia amylovora, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sp, Desulfovibrio sp, Acinetobacter iwoffii, Chromobacterium violaceum, Micrococcus sedentarius, Corynebacterium sp, and Pseudomonas putrefaciens. The PAH were Naphthalene, 2-Methylnaphthalene, Acenapthylene, Acenaphthene, Fluorene, Phenanthene, Anthracene, Fluoranthene, Pyrene, Benzo(a)anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, Benzo(g,h,l)perylene ,Indeno(1,2,3-d)pyrene with individual PAH concentrations that ranged from 0.20mg/kg to 1.02mg/kg, 0.20mg/kg to 1.07mg/kg and 0.2mg/kg to 4.43mg/kg in the benthic sediment, epipellic sediment and mangrove roots, respectively. Total PAH ranged from 6.30 to 9.93mg/kg, 6.30 to 9.13mg/kg and 9.66 to 16.68mg/kg in the benthic sediment, epipellic sediment and mangrove roots, respectively. The high concentrations in the mangrove roots are indicative of bioaccumulation of the pollutant in the plant tissue. The microorganisms are of ecological significance and the detectable quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon could be partitioned and accumulated in tissues of infaunal and epifaunal organisms in the study area.

Keywords: Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, Iko River estuary, Mangrove, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

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2002 Structure and Activity Research of Hydrocarbons Refining Catalysts Based on Wastes of Ferroalloy Production

Authors: Zhanat Shomanova, Ruslan Safarov, Yuri Nosenko, Zheneta Tashmuchambetova, Alima Zharmagambetova

Abstract:

An effective way of utilization of ferroalloy production wastes is preparing hydrocarbon refining catalysts from them. It is possible due to accordable transition metals containing in the wastes. In the work, we are presenting the results on elemental analysis of sludge samples from Aksu ferroalloy plant (Aksu, Kazakhstan), method of catalysts preparing, results of physical-chemical analysis of obtained catalysts (X-ray analysis, electron microscopy, the BET method etc.), results of using the catalysts in some hydrocarbons refining processes such as hydrocracking of rubber waste, cracking of gasoil, oxidation of cyclohexane. The main results of catalytic activity research are: a) In hydrocracking of rubber waste 64.9% of liquid products were fuel fractions; b) In cracking of gasoil conversion was 51% and selectivity by liquid products was 99%; c) In oxidation of cyclohexane the maximal product yield 87.9% and selectivity by cyclohexanol 93.0% were achieved.

Keywords: Catalyst, cyclohexane oxidation, ferroalloy production waste, gasoil cracking.

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2001 Sulfur Removal of Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Oxidative Desulfurization Enhanced by Fenton Process

Authors: Mahsa Ja’fari, Mohammad R. Khosravi-Nikou, Mohsen Motavassel

Abstract:

A comprehensive development towards the production of ultra-clean fuels as a feed stoke is getting to raise due to the increasing use of diesel fuels and global air pollution. Production of environmental-friendly fuels can be achievable by some limited single methods and most integrated ones. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) presents vast ranges of technologies possessing suitable characteristics with regard to the Fenton process. Using toluene as a model fuel feed with dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sulfur compound under various operating conditions is the attempt of this study. The results showed that this oxidative process followed a pseudo-first order kinetics. Removal efficiency of 77.43% is attained under reaction time of 40 minutes with (Fe+2/H2O2) molar ratio of 0.05 in acidic pH environment. In this research, temperature of 50 °C represented the most influential role in proceeding the reaction.

Keywords: Design of experiment, dibenzothiophene, optimization, oxidative desulfurization.

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2000 Study of Mordenite ZSM-5 and NaY Zeolites,Containing Cr, Cs, Zn, Ni, Co, Li, Mn, to Control Hydrocarbon Cold-Start Emission

Authors: V. Golubeva, A. Korableva, O. Anischenko, A. Nemova, N. Yegorushina, L. Kustov, G. Kapustin, U.S.Rohatgi

Abstract:

The implementation of Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle standards requires more efficient exhaust gas purification. To increase the efficiency of exhaust gas purification, an the adsorbent capable of holding hydrocarbons up to 250-300 ОС should be developed. The possibility to design such adsorbents by modification of zeolites of mordenite type, ZSM-5 and NaY, using different metals cations has been studied. It has been shown that introducing Cr, Cs, Zn, Ni, Co, Li, Mn in zeolites results in modification of the toluene TPD and toluene sorption capacity. 5%LiZSM-5 zeolite exhibits the most attractive TPD curve, with toluene desorption temperature ranging from 250 to 350ОС. The sorption capacity of 5%Li-ZSM-5 is 0.4 mmol/g. NaY zeolite has the highest sorption capacity, up to 2 mmol/g, and holds toluene up to 350ОС, but at 120ОС toluene desorption starts, which is not desirable, since the adsorbent of cold start hydrocarbons should retain them until 250-300ОС. Therefore 5%LiZSM-5 zeolite was found to be the most promising to control the cold-start hydrocarbon emissions among the samples studied.

Keywords: Hydrocarbon emission control, adsorbents, zeolites, temperature-programmed desorption.

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1999 From Hype to Ignorance – A Review of 30 Years of Lean Production

Authors: Stefan Schmidt

Abstract:

Lean production (or lean management respectively) gained popularity in several waves. The last three decades have been filled with numerous attempts to apply these concepts in companies. However, this has only been partially successful. The roots of lean production can be traced back to Toyota-s just-in-time production. This concept, which according to Womack-s, Jones- and Roos- research at MIT was employed by Japanese car manufacturers, became popular under its international names “lean production", “lean-manufacturing" and was termed “Schlanke Produktion" in Germany. This contribution shows a review about lean production in Germany over the last thirty years: development, trial & error and implementation as well.

Keywords: Application, JIT, lean production, review, trial and error.

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1998 Visualization of Sediment Thickness Variation for Sea Bed Logging using Spline Interpolation

Authors: Hanita Daud, Noorhana Yahya, Vijanth Sagayan, Muizuddin Talib

Abstract:

This paper discusses on the use of Spline Interpolation and Mean Square Error (MSE) as tools to process data acquired from the developed simulator that shall replicate sea bed logging environment. Sea bed logging (SBL) is a new technique that uses marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) sounding technique and is proven to be very successful in detecting and characterizing hydrocarbon reservoirs in deep water area by using resistivity contrasts. It uses very low frequency of 0.1Hz to 10 Hz to obtain greater wavelength. In this work the in house built simulator was used and was provided with predefined parameters and the transmitted frequency was varied for sediment thickness of 1000m to 4000m for environment with and without hydrocarbon. From series of simulations, synthetics data were generated. These data were interpolated using Spline interpolation technique (degree of three) and mean square error (MSE) were calculated between original data and interpolated data. Comparisons were made by studying the trends and relationship between frequency and sediment thickness based on the MSE calculated. It was found that the MSE was on increasing trends in the set up that has the presence of hydrocarbon in the setting than the one without. The MSE was also on decreasing trends as sediment thickness was increased and with higher transmitted frequency.

Keywords: Spline Interpolation, Mean Square Error, Sea Bed Logging, Controlled Source Electromagnetic

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1997 Advantages of a New Manufacturing Facility for the Production of Nanofiber

Authors: R. Knizek, D. Karhankova

Abstract:

The production of nanofibers and the machinery for their production is a current issue. The pioneer, in the industrial production of nanofibers, is the machinery with the sales descriptions NanospiderTM from the company Elmarco, which came into being in 2008. Most of the production facilities, like NanospiderTM, use electrospinning. There are also other methods of industrial production of nanofibers, such as the centrifugal spinning process, which is used by FibeRio Technology Corporation. However, each method and machine has its advantages, but also disadvantages and that is the reason why a new machine called as Nanomachine, which eliminates the disadvantages of other production facilities producing nanofibers, has been developed.

Keywords: Nanomachine, nanospider, spinning slat, electrospinning.

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1996 Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse by Means of Enzymes Produced by Solid State Fermentation Method

Authors: Nasim Shaibani, Saba Ghazvini, Mohammad R. Andalibi, Soheila Yaghmaei

Abstract:

Nowadays there is a growing interest in biofuel production in most countries because of the increasing concerns about hydrocarbon fuel shortage and global climate changes, also for enhancing agricultural economy and producing local needs for transportation fuel. Ethanol can be produced from biomass by the hydrolysis and sugar fermentation processes. In this study ethanol was produced without using expensive commercial enzymes from sugarcane bagasse. Alkali pretreatment was used to prepare biomass before enzymatic hydrolysis. The comparison between NaOH, KOH and Ca(OH)2 shows NaOH is more effective on bagasse. The required enzymes for biomass hydrolysis were produced from sugarcane solid state fermentation via two fungi: Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Aspergillus niger. The results show that the produced enzyme solution via A. niger has functioned better than T. longibrachiatum. Ethanol was produced by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with crude enzyme solution from T. longibrachiatum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. To evaluate this procedure, SSF of pretreated bagasse was also done using Celluclast 1.5L by Novozymes. The yield of ethanol production by commercial enzyme and produced enzyme solution via T. longibrachiatum was 81% and 50% respectively.

Keywords: Alkali pretreatment, bioethanol, cellulase, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, solid statefermentation, sugarcane bagasse

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1995 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination in Sediment and Wastewater from the Imam Khomeini and Razi Petrochemical Companies- Iran

Authors: Ghazaleh Monazami Tehrani, A. Halim Sulaiman, Rosli Hashim, Ahmad Savari, Belin Tavakoly Sany T Mohamad Taqi Jafarzadeh, Reza Khani Jazani, Zhamak Monazami Tehrani

Abstract:

The present study was performed in Musa bay (northern part of the Persian Gulf) around the coastal area of Bandare-Imam Khomeini and Razi Petrochemical Companies. Sediment samples and effluent samples were collected from the selected stations, from June 2009 to June 2010. The samples were analyzed to determine the degree of hydrocarbon contamination. The average level of TPH concentration in the study area was more than the natural background value at all of the stations, especially at station BI1 which was the main effluent outlet of Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini petrochemical company. Also the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon was monitored in the effluents of aforementioned petrochemical companies and the results showed that the concentration of TPH in the effluents of Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini petrochemical company was greater than Razi petrochemical company which is may be related to the products of Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini petrochemical company (aromatics, polymers, chemicals, fuel).

Keywords: Musa bay, Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini and Razi Petrochemical Companies, TPH

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1994 Individual Configuration of Production Control to Suit Requirements

Authors: Ben Muenzberg, Prof. Peter Nyhuis

Abstract:

The logistical requirements placed on industrial manufacturing companies are steadily increasing. In order to meet those requirements, a consistent and efficient concept is necessary for production control. Set up properly, production control offers considerable potential with respect to achieving the logistical targets. As experience with the many production control methods already in existence and their compatibility is, however, often inadequate, this article describes a systematic approach to the configuration of production control based on the Lödding model. This model enables production control to be set up individually to suit a company and the requirements. It therefore permits today-s demands regarding logistical performance to be met.

Keywords: Production, planning, control, configuration.

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1993 Parametric Studies of Ethylene Dichloride Purification Process

Authors: Sh. Arzani, H. Kazemi Esfeh, Y. Galeh Zadeh, V. Akbari

Abstract:

Ethylene dichloride is a colorless liquid with a smell like chloroform. EDC is classified in the simple hydrocarbon group which is obtained from chlorinating ethylene gas. Its chemical formula is C2H2Cl2 which is used as the main mediator in VCM production. Therefore, the purification process of EDC is important in the petrochemical process. In this study, the purification unit of EDC was simulated, and then validation was performed. Finally, the impact of process parameter was studied for the degree of EDC purity. The results showed that by increasing the feed flow, the reflux impure combinations increase and result in an EDC purity decrease.

Keywords: Ethylene dichloride, purification, EDC, simulation.

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1992 Delineation of Oil – Polluted Sites in Ibeno LGA, Nigeria, Using Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization

Authors: Ime R. Udotong, Justina I. R. Udotong

Abstract:

Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited (MPNU), a subsidiary of ExxonMobil and the highest crude oil & condensate producer in Nigeria has its operational base and an oil terminal, the Qua Iboe terminal (QIT) located at Ibeno, Nigeria. Other oil companies like Network Exploration and Production Nigeria Ltd, Frontier Oil Ltd; Shell Petroleum Development Company Ltd; Elf Petroleum Nigeria Ltd and Nigerian Agip Energy, a subsidiary of the Italian ENI E&P operate onshore, on the continental shelf and in deep offshore of the Atlantic Ocean, respectively with the coastal waters of Ibeno, Nigeria as the nearest shoreline. This study was designed to delineate the oil-polluted sites in Ibeno, Nigeria using microbiological and physico-chemical characterization of soils, sediments and ground and surface water samples from the study area. Results obtained revealed that there have been significant recent hydrocarbon inputs into this environment as observed from the high counts of hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms in excess of 1% at all the stations sampled. Moreover, high concentrations of THC, BTEX and heavy metals contents in all the samples analyzed corroborate the high recent crude oil input into the study area. The results also showed that the pollution of the different environmental media sampled were of varying degrees, following the trend: ground water > surface water > sediments > soils.

Keywords: Microbiological characterization, oil-polluted sites, physico-chemical analyses, total hydrocarbon content.

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1991 Production Structure Monitoring - A Neurologic Based Approach

Authors: G. Reinhart, J. Pohl

Abstract:

Manufacturing companies are facing a broad variety of challenges caused by a dynamic production environment. To succeed in such an environment, it is crucial to minimize the loss of time required to trigger the adaptation process of a company-s production structures. This paper presents an approach for the continuous monitoring of production structures by neurologic principles. It enhances classical monitoring concepts, which are principally focused on reactive strategies, and enables companies to act proactively. Thereby, strategic aspects regarding the harmonization of certain life cycles are integrated into the decision making process for triggering the reconfiguration process of the production structure.

Keywords: Continuous Factory Planning, Production Structure, Production Management.

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1990 Potential of Selected Microbial Strains to Degrade the Gasoil of Hydrocarbon Polluted Soil

Authors: Ali Zazoua, Anis Zazoua, Ahcen Taleb, Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault

Abstract:

Although oil-based drilling fluids are of paramount practical and economical interest, they represent a serious source of pollution, once released into the environment as drill cuttings. The aim of this study is to assess the capability of isolated microorganisms to degrade gasoil fuel. The commonly used physicochemical and biodegradation remediation techniques of petroleum contaminated soil were both investigated. The study revealed that natural biodegradation is favorable. Even though, the presence of heavy metals, the moisture level of (8.55%) and nutrient deficiencies put severe constrains on microorganisms- survival ranges inhibiting the biodegradation process. The selected strains were able to degrade the diesel fuel at significantly high rates (around 98%).

Keywords: Biodegradation, Gasoil, Pollution, Microbial strains, Hydrocarbon, soil pollution

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1989 Methane and Other Hydrocarbon Gas Emissions Resulting from Flaring in Kuwait Oilfields

Authors: Khaireyah Kh. Al-Hamad, V. Nassehi, A. R. Khan

Abstract:

Air pollution is a major environmental health problem, affecting developed and developing countries around the world. Increasing amounts of potentially harmful gases and particulate matter are being emitted into the atmosphere on a global scale, resulting in damage to human health and the environment. Petroleum-related air pollutants can have a wide variety of adverse environmental impacts. In the crude oil production sectors, there is a strong need for a thorough knowledge of gaseous emissions resulting from the flaring of associated gas of known composition on daily basis through combustion activities under several operating conditions. This can help in the control of gaseous emission from flares and thus in the protection of their immediate and distant surrounding against environmental degradation. The impacts of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons emissions from flaring activities at oil production facilities at Kuwait Oilfields have been assessed through a screening study using records of flaring operations taken at the gas and oil production sites, and by analyzing available meteorological and air quality data measured at stations located near anthropogenic sources. In the present study the Industrial Source Complex (ISCST3) Dispersion Model is used to calculate the ground level concentrations of methane and nonmethane hydrocarbons emitted due to flaring in all over Kuwait Oilfields. The simulation of real hourly air quality in and around oil production facilities in the State of Kuwait for the year 2006, inserting the respective source emission data into the ISCST3 software indicates that the levels of non-methane hydrocarbons from the flaring activities exceed the allowable ambient air standard set by Kuwait EPA. So, there is a strong need to address this acute problem to minimize the impact of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons released from flaring activities over the urban area of Kuwait.

Keywords: Kuwait Oilfields, ISCST3 model, flaring, Airpollution, Methane and Non-methane.

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1988 Kinetic model and Simulation Analysis for Propane Dehydrogenation in an Industrial Moving Bed Reactor

Authors: Chin S. Y., Radzi, S. N. R., Maharon, I. H., Shafawi, M. A.

Abstract:

A kinetic model for propane dehydrogenation in an industrial moving bed reactor is developed based on the reported reaction scheme. The kinetic parameters and activity constant are fine tuned with several sets of balanced plant data. Plant data at different operating conditions is applied to validate the model and the results show a good agreement between the model predictions and plant observations in terms of the amount of main product, propylene produced. The simulation analysis of key variables such as inlet temperature of each reactor (Tinrx) and hydrogen to total hydrocarbon ratio (H2/THC) affecting process performance is performed to identify the operating condition to maximize the production of propylene. Within the range of operating conditions applied in the present studies, the operating condition to maximize the propylene production at the same weighted average inlet temperature (WAIT) is ΔTinrx1= -2, ΔTinrx2= +1, ΔTinrx3= +1 , ΔTinrx4= +2 and ΔH2/THC= -0.02. Under this condition, the surplus propylene produced is 7.07 tons/day as compared with base case.

Keywords: kinetic model, dehydrogenation, simulation, modeling, propane

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1987 Modeling Converters during the Warm-up Period for Hydrocarbon Oxidation

Authors: Sanchita Chauhan, V.K. Srivastava

Abstract:

Catalytic converters are used for minimizing the release of pollutants to the atmosphere. It is during the warm-up period that hydrocarbons are seen to be released in appreciable quantities from these converters. In this paper the conversion of a fast oxidizing hydrocarbon propylene is analysed using two numerical methods. The quasi steady state method assumes the accumulation terms to be negligible in the gas phase mass and energy balance equations, however this term is present in the solid phase energy balance. The unsteady state model accounts for the accumulation term to be present in the gas phase mass and energy balance and in the solid phase energy balance. The results derived from the two models for gas concentration, gas temperature and solid temperature are compared.

Keywords: Propylene, catalyst, quasi steady state, unsteady state.

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1986 Reduced Inventories, High Reliability and Short Throughput Times by Using CONWIP Production Planning System

Authors: Tomas Duranik, Juraj Ruzbarsky, Markus Stopper

Abstract:

CONWIP (constant work-in-process) as a pull production system have been widely studied by researchers to date. The CONWIP pull production system is an alternative to pure push and pure pull production systems. It lowers and controls inventory levels which make the throughput better, reduces production lead time, delivery reliability and utilization of work. In this article a CONWIP pull production system was simulated. It was simulated push and pull planning system. To compare these systems via a production planning system (PPS) game were adjusted parameters of each production planning system. The main target was to reduce the total WIP and achieve throughput and delivery reliability to minimum values. Data was recorded and evaluated. A future state was made for real production of plastic components and the setup of the two indicators with CONWIP pull production system which can greatly help the company to be more competitive on the market.

Keywords: CONWIP, constant work in process, delivery reliability, hybrid production planning, PPS.

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