Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2126

Search results for: oxide scale thickness

2126 Role of Oxide Scale Thickness Measurements in Boiler Conditions Assessment

Authors: M. Alardhi, A. Almazrouee, S. Alsaleh

Abstract:

Oxide scale thickness measurements are used in assessing the life of different components operating at high temperature environment. Such measurements provide an approximation for the temperature inside components such as reheater and superheater tubes. A number of failures were encountered in one of the boilers in one of Kuwaiti power plants. These failure were mainly in the first row of the primary super heater tubes, therefore, the specialized engineer decide to replace them during the annual shutdown. As a tool for failure analysis, oxide scale thickness measurement were used to investigate the temperature distribution in these tubes. In this paper, the oxide scale thickness of these tubes were measured and used for analysis. The measurements provide an illustration of the distribution of heat transfer of the primary superheater tubes in the boiler system. Remarks and analysis about the design of the boiler are also provided.

Keywords: Super heater tubes, oxide scale measurements, overheating.

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2125 Simulation Studies of Solid-Particle and Liquid-Drop Erosion of NiAl Alloy

Authors: Rong Liu, Kuiying Chen, Ju Chen, Jingrong Zhao, Ming Liang

Abstract:

This article presents modeling studies of NiAl alloy under solid-particle erosion and liquid-drop erosion. In the solid-particle erosion simulation, attention is paid to the oxide scale thickness variation on the alloy in high-temperature erosion environments. The erosion damage is assumed to be deformation wear and cutting wear mechanisms, incorporating the influence of the oxide scale on the eroded surface; thus the instantaneous oxide thickness is the result of synergetic effect of erosion and oxidation. For liquid-drop erosion, special interest is in investigating the effects of drop velocity and drop size on the damage of the target surface. The models of impact stress wave, mean depth of penetration, and maximum depth of erosion rate (Max DER) are employed to develop various maps for NiAl alloy, including target thickness vs. drop size (diameter), rate of mean depth of penetration (MDRP) vs. drop impact velocity, and damage threshold velocity (DTV) vs. drop size.

Keywords: Liquid-drop erosion, NiAl alloy, oxide scale thickness, solid-particle erosion.

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2124 The Effect of Discontinued Water Spray Cooling on the Heat Transfer Coefficient

Authors: J. Hrabovský, M. Chabičovský, J. Horský

Abstract:

Water spray cooling is a technique typically used in heat treatment and other metallurgical processes where controlled temperature regimes are required. Water spray cooling is used in static (without movement) or dynamic (with movement of the steel plate) regimes. The static regime is notable for the fixed position of the hot steel plate and fixed spray nozzle. This regime is typical for quenching systems focused on heat treatment of the steel plate. The second application of spray cooling is the dynamic regime. The dynamic regime is notable for its static section cooling system and moving steel plate. This regime is used in rolling and finishing mills. The fixed position of cooling sections with nozzles and the movement of the steel plate produce nonhomogeneous water distribution on the steel plate. The length of cooling sections and placement of water nozzles in combination with the nonhomogeneity of water distribution lead to discontinued or interrupted cooling conditions. The impact of static and dynamic regimes on cooling intensity and the heat transfer coefficient during the cooling process of steel plates is an important issue. Heat treatment of steel is accompanied by oxide scale growth. The oxide scale layers can significantly modify the cooling properties and intensity during the cooling. The combination of static and dynamic (section) regimes with the variable thickness of the oxide scale layer on the steel surface impact the final cooling intensity. The study of the influence of the oxide scale layers with different cooling regimes was carried out using experimental measurements and numerical analysis. The experimental measurements compared both types of cooling regimes and the cooling of scale-free surfaces and oxidized surfaces. A numerical analysis was prepared to simulate the cooling process with different conditions of the section and samples with different oxide scale layers.

Keywords: Heat transfer coefficient, numerical analysis, oxide layer, spray cooling.

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2123 Formation of Protective Silicide-Aluminide Coating on Gamma-TiAl Advanced Material

Authors: S. Nouri

Abstract:

In this study, the Si-aluminide coating was prepared on gamma-TiAl [Ti-45Al-2Nb-2Mn-1B (at. %)] via liquid-phase slurry procedure. The high temperature oxidation resistance of this diffusion coating was evaluated at 1100 °C for 400 hours. The results of the isothermal oxidation showed that the formation of Si-aluminide coating can remarkably improve the high temperature oxidation of bare gamma-TiAl alloy. The identification of oxide scale microstructure showed that the formation of protective Al2O3+SiO2 mixed oxide scale along with a continuous, compact and uniform layer of Ti5Si3 beneath the surface oxide scale can act as an oxygen diffusion barrier during the high temperature oxidation. The other possible mechanisms related to the formation of Si-aluminide coating and oxide scales were also discussed.

Keywords: Gamma-TiAl alloy, Si-aluminide coating, slurry procedure, high temperature oxidation.

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2122 Investigation of Titanium Oxide Layer in Thermal-Electrochemical Anodizing of Ti6Al4V Alloy

Authors: Z. Abdolldhi, A. A. Ziaee M., A. Afshar

Abstract:

In this paper the combination of thermal oxidation and electrochemical anodizing processes is used to produce titanium oxide layers. The response of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V to oxidation processes at various temperatures and electrochemical anodizing in various voltages are investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM); X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and porosity determination have been used to characterize the oxide layer thickness, surface morphology, oxide layer-substrate adhesion and porosity. In the first experiment, samples modified by thermal oxidation process then followed by electrochemical anodizing. Second experiment consists of surfaces modified by electrochemical anodizing process and then followed by thermal oxidation. The first method shows better properties than other one. In second experiment, Surfaces modified were achieved by thicker and more adherent thick oxide layers on titanium surface. The existence of an electrochemical anodized oxide layer did not improve the adhesion of thermal oxide layer. The high temperature, thermal formation of an oxide layer leads to a coarse oxide grain morphology and a complete oxidative particle. In addition, in high temperature oxidation porosity content is increased. The oxide layer of thermal oxidation and electrochemical anodizing processes; on Ti–6Al–4V substrate was covered with different colored oxide layers.

Keywords: Electrochemically anodizing, Porosity, Thermaloxidation, Ti6Al4 alloy.

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2121 Formation of Protective Aluminum-Oxide Layer on the Surface of Fe-Cr-Al Sintered-Metal-Fibers via Multi-Stage Thermal Oxidation

Authors: Loai Ben Naji, Osama M. Ibrahim, Khaled J. Al-Fadhalah

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to investigate the formation and adhesion of a protective aluminum-oxide (Al2O3, alumina) layer on the surface of Iron-Chromium-Aluminum Alloy (Fe-Cr-Al) sintered-metal-fibers. The oxide-scale layer was developed via multi-stage thermal oxidation at 930 oC for 1 hour, followed by 1 hour at 960 oC, and finally at 990 oC for 2 hours. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images show that the multi-stage thermal oxidation resulted in the formation of predominantly Al2O3 platelets-like and whiskers. SEM images also reveal non-uniform oxide-scale growth on the surface of the fibers. Furthermore, peeling/spalling of the alumina protective layer occurred after minimum handling, which indicates weak adhesion forces between the protective layer and the base metal alloy.  Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the heat-treated Fe-Cr-Al sintered-metal-fibers confirmed the high aluminum content on the surface of the protective layer, and the low aluminum content on the exposed base metal alloy surface. In conclusion, the failure of the oxide-scale protective layer exposes the base metal alloy to further oxidation, and the fragile non-uniform oxide-scale is not suitable as a support for catalysts.

Keywords: High-temperature oxidation, alumina protective layer, iron-chromium-aluminum alloy, sintered-metal-fibers.

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2120 Trap Assisted Tunneling Model for Gate Current in Nano Scale MOSFET with High-K Gate Dielectrics

Authors: Ashwani K. Rana, Narottam Chand, Vinod Kapoor

Abstract:

This paper presents a new compact analytical model of the gate leakage current in high-k based nano scale MOSFET by assuming a two-step inelastic trap-assisted tunneling (ITAT) process as the conduction mechanism. This model is based on an inelastic trap-assisted tunneling (ITAT) mechanism combined with a semiempirical gate leakage current formulation in the BSIM 4 model. The gate tunneling currents have been calculated as a function of gate voltage for different gate dielectrics structures such as HfO2, Al2O3 and Si3N4 with EOT (equivalent oxide thickness) of 1.0 nm. The proposed model is compared and contrasted with santaurus simulation results to verify the accuracy of the model and excellent agreement is found between the analytical and simulated data. It is observed that proposed analytical model is suitable for different highk gate dielectrics simply by adjusting two fitting parameters. It was also shown that gate leakages reduced with the introduction of high-k gate dielectric in place of SiO2.

Keywords: Analytical model, High-k gate dielectrics, inelastic trap assisted tunneling, metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) devices.

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2119 Electrical Characterization and Reliability Analysis of HfO2-TiO2-Al MOSCAPs

Authors: Shibesh Dutta, Sivaramakrishnan R., Sundar Gopalan, Balakrishnan Shankar

Abstract:

MOSCAPs of various combinations of Hafnium oxide and Titanium oxide of varying thickness with Aluminum as gate electrode have been fabricated and electrically characterized. The effects of voltage stress on the I-V characteristics for prolonged time durations have been studied and compared. Results showed hard breakdown and negligible degradation of reliability under stress.

Keywords: breakdown, MOSCAP, voltage stress.

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2118 Effects of Mo Thickness on the Properties of AZO/Mo/AZO Multilayer Thin Films

Authors: Hung-Wei Wu, Chien-Hsun Chu, Ru-Yuan Yang, Chin-Min Hsiung

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed the effects of Mo thickness on the properties of AZO/Mo/AZO multilayer thin films for opto-electronics applications. The structural, optical and electrical properties of AZO/Mo/AZO thin films were investigated. Optimization of the thin films coatings resulted with low resistivity of 9.98 × 10-5 )-cm, mobility of 12.75 cm2/V-s, carrier concentration of 1.05 × 1022 cm-3, maximum transmittance of 79.13% over visible spectrum of 380 – 780 nm and Haacke figure of merit (FOM) are 5.95 × 10-2 )-1 under Mo layer thickness of 15 nm. These results indicate an alternative candidate for use as a transparent electrode in solar cells and various displays applications.

Keywords: Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, AZO, multilayer, RF magnetron sputtering, AZO/Mo/AZO, thin film, transparent conductive oxides.

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2117 The Surface Adsorption of Nano-pore Template

Authors: M. J. Kao, S.F. Chang, C.C. Chen, C.G. Kuo

Abstract:

This paper aims to fabricated high quality anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film by anodization method. AAO pore size, pore density, and film thickness can be controlled in 10~500 nm, 108~1011 pore.cm-2, and 1~100 μm. AAO volume and surface area can be computed based on structural parameters such as thickness, pore size, pore density, and sample size. Base on the thetorical calculation, AAO has 100 μm thickness with 15 nm, 60 nm, and 500 nm pore diameters AAO surface areas are 1225.2 cm2, 3204.4 cm2, and 549.7 cm2, respectively. The large unit surface area which is useful for adsorption application. When AAO adsorbed pH indictor of bromphenol blue presented a sensitive pH detection of solution change. This testing method can further be used for the precise measurement of biotechnology, convenience measurement of industrial engineering.

Keywords: AAO, Pore, Surface area, Adsorption, Indicator

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2116 In vitro and in vivo Anticancer Activity of Nanosize Zinc Oxide Composites of Doxorubicin

Authors: E. R. Arakelova, S. G. Grigoryan, F. G. Arsenyan, N. S. Babayan, R. M. Grigoryan, N. K. Sarkisyan

Abstract:

The nanotechnology offers some exciting possibilities in cancer treatment, including the possibility of destroying tumors with minimal damage to healthy tissue and organs by targeted drug delivery systems. Considerable achievements in investigations aimed at the use of ZnO nanoparticles and nanocontainers in diagnostics and antitumor therapy were described. However, there are substantial obstacles to the purposes to be achieved by the use of zinc oxide nanosize materials in antitumor therapy. Among the serious problems are the techniques of obtaining ZnO nanosize materials. The article presents a new vector delivery system for the known antitumor drug, doxorubicin in the form of polymeric (PEO, starch-NaCMC) hydrogels, in which nanosize ZnO film of a certain thickness are deposited directly on the drug surface on glass substrate by DC-magnetron sputtering of a zinc target. Anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo of those nanosize zinc oxide composites is shown.

Keywords: Anticancer activity, cancer specificity, doxorubicin, zinc oxide.

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2115 Gate Tunnel Current Calculation for NMOSFET Based on Deep Sub-Micron Effects

Authors: Ashwani K. Rana, Narottam Chand, Vinod Kapoor

Abstract:

Aggressive scaling of MOS devices requires use of ultra-thin gate oxides to maintain a reasonable short channel effect and to take the advantage of higher density, high speed, lower cost etc. Such thin oxides give rise to high electric fields, resulting in considerable gate tunneling current through gate oxide in nano regime. Consequently, accurate analysis of gate tunneling current is very important especially in context of low power application. In this paper, a simple and efficient analytical model has been developed for channel and source/drain overlap region gate tunneling current through ultra thin gate oxide n-channel MOSFET with inevitable deep submicron effect (DSME).The results obtained have been verified with simulated and reported experimental results for the purpose of validation. It is shown that the calculated tunnel current is well fitted to the measured one over the entire oxide thickness range. The proposed model is suitable enough to be used in circuit simulator due to its simplicity. It is observed that neglecting deep sub-micron effect may lead to large error in the calculated gate tunneling current. It is found that temperature has almost negligible effect on gate tunneling current. It is also reported that gate tunneling current reduces with the increase of gate oxide thickness. The impact of source/drain overlap length is also assessed on gate tunneling current.

Keywords: Gate tunneling current, analytical model, gate dielectrics, non uniform poly gate doping, MOSFET, fringing field effect and image charges.

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2114 Study on Extraction of Lanthanum Oxide from Monazite Concentrate

Authors: Nwe Nwe Soe, Lwin Thuzar Shwe, Kay Thi Lwin

Abstract:

Lanthanum oxide is to be recovered from monazite, which contains about 13.44% lanthanum oxide. The principal objective of this study is to be able to extract lanthanum oxide from monazite of Moemeik Myitsone Area. The treatment of monazite in this study involves three main steps; extraction of lanthanum hydroxide from monazite by using caustic soda, digestion with nitric acid and precipitation with ammonium hydroxide and calcination of lanthanum oxalate to lanthanum oxide.

Keywords: Calcination, Digestion, Precipitation.

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2113 Geosynthetic Reinforced Unpaved Road: Literature Study and Design Example

Authors: D. Jayalakshmi, S. Bhosale

Abstract:

This paper, in its first part, presents the state-of-the-art literature of design approaches for geosynthetic reinforced unpaved roads. The literature starting since 1970 and the critical appraisal of flexible pavement design by Giroud and Han (2004) and Jonathan Fannin (2006) is presented. The design example is illustrated for Indian conditions. The example emphasizes the results computed by Giroud and Han's (2004) design method with the Indian road congress guidelines by IRC SP 72 -2015. The input data considered are related to the subgrade soil condition of Maharashtra State in India. The unified soil classification of the subgrade soil is inorganic clay with high plasticity (CH), which is expansive with a California bearing ratio (CBR) of 2% to 3%. The example exhibits the unreinforced case and geotextile as reinforcement by varying the rut depth from 25 mm to 100 mm. The present result reveals the base thickness for the unreinforced case from the IRC design catalogs is in good agreement with Giroud and Han (2004) approach for a range of 75 mm to 100 mm rut depth. Since Giroud and Han (2004) method is applicable for both reinforced and unreinforced cases, for the same data with appropriate Nc factor, for the same rut depth, the base thickness for the reinforced case has arrived for the Indian condition. From this trial, for the CBR of 2%, the base thickness reduction due to geotextile inclusion is 35%. For the CBR range of 2% to 5% with different stiffness in geosynthetics, the reduction in base course thickness will be evaluated, and the validation will be executed by the full-scale accelerated pavement testing set up at the College of Engineering Pune (COE), India.

Keywords: Base thickness, design approach, equation, full scale accelerated pavement set up, Indian condition.

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2112 Impact of Gate Insulation Material and Thickness on Pocket Implanted MOS Device

Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan

Abstract:

This paper reports on the impact study with the variation of the gate insulation material and thickness on different models of pocket implanted sub-100 nm n-MOS device. The gate materials used here are silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum silicate (Al2SiO5), silicon nitride (Si3N4), alumina (Al2O3), hafnium silicate (HfSiO4), tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5), hafnium dioxide (HfO2), zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), and lanthanum oxide (La2O3) upon a p-type silicon substrate material. The gate insulation thickness was varied from 2.0 nm to 3.5 nm for a 50 nm channel length pocket implanted n-MOSFET. There are several models available for this device. We have studied and simulated threshold voltage model incorporating drain and substrate bias effects, surface potential, inversion layer charge, pinch-off voltage, effective electric field, inversion layer mobility, and subthreshold drain current models based on two linear symmetric pocket doping profiles. We have changed the values of the two parameters, viz. gate insulation material and thickness gradually fixing the other parameter at their typical values. Then we compared and analyzed the simulation results. This study would be helpful for the nano-scaled MOS device designers for various applications to predict the device behavior.

Keywords: Linear symmetric pocket profile, pocket implanted n-MOS Device, model, impact of gate material, insulator thickness.

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2111 The Effect of Impinging WC-12Co Particles Temperature on Thickness of HVOF Thermally Sprayed Coatings

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour, H. Mohammadi Majd

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of WC-12Co particle temperature in HVOF thermal spraying process on the coating thickness has been studied. The statistical results show that the spray distance and oxygen-to-fuel ratio are effective factors on particle characterization and thickness of HVOF thermal spraying coatings. Spray Watch diagnostic system, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and thickness measuring system were used for this purpose.

Keywords: HVOF, Temperature, Thickness, Velocity, WC- 12Co.

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2110 Study of the Oxidation Resistance of Coated AISI 441 Ferritic Stainless Steel for SOFCs

Authors: M. B. Limooei, Hadi Ebrahimifar, Sh. Hosseini

Abstract:

Protective coatings that resist oxide scale growth and decrease chromium evaporation are necessary to make stainless steel interconnect materials for long-term durable operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In this study a layer of cobalt was electroplated on the surface of AISI 441 ferritic stainless steel which is used in solid oxide fuel cells for interconnect applications. The oxidation behavior of coated substrates was studied as a function of time at operating conditions of SOFCs. Cyclic oxidation has been also tested at 800ºC for 100 cycles. Cobalt coating during isothermal oxidation caused to the oxide growth resistance by limiting the outward diffusion of Cr cation and the inward diffusion of oxygen anion. Results of cyclic oxidation exhibited that coated substrates demonstrate an excellent resistance against the spallation and cracking.

Keywords: Oxidation resistance, full cell, Cobalt coating, ferritic stainless steel.

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2109 Modeling the Effect of Scale Deposition on Heat Transfer in Desalination Multi-Effect Distillation Evaporators

Authors: K. Bourouni, M. Chacha, T. Jaber, A. Tchantchane

Abstract:

In Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) desalination evaporators, the scale deposit outside the tubes presents a barrier to heat transfers reducing the global heat transfer coefficient and causing a decrease in water production; hence a loss of efficiency and an increase in operating and maintenance costs. Scale removal (by acid cleaning) is the main maintenance operation and constitutes the major reason for periodic plant shutdowns. A better understanding of scale deposition mechanisms will lead to an accurate determination of the variation of scale thickness around the tubes and an improved accuracy of the overall heat transfer coefficient calculation. In this paper, a coupled heat transfer-calcium carbonate scale deposition model on a horizontal tube bundle is presented. The developed tool is used to determine precisely the heat transfer area leading to a significant cost reduction for a given water production capacity. Simulations are carried to investigate the influence of different parameters such as water salinity, temperature, etc. on the heat transfer.

Keywords: Multi-effect-evaporator, water desalination, scale deposition, heat transfer coefficient.

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2108 Physical and Electrical Characterization of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Mohammad Reza Tabatabaei, Ali Vaseghi Ardekani

Abstract:

In this paper, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films are deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel method. The ZnO thin films with well defined orientation were acquired by spin coating of zinc acetate dehydrate monoethanolamine (MEA), de-ionized water and isopropanol alcohol. These films were pre-heated at 275°C for 10 min and then annealed at 350°C, 450°C and 550°C for 80 min. The effect of annealing temperature and different thickness on structure and surface morphology of the thin films were verified by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). It was found that there was a significant effect of annealing temperature on the structural parameters of the films such as roughness exponent, fractal dimension and interface width. Thin films also were characterizied by X-ray Diffractometery (XRD) method. XRD analysis revealed that the annealed ZnO thin films consist of single phase ZnO with wurtzite structure and show the c-axis grain orientation. Increasing annealing temperature increased the crystallite size and the c-axis orientation of the film after 450°C. Also In this study, ZnO thin films in different thickness have been prepared by sol-gel method on the glass substrate at room temperature. The thicknesses of films are 100, 150 and 250 nm. Using fractal analysis, morphological characteristics of surface films thickness in amorphous state were investigated. The results show that with increasing thickness, surface roughness (RMS) and lateral correlation length (ξ) are decreased. Also, the roughness exponent (α) and growth exponent (β) were determined to be 0.74±0.02 and 0.11±0.02, respectively.

Keywords: ZnO, Thin film, Fractal analysis, Morphology, AFM, annealing temperature, different thickness, XRD.

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2107 Simulation of High Performance Nanoscale Partially Depleted SOI n-MOSFET Transistors

Authors: Fatima Zohra Rahou, A. Guen Bouazza, B. Bouazza

Abstract:

Invention of transistor is the foundation of electronics industry. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) has been the key for the development of nanoelectronics technology. In the first part of this manuscript, we present a new generation of MOSFET transistors based on SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) technology. It is a partially depleted Silicon-On-Insulator (PD SOI MOSFET) transistor simulated by using SILVACO software. This work was completed by the presentation of some results concerning the influence of parameters variation (channel length L and gate oxide thickness Tox) on our PDSOI n-MOSFET structure on its drain current and kink effect.

Keywords: SOI technology, PDSOI MOSFET, FDSOI MOSFET, Kink Effect, SILVACO TCAD.

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2106 Optimization of a Triangular Fin with Variable Fin Base Thickness

Authors: Hyung Suk Kang

Abstract:

A triangular fin with variable fin base thickness is analyzed and optimized using a two-dimensional analytical method. The influence of fin base height and fin base thickness on the temperature in the fin is listed. For the fixed fin volumes, the maximum heat loss, the corresponding optimum fin effectiveness, fin base height and fin tip length as a function of the fin base thickness, convection characteristic number and dimensionless fin volume are represented. One of the results shows that the optimum heat loss increases whereas the corresponding optimum fin effectiveness decreases with the increase of fin volume.

Keywords: A triangular fin, Convection characteristic number, Heat loss, Fin base thickness.

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2105 Effect of Welding Parameters on Penetration and Bead Width for Variable Plate Thickness in Submerged Arc Welding

Authors: Harish K. Arya, Kulwant Singh, R. K. Saxena

Abstract:

The heat flow in weldment changes its nature from 2D to 3D with the increase in plate thickness. For welding of thicker plates the heat loss in thickness direction increases the cooling rate of plate. Since the cooling rate changes, the various bead parameters like bead penetration, bead height and bead width also got affected by it. The present study incorporates the effect of variable plate thickness on penetration and bead width. The penetration reduces with increase in plate thickness due to heat loss in thickness direction for same heat input, while bead width increases for thicker plate due to faster cooling.

Keywords: Submerged arc welding, plate thickness, bead geometry, cooling rate.

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2104 Rock Thickness Measurement by Using Self-Excited Acoustical System

Authors: JanuszKwaśniewski, IreneuszDominik, KrzysztofLalik

Abstract:

The knowledge about rock layers thickness,especially above drilled mining pavements is crucial for workers safety. The measuring systems used nowadays are generally imperfect and there is a strong demand for improvement. The application of a new type of a measurement system called Self-excited Acoustical System is presentedin the paper. The system was applied until now to monitor stress changes in metal and concrete constructions. The change in measurement methodology resulted in possibility of measuring the thickness of the rocks above the tunnels as well as thickness of a singular rocklayer. The idea is to find two resonance frequencies of the self-exited system,which consists of a vibration exciter and vibration receiver placed at a distance, which are coupled with a proper power amplifier, and which operate in a closed loop with a positive feedback. The resonance with the higher amplitude determines thickness of the whole rock, whereas the lower amplitude resonance indicates thickness of a singular layer. The results of the laboratory tests conducted on a group of different rock materials are also presented.

Keywords: Autooscillator, non-destructive testing, rock thickness measurement.

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2103 The Effect Particle Velocity on the Thickness of Thermally Sprayed Coatings

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour, H. Mohammadi Majd

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of WC-12Co particle velocity in HVOF thermal spraying process on the coating thickness has been studied. The statistical results show that the spray distance and oxygen-to-fuel ratio are more effective factors on particle characterization and thickness of HVOF thermal spraying coatings. Spray Watch diagnostic system, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and thickness measuring system were used for this purpose.

Keywords: Grinding, HVOF, Thermal spray, WC-Co.

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2102 Ultraviolet Lasing from Vertically-Aligned ZnO Nanowall Array

Authors: Masahiro Takahashi, Kosuke Harada, Shihomi Nakao, Mitsuhiro Higashihata, Hiroshi Ikenoue, Daisuke Nakamura, Tatsuo Okada

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the light emitting materials in ultraviolet (UV) region. In addition, ZnO nanostructures are also attracting increasing research interest as buildingblocks for UV optoelectronic applications. We have succeeded in synthesizing vertically-aligned ZnO nanostructures by laser interference patterning, which is catalyst-free and non-contact technique. In this study, vertically-aligned ZnO nanowall arrays were synthesized using two-beam interference. The maximum height and average thickness of the ZnO nanowalls were about 4.5µm and 200 nm, respectively.UV lasing from a piece of the ZnO nanowall was obtained under the third harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser excitation, and the estimated threshold power density for lasing was about 150 kW/cm2. Furthermore, UV lasing from the vertically-aligned ZnO nanowall was also achieved. The results indicate that ZnO nanowalls can be applied to random laser.

Keywords: Zinc Oxide, nanowall, interference laser, UV lasing.

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2101 Effective Photodegradation of Tetracycline by a Heteropoly Acid/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Based on Uio-66

Authors: Anasheh Maridiroosi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Hanieh Fakhri

Abstract:

Heteropoly acid nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide based on UiO-66 were synthesized via in-situ growth hydrothermal method and tested for photodegradation of a tetracycline as critical pollutant. Results showed that presence of graphene oxide and UiO-66 with high specific surface area, great electron mobility and various functional groups make an excellent support for heteropoly acid and improve photocatalytic efficiency up to 95% for tetracycline. Furthermore, total organic carbon (TOC) analysis verified 79% mineralization of this pollutant under optimum condition.

Keywords: Heteropoly acid, graphene oxide, MOF, tetracycline.

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2100 High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry of the Flow around a Moving Train Model with Boundary Layer Control Elements

Authors: Alexander Buhr, Klaus Ehrenfried

Abstract:

Trackside induced airflow velocities, also known as slipstream velocities, are an important criterion for the design of high-speed trains. The maximum permitted values are given by the Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI) and have to be checked in the approval process. For train manufactures it is of great interest to know in advance, how new train geometries would perform in TSI tests. The Reynolds number in moving model experiments is lower compared to full-scale. Especially the limited model length leads to a thinner boundary layer at the rear end. The hypothesis is that the boundary layer rolls up to characteristic flow structures in the train wake, in which the maximum flow velocities can be observed. The idea is to enlarge the boundary layer using roughness elements at the train model head so that the ratio between the boundary layer thickness and the car width at the rear end is comparable to a full-scale train. This may lead to similar flow structures in the wake and better prediction accuracy for TSI tests. In this case, the design of the roughness elements is limited by the moving model rig. Small rectangular roughness shapes are used to get a sufficient effect on the boundary layer, while the elements are robust enough to withstand the high accelerating and decelerating forces during the test runs. For this investigation, High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) measurements on an ICE3 train model have been realized in the moving model rig of the DLR in Göttingen, the so called tunnel simulation facility Göttingen (TSG). The flow velocities within the boundary layer are analysed in a plain parallel to the ground. The height of the plane corresponds to a test position in the EN standard (TSI). Three different shapes of roughness elements are tested. The boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness as well as the momentum thickness and the form factor are calculated along the train model. Conditional sampling is used to analyse the size and dynamics of the flow structures at the time of maximum velocity in the train wake behind the train. As expected, larger roughness elements increase the boundary layer thickness and lead to larger flow velocities in the boundary layer and in the wake flow structures. The boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness and momentum thickness are increased by using larger roughness especially when applied in the height close to the measuring plane. The roughness elements also cause high fluctuations in the form factors of the boundary layer. Behind the roughness elements, the form factors rapidly are approaching toward constant values. This indicates that the boundary layer, while growing slowly along the second half of the train model, has reached a state of equilibrium.

Keywords: Boundary layer, high-speed PIV, ICE3, moving train model, roughness elements.

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2099 The Microstructure of Aging ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films

Authors: Z. C. Chang, S. C. Liang

Abstract:

RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The electric conduction mechanism of the AZO and GZO films came mainly from the Al and Ga, the oxygen vacancies, Zn interstitial atoms, and Al and/or Ga interstitial atoms. AZO and GZO films achieved higher conduction than did ZnO film, it being ion vacant and nonstoichiometric. The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films.

Keywords: ZnO, AZO, GZO, Doped, Sputtering

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2098 The Effect of Aging of ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films on the Microstructure and Photoelectric Property

Authors: Zue Chin Chang

Abstract:

RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films. The AZO film had the best electrical properties; it had the lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-4 cm, the best sheet resistance of 2.2 × 10-1 Ω/square, and the highest carrier concentration of 4.3 × 1020 cm-3, as compared to the ZnO and GZO films.

Keywords: Aging, films, Microstructure, Photoelectric Property.

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2097 Removal of Elemental Mercury from Dry Methane Gas with Manganese Oxides

Authors: Junya Takenami, Md. Azhar Uddin, Eiji Sasaoka, Yasushi Shioya, Tsuneyoshi Takase

Abstract:

In this study, we sought to investigate the mercury removal efficiency of manganese oxides from natural gas. The fundamental studies on mercury removal with manganese oxides sorbents were carried out in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor at 30 °C with a mixture of methane (20%) and nitrogen gas laden with 4.8 ppb of elemental mercury. Manganese oxides with varying surface area and crystalline phase were prepared by conventional precipitation method in this study. The effects of surface area, crystallinity and other metal oxides on mercury removal efficiency were investigated. Effect of Ag impregnation on mercury removal efficiency was also investigated. Ag supported on metal oxide such titania and zirconia as reference materials were also used in this study for comparison. The characteristics of mercury removal reaction with manganese oxide was investigated using a temperature programmed desorption (TPD) technique. Manganese oxides showed very high Hg removal activity (about 73-93% Hg removal) for first time use. Surface area of the manganese oxide samples decreased after heat-treatment and resulted in complete loss of Hg removal ability for repeated use after Hg desorption in the case of amorphous MnO2, and 75% loss of the initial Hg removal activity for the crystalline MnO2. Mercury desorption efficiency of crystalline MnO2 was very low (37%) for first time use and high (98%) after second time use. Residual potassium content in MnO2 may have some effect on the thermal stability of the adsorbed Hg species. Desorption of Hg from manganese oxides occurs at much higher temperatures (with a peak at 400 °C) than Ag/TiO2 or Ag/ZrO2. Mercury may be captured on manganese oxides in the form of mercury manganese oxide.

Keywords: Mercury removal, Metal and metal oxide sorbents, Methane, Natural gas.

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