Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3522

Search results for: plate loading test

3522 Numerical Modeling of Determination of in situ Rock Mass Deformation Modulus Using the Plate Load Test

Authors: A. Khodabakhshi, A. Mortazavi

Abstract:

Accurate determination of rock mass deformation modulus, as an important design parameter, is one of the most controversial issues in most engineering projects. A 3D numerical model of standard plate load test (PLT) using the FLAC3D code was carried to investigate the mechanism governing the test process. Five objectives were the focus of this study. The first goal was to employ 3D modeling in the interpretation of PLT conducted at the Bazoft dam site, Iran. The second objective was to investigate the effect of displacements measuring depth from the loading plates on the calculated moduli. The magnitude of rock mass deformation modulus calculated from PLT depends on anchor depth, and in practice, this may be a cause of error in the selection of realistic deformation modulus for the rock mass. The third goal of the study was to investigate the effect of testing plate diameter on the calculated modulus. Moreover, a comparison of the calculated modulus from ISRM formula, numerical modeling and calculated modulus from the actual PLT carried out at right abutment of the Bazoft dam site was another objective of the study. Finally, the effect of plastic strains on the calculated moduli in each of the loading-unloading cycles for three loading plates was investigated. The geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions on the constructed 3D model were selected based on the in-situ conditions of PLT at Bazoft dam site. A good agreement was achieved between numerical model results and the field tests results.

Keywords: Deformation modulus, numerical model, plate loading test, rock mass.

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3521 The Localised Wrinkling of a Stretched Bi-Annular Thin Plate

Authors: Xiang Liu, Ciprian Coman

Abstract:

The wrinkling of a thin elastic bi-annular plate with piecewise-constant mechanical properties, subjected to radial stretching, is considered. The critical wrinkling stretching loading and the corresponding wrinkling patterns are extensively investigated, together with the roles played by both the geometrical and mechanical parameters.

Keywords: bi-annular plate, wrinkling pattern, critical stretching loading.

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3520 Stress Concentration around Countersunk Hole in Isotropic Plate under Transverse Loading

Authors: Parveen K. Saini, Tarun Agarwal

Abstract:

An investigation into the effect of countersunk depth, plate thickness, countersunk angle and plate width on the stress concentration around countersunk hole is carried out with the help of finite element analysis. The variation of stress concentration with respect to these parameters is studied for three types of loading viz. uniformly distributed load, uniformly varying load and functionally distributed load. The results of the finite element analysis are interpreted and some conclusions are drawn. The distribution of stress concentration around countersunk hole in isotropic plates simply supported at all the edges is found similar and is independent of loading. The maximum stress concentration also occurs at a particular point irrespective of the loading conditions.

Keywords: Stress Concentration Factor, Countersunk hole, Finite element, ANSYS.

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3519 The Influence of the Geogrid Layers on the Bearing Capacity of Layered Soils

Authors: S. A. Naeini, H. R. Rahmani, M. Hossein Zade

Abstract:

Many classical bearing capacity theories assume that the natural soil's layers are homogenous for determining the bearing capacity of the soil. But, in many practical projects, we encounter multi-layer soils. Geosynthetic as reinforcement materials have been extensively used in the construction of various structures. In this paper, numerical analysis of the Plate Load Test (PLT) using of ABAQUS software in double-layered soils with different thicknesses of sandy and gravelly layers reinforced with geogrid was considered. The PLT is one of the common filed methods to calculate parameters such as soil bearing capacity, the evaluation of the compressibility and the determination of the Subgrade Reaction module. In fact, the influence of the geogrid layers on the bearing capacity of the layered soils is investigated. Finally, the most appropriate mode for the distance and number of reinforcement layers is determined. Results show that using three layers of geogrid with a distance of 0.3 times the width of the loading plate has the highest efficiency in bearing capacity of double-layer (sand and gravel) soils. Also, the significant increase in bearing capacity between unreinforced and reinforced soil with three layers of geogrid is caused by the condition that the upper layer (gravel) thickness is equal to the loading plate width.

Keywords: Bearing capacity, reinforcement, geogrid, plate load test, layered soils.

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3518 Numerical Analysis of End Plate Bolted Connection with Corrugated Beam

Authors: M. A. Sadeghian, J. Yang, Q. F. Liu

Abstract:

Steel extended end plate bolted connections are recommended to be widely utilized in special moment-resisting frame subjected to monotonic loading. Improper design of steel beam to column connection can lead to the collapse and fatality of structures. Therefore comprehensive research studies of beam to column connection design should be carried out. Also the performance and effect of corrugated on the strength of beam column end plate connection up to failure under monotonic loading in horizontal direction is presented in this paper. The non-linear elastic–plastic behavior has been considered through a finite element analysis using the multi-purpose software package LUSAS. The effect of vertically and horizontally types of corrugated web was also investigated.

Keywords: Corrugated beam, monotonic loading, finite element analysis, end plate connection.

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3517 Effect of Mode Loading on FCRG Plate with Double Through Crack at Hole

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab, A. Hadjoui

Abstract:

The knowledge of the nature of loading is very important in order to hold account on the total behavior such as vibration, shock, fatigue, etc. Fatigue present 90% of failure when loadings fatigues are very complex. In this paper a study of double through crack at hole for plate subjected to fatigue loading is presented. Various modes loading are studied where the applied load is the same one. The fatigue life is given where the effect of stress ratio is highlighted. This work is conducted on aluminum alloy 2024 T351 used for much aerospace and aeronautics applications. The fatigue crack growth behavior with constant amplitude is studied using the AFGROW code when Forman model is applied. The fatigue crack growth rate and fatigue life for different loading modes are compared with variation of others geometrical parameter such as thickness and dimensions of notch hole.

Keywords: Fatigue crack, mode loading, aluminum alloy

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3516 Developing Three-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation Method to Detect the Crack Variation at the Joint of Weld Steel Plate

Authors: Ming-Hsiang Shih, Wen-Pei Sung, Shih-Heng Tung

Abstract:

The purposes of hydraulic gate are to maintain the functions of storing and draining water. It bears long-term hydraulic pressure and earthquake force and is very important for reservoir and waterpower plant. The high tensile strength of steel plate is used as constructional material of hydraulic gate. The cracks and rusts, induced by the defects of material, bad construction and seismic excitation and under water respectively, thus, the mechanics phenomena of gate with crack are probing into the cause of stress concentration, induced high crack increase rate, affect the safety and usage of hydroelectric power plant. Stress distribution analysis is a very important and essential surveying technique to analyze bi-material and singular point problems. The finite difference infinitely small element method has been demonstrated, suitable for analyzing the buckling phenomena of welding seam and steel plate with crack. Especially, this method can easily analyze the singularity of kink crack. Nevertheless, the construction form and deformation shape of some gates are three-dimensional system. Therefore, the three-dimensional Digital Image Correlation (DIC) has been developed and applied to analyze the strain variation of steel plate with crack at weld joint. The proposed Digital image correlation (DIC) technique is an only non-contact method for measuring the variation of test object. According to rapid development of digital camera, the cost of this digital image correlation technique has been reduced. Otherwise, this DIC method provides with the advantages of widely practical application of indoor test and field test without the restriction on the size of test object. Thus, the research purpose of this research is to develop and apply this technique to monitor mechanics crack variations of weld steel hydraulic gate and its conformation under action of loading. The imagines can be picked from real time monitoring process to analyze the strain change of each loading stage. The proposed 3-Dimensional digital image correlation method, developed in the study, is applied to analyze the post-buckling phenomenon and buckling tendency of welded steel plate with crack. Then, the stress intensity of 3-dimensional analysis of different materials and enhanced materials in steel plate has been analyzed in this paper. The test results show that this proposed three-dimensional DIC method can precisely detect the crack variation of welded steel plate under different loading stages. Especially, this proposed DIC method can detect and identify the crack position and the other flaws of the welded steel plate that the traditional test methods hardly detect these kind phenomena. Therefore, this proposed three-dimensional DIC method can apply to observe the mechanics phenomena of composite materials subjected to loading and operating.

Keywords: Welded steel plate, crack variation, three-dimensional Digital Image Correlation (DIC).

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3515 Wetting Front Propagation during Quenching of Aluminum Plate by Water Spray

Authors: M. M. Seraj, M. S. Gadala

Abstract:

This study presents a systematic analysis of wetted region due to cooling of aluminum plate by water spray impingement with respect to different water flow rates, spray nozzle heights, and subcooling. Unlike jet impingement, the wetting is not commenced upon spray impingement and there is a delay in wetness of hot test surface. After initiation, the wetting (black zone) progresses gradually to cover all test plate and provides efficient cooling in nucleate boiling regime. Generally, spray cooling is found function of spray flow rate, spray-to-surface distance and water subcooling. Wetting delay is decreasing by increasing of spray flow rate until spray impact area is not become bigger that test surface. Otherwise, higher spray flow rate is not practically accelerated start of wetting. Very fast wetting due to spray cooling can be obtained by dense spray (high floe rate) discharged from adjacent nozzle to the test surface. Highly subcooling water spray also triggers earlier wetting of hot aluminum plate.

Keywords: Water spray, wetting, aluminum plate, flow rate.

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3514 Effect of Base Coarse Layer on Load-Settlement Characteristics of Sandy Subgrade Using Plate Load Test

Authors: A. Nazeri, R. Ziaie Moayed, H. Ghiasinejad

Abstract:

The present research has been performed to investigate the effect of base course application on load-settlement characteristics of sandy subgrade using plate load test. The main parameter investigated in this study was the subgrade reaction coefficient. The model tests were conducted in a 1.35 m long, 1 m wide, and 1 m deep steel test box of Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU Calibration Chamber). The base courses used in this research were in three different thicknesses of 15 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm. The test results indicated that in the case of using base course over loose sandy subgrade, the values of subgrade reaction coefficient can be increased from 7  to 132 , 224 , and 396  in presence of 15 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm base course, respectively.

Keywords: Base course, calibration chamber, plate load test, loose sand, subgrade reaction coefficient.

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3513 Finite Element Analysis of Thermally-Induced Bistable Plate Using Four Plate Elements

Authors: Jixiao Tao, Xiaoqiao He

Abstract:

The present study deals with the finite element (FE) analysis of thermally-induced bistable plate using various plate elements. The quadrilateral plate elements include the 4-node conforming plate element based on the classical laminate plate theory (CLPT), the 4-node and 9-node Mindlin plate element based on the first-order shear deformation laminated plate theory (FSDT), and a displacement-based 4-node quadrilateral element (RDKQ-NL20). Using the von-Karman’s large deflection theory and the total Lagrangian (TL) approach, the nonlinear FE governing equations for plate under thermal load are derived. Convergence analysis for four elements is first conducted. These elements are then used to predict the stable shapes of thermally-induced bistable plate. Numerical test shows that the plate element based on FSDT, namely the 4-node and 9-node Mindlin, and the RDKQ-NL20 plate element can predict two stable cylindrical shapes while the 4-node conforming plate predicts a saddles shape. Comparing the simulation results with ABAQUS, the RDKQ-NL20 element shows the best accuracy among all the elements.

Keywords: Finite element method, geometrical nonlinearity, bistable, quadrilateral plate elements.

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3512 Limit Analysis of FGM Circular Plates Subjected to Arbitrary Rotational Symmetric Loads

Authors: Kargarnovin M.H., Faghidian S. A, Arghavani J.

Abstract:

The limit load carrying capacity of functionally graded materials (FGM) circular plates subjected to an arbitrary rotationally symmetric loading has been computed. It is provided that the plate material behaves rigid perfectly plastic and obeys either the Square or the Tresca yield criterion. To this end the upper and lower bound principles of limit analysis are employed to determine the exact value for the limiting load. The correctness of the result are verified and finally limiting loads for two examples namely; through radius and through thickness FGM circular plates with simply supported edges are calculated, respectively and moreover, the values of critical loading factor are determined.

Keywords: Circular plate, FGM circular plate, Limit analysis, Lower and Upper bound theorems.

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3511 Finite Element Analysis of Flush End Plate Moment Connections under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Vahid Zeinoddini-Meimand, Mehdi Ghassemieh, Jalal Kiani

Abstract:

This paper explains the results of an investigation on the analysis of flush end plate steel connections by means of finite element method. Flush end plates are a highly indeterminate type of connection, which have a number of parameters that affect their behavior. Because of this, experimental investigations are complicated and very costly. Today, the finite element method provides an ideal method for analyzing complicated structures. Finite element models of these types of connections under monotonic loading have previously been investigated. A numerical model, which can predict the cyclic behavior of these connections, is of critical importance, as dynamic experiments are more costly. This paper summarizes a study to develop a three-dimensional finite element model that can accurately capture the cyclic behavior of flush end plate connections. Comparisons between FEM results and experimental results obtained from full-scale tests have been carried out, which confirms the accuracy of the finite element model. Consequently, design equations for this connection have been investigated and it is shown that these predictions are not precise in all cases. The effect of end plate thickness and bolt diameter on the overall behavior of this connection is discussed. This research demonstrates that using the appropriate configuration, this connection has the potential to form a plastic hinge in the beam--desirable in seismic behavior.

Keywords: Flush end plate connection, moment-rotation diagram, finite element method, moment frame, cyclic loading.

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3510 Effect of Carbon Nanotube Reinforcement in Polymer Composite Plates under Static Loading

Authors: S. Madhu, V. V. Subba Rao

Abstract:

In the implementation of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polymer matrix Composites in structural applications, deflection and stress analysis are important considerations. In the present study, a multi scale analysis of deflection and stress analysis of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced polymer composite plates is presented. A micromechanics model based on the Mori-Tanaka method is developed by introducing straight CNTs aligned in one direction. The effect of volume fraction and diameter of CNTs on plate deflection and the stresses are investigated using classical laminate plate theory (CLPT). The study is primarily conducted with the intention of observing the suitability of CNT reinforced polymer composite plates under static loading for structural applications.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube, Micromechanics, Composite plate, Multi-scale analysis, Classical Laminate Plate Theory.

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3509 Mixed-Mode Study of Rock Fracture Mechanics by using the Modified Arcan Specimen Test

Authors: R. Hasanpour, N. Choupani

Abstract:

This paper studies mixed-mode fracture mechanics in rock based on experimental and numerical analyses. Experiments were performed on sharp-cracked specimens using the modified Arcan specimen test loading device. The modified Arcan specimen test was, in association with a special loading device, an appropriate apparatus for experimental mixed-mode fracture analysis. By varying the loading angle from 0° to 90°, pure mode-I, pure mode-II and a wide range of mixed-mode data were obtained experimentally. Using the finite element results, correction factors applied to the rectangular fracture specimen. By employing experimentally measured critical loads and the aid of the finite element method, mixed-mode fracture toughness for the limestone under consideration determined.

Keywords: Rock Fracture Mechanics, Mixed-mode Loading, Finite Element Analysis, Arcan Test specimen.

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3508 Experimental Investigation on Cold-formed Steel Wall Plate System

Authors: A. L. Y. Ng, W. H. Hii

Abstract:

A series of tests on cold-formed steel (CFS) wall plate system subjected to uplift force at the mid span of the wall plate is presented. The aim of the study was to study the behaviour and identify the modes of failure of CFS wall plate system. Two parameters were considered in these studies: 1) different dimension of U-bracket at the supports and 2) different sizes of lipped C-channel. The lipped C-channels used were C07508, C07512 and C10012. The dimensions of the leg of U-bracket were 50x35 mm and 50x60 mm respectively, where 25 mm clearance was provided to the connections for specimens with clearance. Results show that specimens with and without clearance experienced the same mode of failure. Failure began with the yielding of the connectors followed by distortional buckling of the wall plate. However, when C075 sections were used as wall plate, the system behaved differently. There was a large deformation in the wall plate and failure began in the distortional buckling of the wall plate followed by bearing of the connecting plates at the supports (U-bracket). The ultimate strength of the system also decreased dramatically when C075 sections were used.

Keywords: Cold-formed steel, wall plate system, distortional buckling, full scale laboratory test.

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3507 Thermal Buckling of Rectangular FGM Plate with Variation Thickness

Authors: Mostafa Raki, Mahdi Hamzehei

Abstract:

Equilibrium and stability equations of a thin rectangular plate with length a, width b, and thickness h(x)=C1x+C2, made of functionally graded materials under thermal loads are derived based on the first order shear deformation theory. It is assumed that the material properties vary as a power form of thickness coordinate variable z. The derived equilibrium and buckling equations are then solved analytically for a plate with simply supported boundary conditions. One type of thermal loading, uniform temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered, and the buckling temperatures are derived. The influences of the plate aspect ratio, the relative thickness, the gradient index and the transverse shear on buckling temperature difference are all discussed.

Keywords: Stability of plate, thermal buckling, rectangularplate, functionally graded material, first order shear deformationtheory.

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3506 On Convergence of Affine Thin Plate Bending Element

Authors: Rado Flajs, Miran Saje

Abstract:

In the present paper the displacement-based nonconforming quadrilateral affine thin plate bending finite element ARPQ4 is presented, derived directly from non-conforming quadrilateral thin plate bending finite element RPQ4 proposed by Wanji and Cheung [19]. It is found, however, that element RPQ4 is only conditionally unisolvent. The new element is shown to be inherently unisolvent. This convenient property results in the element ARPQ4 being more robust and thus better suited for computations than its predecessor. The convergence is proved and the rate of convergence estimated. The mathematically rigorous proof of convergence presented in the paper is based on Stummel-s generalized patch test and the consideration of the element approximability condition, which are both necessary and sufficient for convergence.

Keywords: Quadrilateral thin plate bending element, convergence, generalized patch test.

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3505 Analysis of Stress Concentration and Deflectionin Isotropic and Orthotropic Rectangular Plates with Central Circular Hole under Transverse Static Loading

Authors: Nitin Kumar Jain

Abstract:

The distributions of stresses and deflection in rectangular isotropic and orthotropic plates with central circular hole under transverse static loading have been studied using finite element method. The aim of author is to analyze the effect of D/A ratio (where D is hole diameter and A is plate width) upon stress concentration factor (SCF) and deflection in isotropic and orthotropic plates under transverse static loading. The D/A ratio is varied from 0.01 to 0.9. The analysis is done for plates of isotropic and two different orthotropic materials. The results are obtained for three different boundary conditions. The variations of SCF and deflection with respect to D/A ratio are presented in graphical form and discussed. The finite element formulation is carried out in the analysis section of the ANSYS package.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, SCF, Deflection, Plate, Boundary conditions

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3504 A New Developed Formula to Determine the Shear Buckling Stress in Welded Aluminum Plate Girders

Authors: Badr Alsulami, Ahmed S. Elamary

Abstract:

This paper summarizes and presents main results of an in-depth numerical analysis dealing with the shear buckling resistance of aluminum plate girders. The studies conducted have permitted the development of a simple design expression to determine the critical shear buckling stress in aluminum web panels. This expression takes into account the effects of reduction of strength in aluminum alloys due to welding process. Ultimate shear resistance (USR) of plate girders can be obtained theoretically using Cardiff theory or Hӧglunds theory. USR of aluminum alloy plate girders predicted theoretically using BS8118 appear inconsistent when compared with test data. Theoretical predictions based on Hӧglunds theory, are more realistic. Cardiff theory proposed to predict the USR of steel plate girders only. Welded aluminum alloy plate girders studied experimentally by others; the USR resulted from tests are reviewed. Comparison between the test results with the values obtained from Hӧglunds theory, BS8118 design method and Cardiff theory performed theoretically. Finally, a new equation based on Cardiff tension-field theory, proposed to predict theoretically the USR of aluminum plate girders.

Keywords: Shear resistance, Aluminum, Cardiff theory, Hӧglund's theory, Plate girder.

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3503 Dynamic Analysis of a Moderately Thick Plate on Pasternak Type Foundation under Impact and Moving Loads

Authors: Neslihan Genckal, Reha Gursoy, Vedat Z. Dogan

Abstract:

In this study, dynamic responses of composite plates on elastic foundations subjected to impact and moving loads are investigated. The first order shear deformation (FSDT) theory is used for moderately thick plates. Pasternak-type (two-parameter) elastic foundation is assumed. Elastic foundation effects are integrated into the governing equations. It is assumed that plate is first hit by a mass as an impact type loading then the mass continues to move on the composite plate as a distributed moving loading, which resembles the aircraft landing on airport pavements. Impact and moving loadings are modeled by a mass-spring-damper system with a wheel. The wheel is assumed to be continuously in contact with the plate after impact. The governing partial differential equations of motion for displacements are converted into the ordinary differential equations in the time domain by using Galerkin’s method. Then, these sets of equations are solved by using the Runge-Kutta method. Several parameters such as vertical and horizontal velocities of the aircraft, volume fractions of the steel rebar in the reinforced concrete layer, and the different touchdown locations of the aircraft tire on the runway are considered in the numerical simulation. The results are compared with those of the ABAQUS, which is a commercial finite element code.

Keywords: Elastic foundation, impact, moving load, thick plate.

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3502 Effects of Operating Conditions on Calcium Carbonate Fouling in a Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: K. Pana-Suppamassadu, P. Jeimrittiwong, P. Narataruksa, S. Tungkamani

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to investigate on the internalflow patterns in a plate heat exchanger channel, which affect the rate of sedimentation fouling on the heat transfer surface of the plate heat exchanger. The research methodologies were the computer simulation using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the experimental works. COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS™ Version 3.3 was used to simulate the velocity flow fields to verify the low and high flow regions. The results from the CFD technique were then compared with the images obtained from the experiments in which the fouling test rig was set up with a singlechannel plate heat exchanger to monitor the fouling of calcium carbonate. Two parameters were varied i.e., the crossing angle of the two plate: 55/55, 10/10, and 55/10 degree, and the fluid flow rate at the inlet: 0.0566, 0.1132 and 0.1698 m/s. The type of plate “GX-12" (the surface area 0.12 m2, the depth 2.9 mm, the width of fluid flow 215 mm and the thickness of stainless plate of 0.5 mm) was used in this study. The results indicated that the velocity distribution for the case of 55/55 degree seems to be very well organized when compared with the others. Also, an increase in the inlet velocity resulted in the reduction of fouling rate on the surface of plate heat exchangers.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, crossing angles, finite element method, plate heat exchanger.

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3501 Quasi-Static Analysis of End Plate Beam-to-Column Connections

Authors: A. Al-Rifaie, Z. W. Guan, S. W. Jones

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for modelling and analysing end plate beam-to-column connections to obtain the quasi-static behaviour using non-linear dynamic explicit integration. In addition to its importance to study the static behaviour of a structural member, quasi-static behaviour is largely needed to be compared with the dynamic behaviour of such members in order to investigate the dynamic effect by proposing dynamic increase factors (DIFs). The beam-to-column bolted connections contain various contact surfaces at which the implicit procedure may have difficulties converging, resulting in a large number of iterations. Contrary, explicit procedure could deal effectively with complex contacts without converging problems. Hence, finite element modelling using ABAQUS/explicit is used in this study to address the dynamic effect may be produced using explicit procedure. Also, the effect of loading rate and mass scaling are discussed to investigate their effect on the time of analysis. The results show that the explicit procedure is valuable to model the end plate beam-to-column connections in terms of failure mode, load-displacement relationships. Also, it is concluded that loading rate and mass scaling should be carefully selected to avoid the dynamic effect in the solution.

Keywords: Quasi-static, end plate, finite element, connections.

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3500 Peridynamic Modeling of an Isotropic Plate under Tensile and Flexural Loading

Authors: Eda Gök

Abstract:

Peridynamics is a new modeling concept of non-local interactions for solid structures. The formulations of Peridynamic (PD) theory are based on integral equations rather than differential equations. Through, undefined equations of associated problems are avoided. PD theory might be defined as continuum version of molecular dynamics. The medium is usually modeled with mass particles bonded together. Particles interact with each other directly across finite distances through central forces named as bonds. The main assumption of this theory is that the body is composed of material points which interact with other material points within a finite distance. Although, PD theory developed for discontinuities, it gives good results for structures which have no discontinuities. In this paper, displacement control of the isotropic plate under the effect of tensile and bending loading has been investigated by means of PD theory. A MATLAB code is generated to create PD bonds and corresponding surface correction factors. Using generated MATLAB code the geometry of the specimen is generated, and the code is implemented in Finite Element Software. The results obtained from non-local continuum theory are compared with the Finite Element Analysis results and analytical solution. The results show good agreement.

Keywords: Flexural loading, non-local continuum mechanics, Peridynamic theory, solid structures, tensile loading.

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3499 Evaluation of Seismic Behavior of Steel Shear Wall with Opening with Hardener and Beam with Reduced Cross Section under Cycle Loading with Finite Element Analysis Method

Authors: Masoud Mahdavi

Abstract:

During an earthquake, the structure is subjected to seismic loads that cause tension in the members of the building. The use of energy dissipation elements in the structure reduces the percentage of seismic forces on the main members of the building (especially the columns). Steel plate shear wall, as one of the most widely used types of energy dissipation element, has evolved today, and regular drilling of its inner plate is one of the common cases. In the present study, using a finite element method, the shear wall of the steel plate is designed as a floor (with dimensions of 447 × 6/246 cm) with Abacus software and in three different modes on which a cyclic load has been applied. The steel shear wall has a horizontal element (beam) with a reduced beam section (RBS). The hole in the interior plate of the models is created in such a way that it has the process of increasing the area, which makes the effect of increasing the surface area of the hole on the seismic performance of the steel shear wall completely clear. In the end, it was found that with increasing the opening level in the steel shear wall (with reduced cross-section beam), total displacement and plastic strain indicators increased, structural capacity and total energy indicators decreased and the Mises Monson stress index did not change much.

Keywords: Steel plate shear wall with opening, cyclic loading, reduced cross-section beam, finite element method, Abaqus Software.

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3498 Enhancing Seismic Performance of Ductile Moment Frames with Delayed Wire-Rope Bracing Using Middle Steel Plate

Authors: Babak Dizangian, Mohammad Reza Ghasemi, Akram Ghalandari

Abstract:

Moment frames have considerable ductility against cyclic lateral loads and displacements; however, if this feature causes the relative displacement to exceed the permissible limit, it can impose unfavorable hysteretic behavior on the frame. Therefore, adding a bracing system with the capability of preserving the capacity of high energy absorption and controlling displacements without a considerable increase in the stiffness is quite important. This paper investigates the retrofitting of a single storey steel moment frame through a delayed wire-rope bracing system using a middle steel plate. In this model, the steel plate lies where the wire ropes meet, and the model geometry is such that the cables are continuously under tension so that they can take the most advantage of the inherent potential they have in tolerating tensile stress. Using the steel plate also reduces the system stiffness considerably compared to cross bracing systems and preserves the ductile frame’s energy absorption capacity. In this research, the software models of delayed wire-rope bracing system have been studied, validated, and compared with other researchers’ laboratory test results.

Keywords: Ductile moment frame, delayed wire rope bracing, cyclic loading, hysteresis curve, energy absorption.

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3497 Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Cantilever Rectangular Plate Structure on Subsonic Flutter

Authors: Mevlüt Burak Dalmış, Kemal Yaman

Abstract:

In this study, flutter characteristics of cantilever rectangular plate structure under incompressible flow regime are investigated by comparing the results of commercial flutter analysis program ZAERO© with wind tunnel tests conducted in Ankara Wind Tunnel (ART). A rectangular polycarbonate (PC) plate, 5x125x1000 mm in dimensions, is used for both numerical and experimental investigations. Analysis and test results are very compatible with each other. A comparison between two different solution methods (g and k-method) of ZAERO© is also done. It is seen that, k-method gives closer result than the other one. However, g-method results are on conservative side and it is better to use conservative results namely g-method results. Even if the modal analysis results are used for the flutter analysis for this simple structure, a modal test should be conducted in order to validate the modal analysis results to have accurate flutter analysis results for more complicated structures.

Keywords: Flutter, plate, subsonic flow, wind tunnel.

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3496 Numerical Analysis of Dynamic Responses of the Plate Subjected to Impulsive Loads

Authors: Behzad Mohammadzadeh, Huyk Chun Noh

Abstract:

Plate is one of the popular structural elements used in a wide range of industries and structures. They may be subjected to blast loads during explosion events, missile attacks or aircraft attacks. This study is to investigate dynamic responses of the rectangular plate subjected to explosive loads. The effects of material properties and plate thickness on responses of the plate are to be investigated. The compressive pressure is applied to the surface of the plate. Different amounts of thickness in the range from 1mm to 30mm are considered for the plate to evaluate the changes in responses of the plate with respect to plate thickness. Two different properties are considered for the steel. First, the analysis is performed by considering only the elastic-plastic properties for the steel plate. Later on damping is considered to investigate its effects on the responses of the plate. To do analysis, numerical method using a finite element based package ABAQUS is applied. Finally, dynamic responses and graphs showing the relation between maximum displacement of the plate and aim parameters are provided.

Keywords: Impulsive loaded plates, dynamic analysis, abaqus, material nonlinearity.

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3495 Study on Buckling and Yielding Behaviors of Low Yield Point Steel Plates

Authors: David Boyajian, Tadeh Zirakian

Abstract:

Stability and performance of steel plates are characterized by geometrical buckling and material yielding. In this paper, the geometrical buckling and material yielding behaviors of low yield point (LYP) steel plates are studied from the point of view of their application in steel plate shear wall (SPSW) systems. Use of LYP steel facilitates the design and application of web plates with improved buckling and energy absorption capacities in SPSW systems. LYP steel infill plates may yield first and then undergo inelastic buckling. Hence, accurate determination of the limiting plate thickness corresponding to simultaneous buckling and yielding can be effective in seismic design of such lateral force-resisting and energy dissipating systems. The limiting thicknesses of plates with different loading and support conditions are determined theoretically and verified through detailed numerical simulations. Effects of use of LYP steel and plate aspect ratio parameter on the limiting plate thickness are investigated as well. In addition, detailed studies are performed on determination of the limiting web-plate thickness in code-designed SPSWs. Some practical recommendations are accordingly provided for efficient seismic design of SPSW systems with LYP steel infill plates.

Keywords: Plates, buckling, yielding, low yield point steel, steel plate shear walls.

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3494 Sandwich Structure Composites: Effect of Kenaf on Mechanical Properties

Authors: M. N. Othman, M. Bukhari, Z. Halim, S. A. Mohammad, K. Khalid

Abstract:

Sandwich structure composites produced by epoxy core and aluminium skin were developed as potential building materials. Interface bonding between core and skin was controlled by varying kenaf content. Five different weight percentage of kenaf loading ranging from 10 wt% to 50 wt% were employed in the core manufacturing in order to study the mechanical properties of the sandwich composite. Properties of skin aluminium with epoxy were found to be affected by drying time of the adhesive. Mechanical behavior of manufactured sandwich composites in relation with properties of constituent materials was studied. It was found that 30 wt% of kenaf loading contributed to increase the flexural strength and flexural modulus up to 102 MPa and 32 GPa, respectively. Analysis were done on the flatwise and edgewise compression test. For flatwise test, it was found that 30 wt% of fiber loading could withstand maximum force until 250 kN, with compressive strength results at 96.94 MPa. However, at edgewise compression test, the sandwich composite with same fiber loading only can withstand 31 kN of the maximum load with 62 MPa of compressive strength results.

Keywords: Aluminium, kenaf fiber epoxy, sandwich structure composite.

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3493 Character Segmentation Method for a License Plate with Topological Transform

Authors: Jaedo Kim, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn

Abstract:

This paper propose the robust character segmentation method for license plate with topological transform such as twist,rotation. The first step of the proposed method is to find a candidate region for character and license plate. The character or license plate must be appeared as closed loop in the edge image. In the case of detecting candidate for character region, the evaluation of detected region is using topological relationship between each character. When this method decides license plate candidate region, character features in the region with binarization are used. After binarization for the detected candidate region, each character region is decided again. In this step, each character region is fitted more than previous step. In the next step, the method checks other character regions with different scale near the detected character regions, because most license plates have license numbers with some meaningful characters around them. The method uses perspective projection for geometrical normalization. If there is topological distortion in the character region, the method projects the region on a template which is defined as standard license plate using perspective projection. In this step, the method is able to separate each number region and small meaningful characters. The evaluation results are tested with a number of test images.

Keywords: License Plate Detection, Character Segmentation, Perspective Projection, Topological Transform.

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