Search results for: nonlinear analysis
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9341

Search results for: nonlinear analysis

9341 Direct Design of Steel Bridge Using Nonlinear Inelastic Analysis

Authors: Boo-Sung Koh, Seung-Eock Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, a direct design using a nonlinear inelastic analysis is suggested. Also, this paper compares the load carrying capacity obtained by a nonlinear inelastic analysis with experiment results to verify the accuracy of the results. The allowable stress design results of a railroad through a plate girder bridge and the safety factor of the nonlinear inelastic analysis were compared to examine the safety performance. As a result, the load safety factor for the nonlinear inelastic analysis was twice as high as the required safety factor under the allowable stress design standard specified in the civil engineering structure design standards for urban magnetic levitation railways, which further verified the advantages of the proposed direct design method.

Keywords: Direct design, nonlinear inelastic analysis, residual stress, initial geometric imperfection.

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9340 A New Nonlinear PID Controller and its Parameter Design

Authors: Yongping Ren, Zongli Li, Fan Zhang

Abstract:

A new nonlinear PID controller and its stability analysis are presented in this paper. A nonlinear function is deduced from the similarities between the control effort and the electric-field effect of a capacitor. The conventional linear PID controller can be modified into a nonlinear one by this function. To analyze the stability of the nonlinear PID controlled system, an idea of energy equivalence is adapted to avoid the conservativeness which is usually arisen from some traditional theorems and Criterions. The energy equivalence is naturally related with the conceptions of Passivity and T-Passivity. As a result, an engineering guideline for the parameter design of the nonlinear PID controller is obtained. An inverted pendulum system is tested to verify the nonlinear PID control scheme.

Keywords: Nonlinear PID controller, stability, gain equivalence, dissipative, T-Passivity.

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9339 A New Verified Method for Solving Nonlinear Equations

Authors: Taher Lotfi , Parisa Bakhtiari , Katayoun Mahdiani , Mehdi Salimi

Abstract:

In this paper, verified extension of the Ostrowski method which calculates the enclosure solutions of a given nonlinear equation is introduced. Also, error analysis and convergence will be discussed. Some implemented examples with INTLAB are also included to illustrate the validity and applicability of the scheme.

Keywords: Iinterval analysis, nonlinear equations, Ostrowski method.

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9338 Nonlinear Time-History Analysis of 3-Dimensional Semi-rigid Steel Frames

Authors: Phu-Cuong Nguyen, Seung-Eock Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents nonlinear elastic dynamic analysis of 3-D semi-rigid steel frames including geometric and connection nonlinearities. The geometric nonlinearity is considered by using stability functions and updating geometric stiffness matrix. The nonlinear behavior of the steel beam-to-column connection is considered by using a zero-length independent connection element comprising of six translational and rotational springs. The nonlinear dynamic equilibrium equations are solved by the Newmark numerical integration method. The nonlinear time-history analysis results are compared with those of previous studies and commercial SAP2000 software to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed procedure.

Keywords: Geometric nonlinearity, nonlinear time-historyanalysis, semi-rigid connection, stability functions.

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9337 Nonlinear Impact Responses for a Damped Frame Supported by Nonlinear Springs with Hysteresis Using Fast FEA

Authors: T. Yamaguchi, M. Watanabe, M. Sasajima, C. Yuan, S. Maruyama, T. B. Ibrahim, H. Tomita

Abstract:

This paper deals with nonlinear vibration analysis using finite element method for frame structures consisting of elastic and viscoelastic damping layers supported by multiple nonlinear concentrated springs with hysteresis damping. The frame is supported by four nonlinear concentrated springs near the four corners. The restoring forces of the springs have cubic non-linearity and linear component of the nonlinear springs has complex quantity to represent linear hysteresis damping. The damping layer of the frame structures has complex modulus of elasticity. Further, the discretized equations in physical coordinate are transformed into the nonlinear ordinary coupled differential equations using normal coordinate corresponding to linear natural modes. Comparing shares of strain energy of the elastic frame, the damping layer and the springs, we evaluate the influences of the damping couplings on the linear and nonlinear impact responses. We also investigate influences of damping changed by stiffness of the elastic frame on the nonlinear coupling in the damped impact responses.

Keywords: Dynamic response, Nonlinear impact response, Finite Element analysis, Numerical analysis.

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9336 Speeding up Nonlinear Time History Analysis of Base-Isolated Structures Using a Nonlinear Exponential Model

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

The nonlinear time history analysis of seismically base-isolated structures can require a significant computational effort when the behavior of each seismic isolator is predicted by adopting the widely used differential equation Bouc-Wen model. In this paper, a nonlinear exponential model, able to simulate the response of seismic isolation bearings within a relatively large displacements range, is described and adopted in order to reduce the numerical computations and speed up the nonlinear dynamic analysis. Compared to the Bouc-Wen model, the proposed one does not require the numerical solution of a nonlinear differential equation for each time step of the analysis. The seismic response of a 3d base-isolated structure with a lead rubber bearing system subjected to harmonic earthquake excitation is simulated by modeling each isolator using the proposed analytical model. The comparison of the numerical results and computational time with those obtained by modeling the lead rubber bearings using the Bouc-Wen model demonstrates the good accuracy of the proposed model and its capability to reduce significantly the computational effort of the analysis.

Keywords: Base isolation, computational efficiency, nonlinear exponential model, nonlinear time history analysis.

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9335 Nonlinear Analysis of Shear Wall Using Finite Element Model

Authors: M. A. Ghorbani, M. Pasbani Khiavi, F. Rezaie Moghaddam

Abstract:

In the analysis of structures, the nonlinear effects due to large displacement, large rotation and materially-nonlinear are very important and must be considered for the reliable analysis. The non-linear fmite element analysis has potential as usable and reliable means for analyzing of civil structures with the availability of computer technology. In this research the large displacements and materially nonlinear behavior of shear wall is presented with developing of fmite element code using the standard Galerkin weighted residual formulation. Two-dimensional plane stress model was carried out to present the shear wall response. Total Lagangian formulation, which is computationally more effective, is used in the formulation of stiffness matrices and the Newton-Raphson method is applied for the solution of nonlinear transient equations. The details of the program formulation are highlighted and the results of the analyses are presented, along with a comparison of the response of the structure with Ansys software results. The presented model in this paper can be developed for nonlinear analysis of civil engineering structures with different material behavior and complicated geometry.

Keywords: Finite element, large displacements, materially nonlinear, shear wall.

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9334 On a New Nonlinear Sum-difference Inequality with Application

Authors: Kelong Zheng, Shouming Zhong

Abstract:

A new nonlinear sum-difference inequality in two variables which generalize some existing results and can be used as handy tools in the analysis of certain partial difference equation is discussed. An example to show boundedness of solutions of a difference value problem is also given.

Keywords: Sum-Difference inequality, Nonlinear, Boundedness.

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9333 Automatic Iterative Methods for the Multivariate Solution of Nonlinear Algebraic Equations

Authors: Rafat Alshorman, Safwan Al-Shara', I. Obeidat

Abstract:

Most real world systems express themselves formally as a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. As applications grow, the size and complexity of these equations also increase. In this work, we highlight the key concepts in using the homotopy analysis method as a methodology used to construct efficient iteration formulas for nonlinear equations solving. The proposed method is experimentally characterized according to a set of determined parameters which affect the systems. The experimental results show the potential and limitations of the new method and imply directions for future work.

Keywords: Nonlinear Algebraic Equations, Iterative Methods, Homotopy Analysis Method.

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9332 The Small Scale Effect on Nonlinear Vibration of Single Layer Graphene Sheets

Authors: E. Jomehzadeh, A.R. Saidi

Abstract:

In the present article, nonlinear vibration analysis of single layer graphene sheets is presented and the effect of small length scale is investigated. Using the Hamilton's principle, the three coupled nonlinear equations of motion are obtained based on the von Karman geometrical model and Eringen theory of nonlocal continuum. The solutions of Free nonlinear vibration, based on a one term mode shape, are found for both simply supported and clamped graphene sheets. A complete analysis of graphene sheets with movable as well as immovable in-plane conditions is also carried out. The results obtained herein are compared with those available in the literature for classical isotropic rectangular plates and excellent agreement is seen. Also, the nonlinear effects are presented as functions of geometric properties and small scale parameter.

Keywords: Small scale, Nonlinear vibration, Graphene sheet, Nonlocal continuum

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9331 On the outlier Detection in Nonlinear Regression

Authors: Hossein Riazoshams, Midi Habshah, Jr., Mohamad Bakri Adam

Abstract:

The detection of outliers is very essential because of their responsibility for producing huge interpretative problem in linear as well as in nonlinear regression analysis. Much work has been accomplished on the identification of outlier in linear regression, but not in nonlinear regression. In this article we propose several outlier detection techniques for nonlinear regression. The main idea is to use the linear approximation of a nonlinear model and consider the gradient as the design matrix. Subsequently, the detection techniques are formulated. Six detection measures are developed that combined with three estimation techniques such as the Least-Squares, M and MM-estimators. The study shows that among the six measures, only the studentized residual and Cook Distance which combined with the MM estimator, consistently capable of identifying the correct outliers.

Keywords: Nonlinear Regression, outliers, Gradient, LeastSquare, M-estimate, MM-estimate.

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9330 Geometric and Material Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structure Considering Soil-Structure Interaction

Authors: Mohamed M. El-Gendy, Ibrahim A. El-Arabi, Rafik W. Abdel-Missih, Omar A. Kandil

Abstract:

In the present research, a finite element model is presented to study the geometrical and material nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete plane frames considering soil-structure interaction. The nonlinear behaviors of concrete and reinforcing steel are considered both in compression and tension up to failure. The model takes account also for the number, diameter, and distribution of rebar along every cross section. Soil behavior is taken into consideration using four different models; namely: linear-, nonlinear Winkler's model, and linear-, nonlinear continuum model. A computer program (NARC) is specially developed in order to perform the analysis. The results achieved by the present model show good agreement with both theoretical and experimental published literature. The nonlinear behavior of a rectangular frame resting on soft soil up to failure using the proposed model is introduced for demonstration.

Keywords: Nonlinear analysis, Geometric nonlinearity, Material nonlinearity, Reinforced concrete, Finite element method, Soilstructure interaction, Winkler's soil model, Continuum soil model

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9329 Dynamics and Control of a Chaotic Electromagnetic System

Authors: Shun-Chang Chang

Abstract:

In this paper, different nonlinear dynamics analysis techniques are employed to unveil the rich nonlinear phenomena of the electromagnetic system. In particular, bifurcation diagrams, time responses, phase portraits, Poincare maps, power spectrum analysis, and the construction of basins of attraction are all powerful and effective tools for nonlinear dynamics problems. We also employ the method of Lyapunov exponents to show the occurrence of chaotic motion and to verify those numerical simulation results. Finally, two cases of a chaotic electromagnetic system being effectively controlled by a reference signal or being synchronized to another nonlinear electromagnetic system are presented.

Keywords: bifurcation, Poincare map, Lyapunov exponent, chaotic motion.

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9328 Chaotic Oscillations of Diaphragm Supported by Nonlinear Springs with Hysteresis

Authors: M. Sasajima, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Koike, A. Hara

Abstract:

This paper describes vibration analysis using the finite element method for a small earphone, especially for the diaphragm shape with a low-rigidity. The viscoelastic diaphragm is supported by multiple nonlinear concentrated springs with linear hysteresis damping. The restoring forces of the nonlinear springs have cubic nonlinearity. The finite elements for the nonlinear springs with hysteresis are expressed and are connected to the diaphragm that is modeled by linear solid finite elements in consideration of a complex modulus of elasticity. Further, the discretized equations in physical coordinates are transformed into the nonlinear ordinary coupled equations using normal coordinates corresponding to the linear natural modes. We computed the nonlinear stationary and non-stationary responses due to the internal resonance between modes with large amplitude in the nonlinear springs and elastic modes in the diaphragm. The non-stationary motions are confirmed as the chaos due to the maximum Lyapunov exponents with a positive number. From the time histories of the deformation distribution in the chaotic vibration, we identified nonlinear modal couplings.

Keywords: Nonlinear Vibration, Finite Element Method, Chaos , Small Earphone.

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9327 Design of Nonlinear Observer by Using Chebyshev Interpolation based on Formal Linearization

Authors: Kazuo Komatsu, Hitoshi Takata

Abstract:

This paper discusses a design of nonlinear observer by a formal linearization method using an application of Chebyshev Interpolation in order to facilitate processes for synthesizing a nonlinear observer and to improve the precision of linearization. A dynamic nonlinear system is linearized with respect to a linearization function, and a measurement equation is transformed into an augmented linear one by the formal linearization method which is based on Chebyshev interpolation. To the linearized system, a linear estimation theory is applied and a nonlinear observer is derived. To show effectiveness of the observer design, numerical experiments are illustrated and they indicate that the design shows remarkable performances for nonlinear systems.

Keywords: nonlinear system, nonlinear observer, formal linearization, Chebyshev interpolation.

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9326 An Iterative Algorithm for KLDA Classifier

Authors: D.N. Zheng, J.X. Wang, Y.N. Zhao, Z.H. Yang

Abstract:

The Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) can be generalized into a nonlinear form - kernel LDA (KLDA) expediently by using the kernel functions. But KLDA is often referred to a general eigenvalue problem in singular case. To avoid this complication, this paper proposes an iterative algorithm for the two-class KLDA. The proposed KLDA is used as a nonlinear discriminant classifier, and the experiments show that it has a comparable performance with SVM.

Keywords: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), kernel LDA (KLDA), conjugate gradient algorithm, nonlinear discriminant classifier.

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9325 Seismic Soil-Pile Interaction Considering Nonlinear Soil Column Behavior in Saturated and Dry Soil Conditions

Authors: Mohammad Moeini, Mehrdad Ghyabi, Kiarash Mohtasham Dolatshahi

Abstract:

This paper investigates seismic soil-pile interaction using the Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation (BNWF) approach. Three soil types are considered to cover all the possible responses, as well as nonlinear site response analysis using finite element method in OpenSees platform. Excitations at each elevation that are output of the site response analysis are used as the input excitation to the soil pile system implementing multi-support excitation method. Spectral intensities of acceleration show that the extent of the response in sand is more severe than that of clay, in addition, increasing the PGA of ground strong motion will affect the sandy soil more, in comparison with clayey medium, which is an indicator of the sensitivity of soil-pile systems in sandy soil.

Keywords: Beam on nonlinear Winkler foundation method, multi-support excitation, nonlinear site response analysis, seismic soil-pile interaction.

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9324 Pushover Analysis of Short Structures

Authors: M.O. Makhmalbaf, M. GhanooniBagha, M.A. Tutunchian, M. Zabihi Samani

Abstract:

In this paper first, Two buildings have been modeled and then analyzed using nonlinear static analysis method under two different conditions in Nonlinear SAP 2000 software. In the first condition the interaction of soil adjacent to the walls of basement are ignored while in the second case this interaction have been modeled using Gap elements of nonlinear SAP2000 software. Finally, comparing the results of two models, the effects of soil-structure on period, target point displacement, internal forces, shape deformations and base shears have been studied. According to the results, this interaction has always increased the base shear of buildings, decreased the period of structure and target point displacement, and often decreased the internal forces and displacements.

Keywords: Seismic Rehabilitation, Soil-Structure Interaction, Short Structure, Nonlinear Static Analysis.

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9323 Signal and Harmonic Analysis of a Compressor Blade for Identification of the Nonlinear Frequency Vibration

Authors: Farhad Asadi, Gholamhasan Payganeh

Abstract:

High-speed turbomachine can experience significant centrifugal and gas bending loads. As a result, the compressor blades must be able to resist high-frequency oscillations due to surge or stall condition in flow field dynamics. In this paper, vibration characteristics of the 6th stage blade compressor have been examined in detail with, using 3-D finite element (FE) methods. The primary aim of this article is to gain an understanding of nonlinear vibration induced in the blade against different loading conditions. The results indicate the nonlinear behavior of the blade as a result of the amplitude of resonances or material properties. Since one of the leading causes of turbine blade failure is high cycle fatigue, simulations were started by specifying the stress distribution in the blade due to the centrifugal rotation. Next, resonant frequencies and critical speeds of the blade were defined by modal analysis. Finally, the harmonic analysis was simulated on the blades.

Keywords: Nonlinear vibration, modal analysis, resonance, frequency response, compressor blade.

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9322 Generalized Differential Quadrature Nonlinear Consolidation Analysis of Clay Layer with Time-Varied Drainage Conditions

Authors: A. Bahmanikashkouli, O.R. Bahadori Nezhad

Abstract:

In this article, the phenomenon of nonlinear consolidation in saturated and homogeneous clay layer is studied. Considering time-varied drainage model, the excess pore water pressure in the layer depth is calculated. The Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ) method is used for the modeling and numerical analysis. For the purpose of analysis, first the domain of independent variables (i.e., time and clay layer depth) is discretized by the Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto series and then the nonlinear system of equations obtained from the GDQ method is solved by means of the Newton-Raphson approach. The obtained results indicate that the Generalized Differential Quadrature method, in addition to being simple to apply, enjoys a very high accuracy in the calculation of excess pore water pressure.

Keywords: Generalized Differential Quadrature method, Nonlinear consolidation, Nonlinear system of equations, Time-varied drainage

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9321 Nonlinear Large Deformation Analysis of Rotor

Authors: Amin Almasi

Abstract:

Reliability assessment and risk analysis of rotating machine rotors in various overload and malfunction situations present challenge to engineers and operators. In this paper a new analytical method for evaluation of rotor under large deformation is addressed. Model is presented in general form to include also composite rotors. Presented simulation procedure is based on variational work method and has capability to account for geometric nonlinearity, large displacement, nonlinear support effect and rotor contacting other machine components. New shape functions are presented which capable to predict accurate nonlinear profile of rotor. The closed form solutions for various operating and malfunction situations are expressed. Analytical simulation results are discussed

Keywords: Large Deformation, Nonlinear, Rotor.

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9320 A NonLinear Observer of an Electrical Transformer: A Bond Graph Approach

Authors: Gilberto Gonzalez-A , Israel Nuñez

Abstract:

A bond graph model of an electrical transformer including the nonlinear saturation is presented. A nonlinear observer for the transformer based on multivariable circle criterion in the physical domain is proposed. In order to show the saturation and hysteresis effects on the electrical transformer, simulation results are obtained. Finally, the paper describes that convergence of the estimates to the true states is achieved.

Keywords: Bond graph, nonlinear observer, electrical transformer, nonlinear saturation.

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9319 Chaotic Response and Bifurcation Analysis of Gear-Bearing System with and without Porous Effect under Nonlinear Suspension

Authors: Cai-Wan Chang-Jian

Abstract:

This study presents a systematic analysis of the dynamic behaviors of a gear-bearing system with porous squeeze film damper (PSFD) under nonlinear suspension, nonlinear oil-film force and nonlinear gear meshing force effect. It can be found that the system exhibits very rich forms of sub-harmonic and even the chaotic vibrations. The bifurcation diagrams also reveal that greater values of permeability may not only improve non-periodic motions effectively, but also suppress dynamic amplitudes of the system. Therefore, porous effect plays an important role to improve dynamic stability of gear-bearing systems or other mechanical systems. The results presented in this study provide some useful insights into the design and development of a gear-bearing system for rotating machinery that operates in highly rotational speed and highly nonlinear regimes.

Keywords: Gear, PSFD, bifurcation, chaos.

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9318 Design and Instrumentation of a Benchmark Multivariable Nonlinear Control Laboratory

Authors: S. H. Teh, S. Malawaraarachci, W. P. Chan, A. Nassirharand

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present the design and instrumentation of a new benchmark multivariable nonlinear control laboratory. The mathematical model of this system may be used to test the applicability and performance of various nonlinear control procedures. The system is a two degree-of-freedom robotic arm with soft and hard (discontinuous) nonlinear terms. Two novel mechanisms are designed to allow the implementation of adjustable Coulomb friction and backlash.

Keywords: Nonlinear control, describing functions, AdjustableCoulomb friction, Adjustable backlash.

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9317 Revealing Nonlinear Couplings between Oscillators from Time Series

Authors: B.P. Bezruchko, D.A. Smirnov

Abstract:

Quantitative characterization of nonlinear directional couplings between stochastic oscillators from data is considered. We suggest coupling characteristics readily interpreted from a physical viewpoint and their estimators. An expression for a statistical significance level is derived analytically that allows reliable coupling detection from a relatively short time series. Performance of the technique is demonstrated in numerical experiments.

Keywords: Nonlinear time series analysis, directional couplings, coupled oscillators.

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9316 Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling of Deep Beam Resting on Linear and Nonlinear Random Soil

Authors: M. Seguini, D. Nedjar

Abstract:

An accuracy nonlinear analysis of a deep beam resting on elastic perfectly plastic soil is carried out in this study. In fact, a nonlinear finite element modeling for large deflection and moderate rotation of Euler-Bernoulli beam resting on linear and nonlinear random soil is investigated. The geometric nonlinear analysis of the beam is based on the theory of von Kàrmàn, where the Newton-Raphson incremental iteration method is implemented in a Matlab code to solve the nonlinear equation of the soil-beam interaction system. However, two analyses (deterministic and probabilistic) are proposed to verify the accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed model where the theory of the local average based on the Monte Carlo approach is used to analyze the effect of the spatial variability of the soil properties on the nonlinear beam response. The effect of six main parameters are investigated: the external load, the length of a beam, the coefficient of subgrade reaction of the soil, the Young’s modulus of the beam, the coefficient of variation and the correlation length of the soil’s coefficient of subgrade reaction. A comparison between the beam resting on linear and nonlinear soil models is presented for different beam’s length and external load. Numerical results have been obtained for the combination of the geometric nonlinearity of beam and material nonlinearity of random soil. This comparison highlighted the need of including the material nonlinearity and spatial variability of the soil in the geometric nonlinear analysis, when the beam undergoes large deflections.

Keywords: Finite element method, geometric nonlinearity, material nonlinearity, soil-structure interaction, spatial variability.

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9315 Evaluation of Linear and Geometrically Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Analysis of Thin Shells by Flat Shell Finite Elements

Authors: Djamel Boutagouga, Kamel Djeghaba

Abstract:

The choice of finite element to use in order to predict nonlinear static or dynamic response of complex structures becomes an important factor. Then, the main goal of this research work is to focus a study on the effect of the in-plane rotational degrees of freedom in linear and geometrically non linear static and dynamic analysis of thin shell structures by flat shell finite elements. In this purpose: First, simple triangular and quadrilateral flat shell finite elements are implemented in an incremental formulation based on the updated lagrangian corotational description for geometrically nonlinear analysis. The triangular element is a combination of DKT and CST elements, while the quadrilateral is a combination of DKQ and the bilinear quadrilateral membrane element. In both elements, the sixth degree of freedom is handled via introducing fictitious stiffness. Secondly, in the same code, the sixth degrees of freedom in these elements is handled differently where the in-plane rotational d.o.f is considered as an effective d.o.f in the in-plane filed interpolation. Our goal is to compare resulting shell elements. Third, the analysis is enlarged to dynamic linear analysis by direct integration using Newmark-s implicit method. Finally, the linear dynamic analysis is extended to geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis where Newmark-s method is used to integrate equations of motion and the Newton-Raphson method is employed for iterating within each time step increment until equilibrium is achieved. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the interpolation of the in-plane rotational d.o.f. and present deficiencies of using fictitious stiffness in dynamic linear and nonlinear analysis.

Keywords: Flat shell, dynamic analysis, nonlinear, Newmark, drilling rotation.

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9314 Robust Adaptive Observer Design for Lipschitz Class of Nonlinear Systems

Authors: M. Pourgholi, V.J.Majd

Abstract:

This paper addresses parameter and state estimation problem in the presence of the perturbation of observer gain bounded input disturbances for the Lipschitz systems that are linear in unknown parameters and nonlinear in states. A new nonlinear adaptive resilient observer is designed, and its stability conditions based on Lyapunov technique are derived. The gain for this observer is derived systematically using linear matrix inequality approach. A numerical example is provided in which the nonlinear terms depend on unmeasured states. The simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Adaptive observer, linear matrix inequality, nonlinear systems, nonlinear observer, resilient observer, robust estimation.

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9313 Nonlinear Analysis of Postural Sway in Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Hua Cao, Laurent Peyrodie, Olivier Agnani, Cécile Donzé

Abstract:

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease which affects the central nervous system and causes balance problem. In clinical, this disorder is usually evaluated using static posturography. Some linear or nonlinear measures, extracted from the posturographic data (i.e. center of pressure, COP) recorded during a balance test, has been used to analyze postural control of MS patients. In this study, the trend (TREND) and the sample entropy (SampEn), two nonlinear parameters were chosen to investigate their relationships with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score. 40 volunteers with different EDSS scores participated in our experiments with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC). TREND and 2 types of SampEn (SampEn1 and SampEn2) were calculated for each combined COP’s position signal. The results have shown that TREND had a weak negative correlation to EDSS while SampEn2 had a strong positive correlation to EDSS. Compared to TREND and SampEn1, SampEn2 showed a better significant correlation to EDSS and an ability to discriminate the MS patients in the EC case. In addition, the outcome of the study suggests that the multi-dimensional nonlinear analysis could provide some information about the impact of disability progression in MS on dynamics of the COP data.

Keywords: Balance, multiple sclerosis, nonlinear analysis, postural sway.

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9312 Recent Trends in Nonlinear Methods of HRV Analysis: A Review

Authors: Ramesh K. Sunkaria

Abstract:

The linear methods of heart rate variability analysis such as non-parametric (e.g. fast Fourier transform analysis) and parametric methods (e.g. autoregressive modeling) has become an established non-invasive tool for marking the cardiac health, but their sensitivity and specificity were found to be lower than expected with positive predictive value <30%. This may be due to considering the RR-interval series as stationary and re-sampling them prior to their use for analysis, whereas actually it is not. This paper reviews the non-linear methods of HRV analysis such as correlation dimension, largest Lyupnov exponent, power law slope, fractal analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, complexity measure etc. which are currently becoming popular as these uses the actual RR-interval series. These methods are expected to highly accurate cardiac health prognosis.

Keywords: chaos, nonlinear dynamics, sample entropy, approximate entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis.

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