Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: M. Watanabe

33 A Novel NIRS Index to Evaluate Brain Activity in Prefrontal Regions While Listening to First and Second Languages for Long Time Periods

Authors: Kensho Takahashi, Ko Watanabe, Takashi Kaburagi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara

Abstract:

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used as a non-invasive method to measure brain activity, but it is corrupted by baseline drift noise. Here we present a method to measure regional cerebral blood flow as a derivative of NIRS output. We investigate whether, when listening to languages, blood flow can reasonably localize and represent regional brain activity or not. The prefrontal blood flow distribution pattern when advanced second-language listeners listened to a second language (L2) was most similar to that when listening to their first language (L1) among the patterns of mean and standard deviation. In experiments with 25 healthy subjects, the maximum blood flow was localized to the left BA46 of advanced listeners. The blood flow presented is robust to baseline drift and stably localizes regional brain activity.

Keywords: NIRS, oxy-hemoglobin, baseline drift, blood flow, working memory, BA46, first language, second language.

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32 Acoustic Finite Element Analysis of a Slit Model with Consideration of Air Viscosity

Authors: M. Sasajima, M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike

Abstract:

In very narrow pathways, the speed of sound propagation and the phase of sound waves change due to the air viscosity. We have developed a new finite element method (FEM) that includes the effects of air viscosity for modeling a narrow sound pathway. This method is developed as an extension of the existing FEM for porous sound-absorbing materials. The numerical calculation results for several three-dimensional slit models using the proposed FEM are validated against existing calculation methods.

Keywords: Simulation, FEM, air viscosity, slit.

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31 Study on the Chaotic Cipher Combined with Mersenne Twister

Authors: Daiki Yoshida, Ariyoshi Nakayama, Hirotaka Watanabe, Taichi Sato, Syuhei Kuriyama, Hiroyuki Kamata

Abstract:

In this study, we propose the chaotic cipher combined with Mersenne Twister that is an extremely good pseudo-random number generator for the secure communications. We investigate the Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system, and evaluate the randomness performance by comparing RC4 and the chaotic cipher. In these results, our proposed system gets high chaotic property and more randomness than the conventional ciphers.

Keywords: Chaos, chaotic property, cipher, Mersenne Twister, Randomness.

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30 FEM Analysis of Occluded Ear Simulator with Narrow Slit Pathway

Authors: M. Sasajima, T. Yamaguchi, M. Watanabe, Y. Koike

Abstract:

This paper discusses the propagation of sound waves in air, specifically in narrow rectangular pathways of an occluded-ear simulator for acoustic measurements. In narrow pathways, both the speed of sound and the phase of the sound waves are affected by the damping of the air viscosity. Herein, we propose a new finite-element method (FEM) that considers the effects of the air viscosity. The method was developed as an extension of existing FEMs for porous, sound-absorbing materials. The results of a numerical calculation for a three-dimensional ear-simulator model using the proposed FEM were validated by comparing with theoretical lumped-parameter modeling analysis and standard values.

Keywords: Ear simulator, FEM, simulation, viscosity.

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29 Acoustic Analysis with Consideration of Damping Effects of Air Viscosity in Sound Pathway

Authors: M. Sasajima, M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike

Abstract:

Sound pathways in the enclosures of small earphones are very narrow. In such narrow pathways, the speed of sound propagation and the phase of sound waves change because of the air viscosity. We have developed a new finite element method that includes the effects of damping due to air viscosity for modeling the sound pathway. This method is developed as an extension of the existing finite element method for porous sound-absorbing materials. The numerical calculation results using the proposed finite element method are validated against the existing calculation methods.

Keywords: Simulation, FEM, air viscosity, damping.

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28 Whole Body CT for a Patient with Sepsis

Authors: Y. Yanagawa, K. Aihara, S. Watanabe, M. Takemoto, T. Naito, T. Iba, H. Tanaka

Abstract:

This study retrospectively investigated the significance of whole body CT (WCT) for patients with sepsis. A medical chart review was retrospectively performed for all patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome that were treated initially between April 2011 and March 2012. The subjects were divided into a WCT group that underwent WCT on arrival and a control group. Results of this study suggested that WCT for sepsis was useful for elderly patients whose chief complaint or physiological findings could not suggest the anatomical site of infection, to determine the infectious focus and indications/method for surgery, to diagnose the basic diseases associated with opportunistic infections and to evaluate complicated diseases

Keywords: Sepsis, CT, outcome.

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27 Combustion Analysis of Suspended Sodium Droplet

Authors: T. Watanabe

Abstract:

Combustion analysis of suspended sodium droplet is performed by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy conservation equations. The combustion model consists of the pre-ignition and post-ignition models. The reaction rate for the pre-ignition model is based on the chemical kinetics, while that for the post-ignition model is based on the mass transfer rate of oxygen. The calculated droplet temperature is shown to be in good agreement with the existing experimental data. The temperature field in and around the droplet is obtained as well as the droplet shape variation, and the present numerical model is confirmed to be effective for the combustion analysis.

Keywords: Combustion, analysis, sodium, droplet.

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26 Effects of ECCS on the Cold-Leg Fluid Temperature during SGTR Accidents

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract:

The LSTF experiment simulating the SGTR accident at the Mihama Unit-2 reactor is analyzed using the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. In the accident, and thus in the experiment, the ECC water was injected not only into the cold legs but into the upper plenum. Overall transients during the experiment such as pressures and fluid temperatures are simulated well by the code. The cold-leg fluid temperatures are shown to decrease if the upper plenum injection system is connected to the cold leg. It is found that the cold-leg fluid temperatures also decrease if the upper-plenum injection is not used and the cold-leg injection alone is actuated.

Keywords: SGTR, LSTF, RELAP5, ECCS.

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25 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 2: Condensation and Solidification Experiments on Liquid Waste

Authors: Sou Watanabe, Hiromichi Ogi, Atsuhiro Shibata, Kazunori Nomura

Abstract:

As a part of STRAD project conducted by JAEA, condensation of radioactive liquid waste containing various chemical compounds using reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filter was examined for efficient and safety treatment of the liquid wastes accumulated inside hot laboratories. NH4+ ion in the feed solution was successfully concentrated, and NH4+ ion involved in the effluents became lower than target value; 100 ppm. Solidification of simulated aqueous and organic liquid wastes was also tested. Those liquids were successfully solidified by adding cement or coagulants. Nevertheless, optimization in materials for confinement of chemicals is required for long time storage of the final solidified wastes.

Keywords: Radioactive liquid waste, condensation, solidification, STRAD project.

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24 Evaluation Using a Bidirectional Microphone as a Pressure Pulse Wave Meter

Authors: S. Fujiwara, T. Kaburagi, K. Kobayashi, K. Watanabe, Y. Kurihara

Abstract:

This paper describes a novel sensor device, a pressure pulse wave meter, which uses a bidirectional condenser microphone. The microphone work as a microphone as well as a sensor with high gain over a wide frequency range; they are also highly reliable and economic. Currently aging is becoming a serious social issue in Japan causing increased medical expenses in the country. Hence, it is important for elderly citizens to check health condition at home, and to care the health conditions through daily monitoring. Given this circumstances, we developed a novel pressure pulse wave meter based on a bidirectional condenser microphone: this device is used as a measuring instrument of health conditions.

Keywords: Bidirectional microphone, pressure pulse wave meter, health condition.

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23 Account Management Method with Blind Signature Scheme

Authors: Ryu Watanabe, Yutaka Miyake

Abstract:

Reducing the risk of information leaks is one of the most important functions of identity management systems. To achieve this purpose, Dey et al. have already proposed an account management method for a federated login system using a blind signature scheme. In order to ensure account anonymity for the authentication provider, referred to as an IDP (identity provider), a blind signature scheme is utilized to generate an authentication token on an authentication service and the token is sent to an IDP. However, there is a problem with the proposed system. Malicious users can establish multiple accounts on an IDP by requesting such accounts. As a measure to solve this problem, in this paper, the authors propose an account checking method that is performed before account generation.

Keywords: identity management, blind signature, privacy protection

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22 Comparison of Two-Phase Critical Flow Models for Estimation of Leak Flow Rate through Cracks

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe, Jinya Katsuyama, Akihiro Mano

Abstract:

The estimation of leak flow rates through narrow cracks in structures is of importance for nuclear reactor safety, since the leak flow could be detected before occurrence of loss-of-coolant accidents. The two-phase critical leak flow rates are calculated using the system analysis code, and two representative non-homogeneous critical flow models, Henry-Fauske model and Ransom-Trapp model, are compared. The pressure decrease and vapor generation in the crack, and the leak flow rates are found to be larger for the Henry-Fauske model. It is shown that the leak flow rates are not affected by the structural temperature, but affected largely by the roughness of crack surface.

Keywords: Crack, critical flow, leak, roughness.

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21 Numerical Simulation of the Transient Shape Variation of a Rotating Liquid Droplet

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract:

Transient shape variation of a rotating liquid dropletis simulated numerically. The three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations were solved by using the level set method. The shape variation from the sphere to the rotating ellipsoid, and to the two-robed shapeare simulated, and the elongation of the two-robed droplet is discussed. The two-robed shape after the initial transient is found to be stable and the elongation is almost the same for the cases with different initial rotation rate. The relationship between the elongation and the rotation rate is obtained by averaging the transient shape variation. It is shown that the elongation of two-robed shape is in good agreement with the existing experimental data. It is found that the transient numerical simulation is necessary for analyzing the largely elongated two-robed shape of rotating droplet.

Keywords: Droplet, rotation, two-robed shape, transient simulation.

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20 Study on the Evaluation of the Chaotic Cipher System Using the Improved Volterra Filters and the RBFN Mapping

Authors: Hirotaka Watanabe, Takaaki Kondo, Daiki Yoshida, Ariyoshi Nakayama, Taichi Sato, Shuhei Kuriyama, Hiroyuki Kamata

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a chaotic cipher system consisting of Improved Volterra Filters and the mapping that is created from the actual voice by using Radial Basis Function Network. In order to achieve a practical system, the system supposes to use the digital communication line, such as the Internet, to maintain the parameter matching between the transmitter and receiver sides. Therefore, in order to withstand the attack from outside, it is necessary that complicate the internal state and improve the sensitivity coefficient. In this paper, we validate the robustness of proposed method from three perspectives of "Chaotic properties", "Randomness", "Coefficient sensitivity".

Keywords: Chaos cipher, 16-bit-length fixed point arithmetic, Volterra filter, Seacret communications, RBF Network

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19 A Quantification Method of Attractiveness of Stations and an Estimation Method of Number of Passengers Taking into Consideration the Attractiveness of the Station

Authors: Naoya Ozaki, Takuya Watanabe, Ryosuke Matsumoto, Noriko Fukasawa

Abstract:

In the metropolitan areas in Japan, in many stations, shopping areas are set up, and escalators and elevators are installed to make the stations be barrier-free. Further, many areas around the stations are being redeveloped. Railway business operators want to know how much effect these circumstances have on attractiveness of the station or number of passengers using the station. So, we performed a questionnaire survey of the station users in the metropolitan areas for finding factors to affect the attractiveness of stations. Then, based on the analysis of the survey, we developed a method to quantitatively evaluate attractiveness of the stations. We also developed an estimation method for number of passengers based on combination of attractiveness of the station quantitatively evaluated and the residential and labor population around the station. Then, we derived precise linear regression models estimating the attractiveness of the station and number of passengers of the station.

Keywords: Attractiveness of the station, estimation method, number of passengers of the station, redevelopment around the station, renovation of the station.

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18 Simulation of Sloshing behavior using Moving Grid and Body Force Methods

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract:

The flow field and the motion of the free surface in an oscillating container are simulated numerically to assess the numerical approach for studying two-phase flows under oscillating conditions. Two numerical methods are compared: one is to model the oscillating container directly using the moving grid of the ALE method, and the other is to simulate the effect of container motion using the oscillating body force acting on the fluid in the stationary container. The two-phase flow field in the container is simulated using the level set method in both cases. It is found that the calculated results by the body force method coinsides with those by the moving grid method and the sloshing behavior is predicted well by both the methods. Theoretical back ground and limitation of the body force method are discussed, and the effects of oscillation amplitude and frequency are shown.

Keywords: Two-phase flow, simulation, oscillation, moving grid, body force

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17 Development of Vibration Sensor with Wide Frequency Range Based on Condenser Microphone -Estimation System for Flow Rate in Water Pipes-

Authors: Hironori Kakuta, Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara

Abstract:

Water leakage is a serious problem in the maintenance of a waterworks facility. Monitoring the water flow rate is one way to locate leakage. However, conventional flowmeters such as the wet-type flowmeter and the clamp-on type ultrasonic flowmeter require additional construction for their installation and are therefore quite expensive. This paper proposes a novel estimation system for the flow rate in a water pipeline, which employs a vibration sensor. This assembly can be attached to any water pipeline without the need for additional high-cost construction. The vibration sensor is designed based on a condenser microphone. This sensor detects vibration caused by water flowing through a pipeline. It is possible to estimate the water flow rate by measuring the amplitude of the output signal from the vibration sensor. We confirmed the validity of the proposed sensing system experimentally.

Keywords: Condenser microphone, Flow rate estimation, Piping vibration, Water pipe.

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16 On the Numerical Approach for Simulating Thermal Hydraulics under Seismic Condition

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract:

The two-phase flow field and the motion of the free surface in an oscillating channel are simulated numerically to assess the methodology for simulating nuclear reacotr thermal hydraulics under seismic conditions. Two numerical methods are compared: one is to model the oscillating channel directly using the moving grid of the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method, and the other is to simulate the effect of channel motion using the oscillating acceleration acting on the fluid in the stationary channel. The two-phase flow field in the oscillating channel is simulated using the level set method in both cases. The calculated results using the oscillating acceleration are found to coinside with those using the moving grid, and the theoretical back ground and the limitation of oscillating acceleration are discussed. It is shown that the change in the interfacial area between liquid and gas phases under seismic conditions is important for nuclear reactor thermal hydraulics.

Keywords: Two-phase flow, simulation, seismic condition, moving grid, oscillating acceleration, interfacial area

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15 Automated Service Scene Detection for Badminton Game Analysis Using CHLAC and MRA

Authors: Fumito Yoshikawa, Takumi Kobayashi, Kenji Watanabe, Nobuyuki Otsu

Abstract:

Extracting in-play scenes in sport videos is essential for quantitative analysis and effective video browsing of the sport activities. Game analysis of badminton as of the other racket sports requires detecting the start and end of each rally period in an automated manner. This paper describes an automatic serve scene detection method employing cubic higher-order local auto-correlation (CHLAC) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). CHLAC can extract features of postures and motions of multiple persons without segmenting and tracking each person by virtue of shift-invariance and additivity, and necessitate no prior knowledge. Then, the specific scenes, such as serve, are detected by linear regression (MRA) from the CHLAC features. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, the experiment was conducted on video sequences of five badminton matches captured by a single ceiling camera. The averaged precision and recall rates for the serve scene detection were 95.1% and 96.3%, respectively.

Keywords: Badminton, CHLAC, MRA, Video-based motiondetection

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14 Development of Scratching Monitoring System Based On Mathematical Model of Unconstrained Bed Sensing Method

Authors: Takuya Sumi, Syoko Nukaya, Takashi Kaburagi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara

Abstract:

We propose an unconstrained measurement system for scratching motion based on mathematical model of unconstrained bed sensing method which could measure the bed vibrations due to the motion of the person on the bed. In this paper, we construct mathematical model of the unconstrained bed monitoring system; and we apply the unconstrained bed sensing method to the system for detecting scratching motion. The proposed sensors are placed under the three bed feet. When the person is lying on the bed, the output signals from the sensors are proportional to the magnitude of the vibration due to the scratching motion. Hence, we could detect the subject’s scratching motion from the output signals from ceramic sensors. We evaluated two scratching motions using the proposed system in the validity experiment as follows: 1st experiment is the subject’s scratching the right side cheek with his right hand, and; 2nd experiment is the subject’s scratching the shin with another foot. As the results of the experiment, we recognized the scratching signals that enable the determination when the scratching occurred. Furthermore, the difference among the amplitudes of the output signals enabled us to estimate where the subject scratched.

Keywords: Unconstrained bed sensing method, scratching, body movement, itchy, piezoceramics.

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13 Nonlinear Impact Responses for a Damped Frame Supported by Nonlinear Springs with Hysteresis Using Fast FEA

Authors: T. Yamaguchi, M. Watanabe, M. Sasajima, C. Yuan, S. Maruyama, T. B. Ibrahim, H. Tomita

Abstract:

This paper deals with nonlinear vibration analysis using finite element method for frame structures consisting of elastic and viscoelastic damping layers supported by multiple nonlinear concentrated springs with hysteresis damping. The frame is supported by four nonlinear concentrated springs near the four corners. The restoring forces of the springs have cubic non-linearity and linear component of the nonlinear springs has complex quantity to represent linear hysteresis damping. The damping layer of the frame structures has complex modulus of elasticity. Further, the discretized equations in physical coordinate are transformed into the nonlinear ordinary coupled differential equations using normal coordinate corresponding to linear natural modes. Comparing shares of strain energy of the elastic frame, the damping layer and the springs, we evaluate the influences of the damping couplings on the linear and nonlinear impact responses. We also investigate influences of damping changed by stiffness of the elastic frame on the nonlinear coupling in the damped impact responses.

Keywords: Dynamic response, Nonlinear impact response, Finite Element analysis, Numerical analysis.

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12 Mechanical Behavior of Deep-Drawn Cups with Aluminum/Duralumin Multi-Layered Clad Structures

Authors: Hideaki Tsukamoto, Yoshiki Komiya, Hisashi Sato, Yoshimi Watanabe

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate mechanical behavior of deep-drawn cups consisting of aluminum (A1050)/ duralumin (A2017) multi-layered clad structures with micro- and macro-scale functional gradients. Such multi-layered clad structures are possibly used for a new type of crash-boxes in automobiles to effectively absorb the impact forces generated when automobiles having collisions. The effect of heat treatments on microstructure, compositional gradient, micro hardness in 2 and 6-layered aluminum/ duralumin clad structures, which were fabricated by hot rolling, have been investigated. Impact compressive behavior of deep-drawn cups consisting of such aluminum/ duralumin clad structures has been also investigated in terms of energy absorption and maximum force. Deep-drawn cups consisting of 6-layerd clad structures with microand macro-scale functional gradients exhibit superior properties in impact compressive tests.

Keywords: Crash box, functionally graded material (FGM), Impact compressive property, Multi-layered clad structure.

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11 Petrology and Geochemistry of Granitic Rocks in South Sulawesi, Indonesia: Implication for Origin of Magma and Geodynamic Setting

Authors: Adi Maulana, Koichiro Watanabe, Akira Imai, Kotaro Yonezu

Abstract:

Petrology and geochemical characteristics of granitic rocks from South Sulawesi, especially from Polewaliand Masamba area are presented in order to elucidate their origin of magma and geodynamic setting. The granitic rocks in these areas are dominated by granodiorite and granite in composition. Quartz, K-feldspar and plagioclase occur as major phases with hornblende and biotite as major ferromagnesian minerals. All of the samples were plotted in calc-alkaline field, show metaluminous affinity and typical of I-type granitic rock. Harker diagram indicates that granitic rocks experienced fractional crystallization during magmatic evolution. Both groups displayed an extreme enrichment of LILE, LREE and a slight negative Eu anomaly which resemble upper continental crust affinity. They were produced from partial melting of upper continental crust and have close relationship of sources composition within a suite. The geochemical characteristics explained the arc related subduction environment which later give an evidence of continent-continent collision between Australia-derived microcontinent and Sundalandto form continental arc environment.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Granitic Rock, Petrology, Sulawesi

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10 Theoretical Analysis of Damping Due to Air Viscosity in Narrow Acoustic Tubes

Authors: M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi, M. Sasajima, Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike

Abstract:

Headphones and earphones have many extremely small holes or narrow slits; they use sound-absorbing or porous material (i.e., dampers) to suppress vibratory system resonance. The air viscosity in these acoustic paths greatly affects the acoustic properties. Simulation analyses such as the finite element method (FEM) therefore require knowledge of the material properties of sound-absorbing or porous materials, such as the characteristic impedance and propagation constant. The transfer function method using acoustic tubes is a widely known measuring method, but there is no literature on taking measurements up to the audible range. To measure the acoustic properties at high-range frequencies, the acoustic tubes that form the measuring device need to be narrowed, and the distance between the two microphones needs to be reduced. However, when the tubes are narrowed, the characteristic impedance drops below the air impedance. In this study, we considered the effect of air viscosity in an acoustical tube, introduced a theoretical formula for this effect in the form of complex density and complex sonic velocity, and verified the theoretical formula. We also conducted an experiment and observed the effect from air viscosity in the actual measurements.

Keywords: acoustic tube, air viscosity, earphones, FEM, porous material, sound-absorbing material, transfer function method

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9 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 3: Volume Reduction and Stabilization of Solid Waste

Authors: Masaumi Nakahara, Sou Watanabe, Hiromichi Ogi, Atsuhiro Shibata, Kazunori Nomura

Abstract:

In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, three types of experimental research, advanced reactor fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear fuel cycle technology, have been carried out at the Chemical Processing Facility. The facility has generated high level radioactive liquid and solid wastes in hot cells. The high level radioactive solid waste is divided into three main categories, a flammable waste, a non-flammable waste, and a solid reagent waste. A plastic product is categorized into the flammable waste and molten with a heating mantle. The non-flammable waste is cut with a band saw machine for reducing the volume. Among the solid reagent waste, a used adsorbent after the experiments is heated, and an extractant is decomposed for its stabilization. All high level radioactive solid wastes in the hot cells are packed in a high level radioactive solid waste can. The high level radioactive solid waste can is transported to the 2nd High Active Solid Waste Storage in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

Keywords: High level radioactive solid waste, advanced reactor fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste disposal, nuclear fuel cycle technology.

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8 Examination of the Effect of Air Viscosity on Narrow Acoustic Tubes Using FEM Involving Complex Effective Density and Complex Bulk Modulus

Authors: M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi, M. Sasajima, Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike

Abstract:

Earphones and headphones, which are compact electro-acoustic transducers, tend to have a lot of acoustic absorption materials and porous materials known as dampers, which often have a large number of extremely small holes and narrow slits to inhibit the resonance of the vibrating system, because the air viscosity significantly affects the acoustic characteristics in such acoustic paths. In order to perform simulations using the finite element method (FEM), it is necessary to be aware of material characteristics such as the impedance and propagation constants of sound absorbing materials and porous materials. The transfer function is widely known as a measurement method for an acoustic tube with such physical properties, but literature describing the measurements at the upper limits of the audible range is yet to be found. The acoustic tube, which is a measurement instrument, must be made narrow, and the distance between the two sets of microphones must be shortened in order to take measurements of acoustic characteristics at higher frequencies. When such a tube is made narrow, however, the characteristic impedance has been observed to become lower than the impedance of air. This paper considers the cause of this phenomenon to be the effect of the air viscosity and describes an FEM analysis of an acoustic tube considering air viscosity to compare to the theoretical formula by including the effect of air viscosity in the theoretical formula for an acoustic tube.

Keywords: Acoustic tube, air viscosity, earphones, FEM, porous materials, sound absorbing materials, transfer function method.

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7 Miocene Warm Tropical Climate: Evidence Based on Oxygen Isotope in Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Akmaluddin, Koichiro Watanabe, Akihiro Kano, Wartono Rahardjo

Abstract:

Oxygen and carbon isotopes records of multi-species planktonic, benthic foraminifera and bulk carbonate sample from Central Java Indonesia demonstrate that warm sea surface temperature occurred during the Miocene. Planktonic δ18O values from this study consistently lighter (-4 to -3 ‰PDB) than previous studies that indicate sea surface temperature during Miocene in this area was warm than tropical/equatorial localities. A surprising decrease of oxygen isotopic composition was recorded at ±14 Ma where the maximum of δ18O values is -4.87 ‰PDB for Orbulina universa, -5.02 ‰PDB for Globigerinoides sacculifer and -4.30 ‰PDB for Globoquadrina dehiscens, this event we predict as Middle Miocene Optimum. Warming of sea surface temperature we interpret as related to the development of Western Pacific Warm Pool where warm water from Pacific Ocean through the Indonesian seaway appears to remain during Miocene. Our result also show increasing suddenly of oxygen isotope values of planktic, benthic and bulk carbonate sample from ± 12 Ma, the increasing cooled surface water relatively high degree with Late Miocene global cooling climate or we predict that due to closing of Indonesian Gateway.

Keywords: Oxygen isotope, Foraminifera, Miocene, Paleoclimate, Indonesian.

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6 Analysis of Brain Activities due to Differences in Running Shoe Properties

Authors: K. Okubo, Y. Kurihara, T. Kaburagi, K. Watanabe

Abstract:

Many of the ever-growing elderly population require exercise, such as running, for health management. One important element of a runner’s training is the choice of shoes for exercise; shoes are important because they provide the interface between the feet and road. When we purchase shoes, we may instinctively choose a pair after trying on many different pairs of shoes. Selecting the shoes instinctively may work, but it does not guarantee a suitable fit for running activities. Therefore, if we could select suitable shoes for each runner from the viewpoint of brain activities, it would be helpful for validating shoe selection. In this paper, we describe how brain activities show different characteristics during particular task, corresponding to different properties of shoes. Using five subjects, we performed a verification experiment, applying weight, softness, and flexibility as shoe properties. In order to affect the shoe property’s differences to the brain, subjects run for 10 min. Before and after running, subjects conducted a paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT) as the particular task; and the subjects’ brain activities during the PASAT are evaluated based on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin relative concentration changes, measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). When the brain works actively, oxihemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration drastically changes; therefore, we calculate the maximum values of concentration changes. In order to normalize relative concentration changes after running, the maximum value are divided by before running maximum value as evaluation parameters. The classification of the groups of shoes is expressed on a self-organizing map (SOM). As a result, deoxyhemoglobin can make clusters for two of the three types of shoes.

Keywords: Brain activities, NIRS, PASAT, running shoes.

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5 Total and Leachable Concentration of Trace Elements in Soil towards Human Health Risk, Related with Coal Mine in Jorong, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Arie Pujiwati, Kengo Nakamura, Noriaki Watanabe, Takeshi Komai

Abstract:

Coal mining is well known to cause considerable environmental impacts, including trace element contamination of soil. This study aimed to assess the trace element (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) contamination of soil in the vicinity of coal mining activities, using the case study of Asam-asam River basin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, and to assess the human health risk, incorporating total and bioavailable (water-leachable and acid-leachable) concentrations. The results show the enrichment of As and Co in soil, surpassing the background soil value. Contamination was evaluated based on the index of geo-accumulation, Igeo and the pollution index, PI. Igeo values showed that the soil was generally uncontaminated (Igeo ≤ 0), except for elevated As and Co. Mean PI for Ni and Cu indicated slight contamination. Regarding the assessment of health risks, the Hazard Index, HI showed adverse risks (HI > 1) for Ni, Co, and As. Further, Ni and As were found to pose unacceptable carcinogenic risk (risk > 1.10-5). Farming, settlement, and plantation were found to present greater risk than coal mines. These results show that coal mining activity in the study area contaminates the soils by particular elements and may pose potential human health risk in its surrounding area. This study is important for setting appropriate countermeasure actions and improving basic coal mining management in Indonesia.

Keywords: Coal mine, risk, soil, trace elements.

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4 Pilot Trial of Evidence-Based Integrative Group Therapy to Improve Executive Functioning among Adults: Implications for Community Mental Health and Training Clinics

Authors: B. Parchem, M. Watanabe, D. Modrakovic, L. Mathew, A. Franklin, M. Cao, R. E. Broudy

Abstract:

Objective: Executive functioning (EF) deficits underlie several mental health diagnoses including ADHD, anxiety, and depression. Community mental health clinics face extensive waitlists for services with many referrals involving EF deficits. A pilot trial of a four-week group therapy was developed using key components from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), and mindfulness with an aim to improve EF skills and offer low-fee services. Method: Eight adults (M = 34.5) waiting for services at a community clinic were enrolled in a four-week group therapy at an in-house training clinic for doctoral trainees. Baseline EF, pre-/post-intervention ADHD and distress symptoms, group satisfaction, and curriculum helpfulness were assessed. Results: Downward trends in ADHD and distress symptoms pre/post-intervention were not significant. Favorable responses on group satisfaction and helpfulness suggest clinical utility. Conclusion: Preliminary pilot data from a brief group therapy to improve EF may be an efficacious, acceptable, and feasible intervention for adults waiting for services at community mental health and training clinics where there are high demands and limits to services and staffs.

Keywords: Executive functioning, cognitive-behavioral therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, mindfulness, adult group therapy.

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