Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: Ageing

55 Optimization of Artificial Ageing Time and Temperature on Evaluation of Hardness and Resistivity of Al-Si-Mg (Cu or/& Ni) Alloys

Authors: A. Hossain, A. S. W. Kurny

Abstract:

The factors necessary to obtain an optimal heat treatment that influence the hardness and resistivity of Al-6Si-0.5Mg casting alloys with Cu or/and Ni additions were investigated. The alloys were homogenised (24hr at 500oC), solutionized (2hr at 540oC) and artificially ageing at various times and temperatures. The alloys were aged isochronally for 60 minutes at temperatures up to 400oC and isothermally at 150, 175, 200, 225, 250 & 300oC for different periods in the range 15 to 360 minutes. The hardness and electrical resistivity of the alloys were measured for various artificial ageing times and temperatures. From the isochronal ageing treatment, hardness found maximum ageing at 225oC. And from the isothermal ageing treatment, hardness found maximum for 60 minutes at 225oC. So the optimal heat treatment consists of 60 minutes ageing at 225oC.

Keywords: Ageing, Al-Si-Mg alloy, hardness, resistivity.

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54 The Effect of Ageing on Impact Toughness and Microstructure of 2024 Al-Cu-Mg Alloy

Authors: Swami Naidu Gurugubelli

Abstract:

The present study aims at determining the effect of ageing on the impact toughness and microstructure of 2024 Al-Cu - Mg alloy. Following the 2 h solutionizing treatment at 450°C and water quench, the specimens were aged at 200°C for various periods (1 to 18 h). The precipitation stages during ageing were monitored by hardness measurements. For each specimen group, Charpy impact and hardness tests were carried out. During ageing the impact toughness of the alloy first increased, and then, following a maxima decreased due to the precipitation of intermediate phases, finally it reached its minimum at the peak hardness. Correlations between hardness and impact toughness were investigated.

Keywords: Ageing, alloy, hardness, microstructure.

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53 Spatial Resilience of the Ageing Population in the Romanian Functional Urban Areas

Authors: Marinela Istrate, Ionel Muntele, Alexandru Bănică

Abstract:

The authors propose the identification, analysis and prognosis of the quantitative and qualitative evolution of the elderly population in the functional urban areas. The present paper takes into account the analysis of some representative indicators (the weight of the elderly population, ageing index, dynamic index of economic ageing of productive population etc.) and the elaboration of an integrated indicator that would help differentiate the population ageing forms in the 48 functional urban areas that were defined based on demographic and social-economic criteria for all large and medium cities in Romania.

Keywords: Ageing, demographic transition, functional urban areas, spatial resilience.

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52 Comparison of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Outdoor Polymer Insulators

Authors: S.Thong-Om, W. Payakcho, J. Grasasom, A. Oonsivilaiand B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the comparison ageing deterioration of silicone rubber housing material for outdoor polymer insulators by using salt fog ageing test based on IEC 61109 and outdoor exposure test.Four types of high temperature silicone vulcanized silicone rubber sheet with different amount of ATH were used as testing specimen. For salt fog ageing test, the specimens were tested continuously 1000 hours with energized in test chamber. For outdoor exposure test, the specimens were hung continuously 18 months without energized. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted to evaluate degree of ageing deterioration of tested specimens. Slightly surface erosion was observed on specimen surface after salt fog ageing test and no erosion was observed on surface of outdoor exposure specimen. However, comparable degree of ageing deterioration can be seen from surface analysis results.

Keywords: Accelerated ageing test, outdoor exposure test, HTV silicone rubber, housing material, salt fog test, surface erosion, polymer insulator

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51 Ageing Assessment of Insulation Systems by Absorption/Resorption Currents

Authors: Petru V. Notingher, Stefan Busoi, Laurentiu M. Dumitran, Cristina Stancu, Gabriel Tanasescu, Emanuel Balescu

Abstract:

Degradation of polymeric insulation systems of electrical equipments increases the space charge density and the concentration of electrical dipoles. By consequence, the maximum values and the slopes of absorption/resorption (A/R) currents can change with insulation systems ageing. In this paper, an analysis of the nature of the A/R currents and the importance of their components, especially the polarization current and the current given by the space charge, is presented. The experimental study concerns the A/R currents measurements of plane samples (made from CALMICAGLAS tapes), virgin and thermally accelerated aged. The obtained results show that the ageing process produces an increase of the values and a decrease of shapes of the A/R currents. Finally, the possibility of estimating insulations ageing state and lifetime from A/R currents measurements is discussed.

Keywords: Insulation Systems, Absorption/Resorption Currents, Ageing, Lifetime.

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50 Artificial Accelerated Ageing Test of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Lightning Arrester

Authors: W. Payakcho, J. Grasaesom, S. Thong-om, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of silicone rubber housing material for 24kV lightning arrester under artificial accelerated ageing test based on IEC 61109 specifications. Specimens having inclined and alternated shed made of HTV silicone rubber with ATH content and having leakage distance 625 mm were tested continuously 1000 hrs in artificial salt fog chamber. After 1000 hrs of salt fog ageing test, obviously surface erosion was observed on trunk between the upper large shed and the lower small shed near the energized end. Decreasing in hydrophobicity and increasing in hardness were measured on tested specimen comparing with new specimen. Chemical analysis by ATR-FTIR confirmed the observation results.

Keywords: Accelerated ageing test, Silicone rubber housing material, salt fog test, Lightning Arrester, Ageing

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49 Baby Boom Generation in Singapore and Its Impact on Ageing

Authors: Sharmistha Roy

Abstract:

In Singapore, there are about 1 million baby boomers, defined as those born between 1947 and 1964. They constitute a sizeable proportion (about 30 per cent) of the resident population comprising Singapore citizens and permanent residents. The first batches of these baby boomers have already 65 years old by 2012. Thereafter, baby boomers will swell the ranks of the elderly population in Singapore until 2030. The baby boomers in this study are divided into broad groups, namely, the early baby boomers (born 1947-54) and late baby boomers (1955-64). Continuing decline in fertility and mortality rates in the past three decades as well as improvements in health care facilities and services have changed the demography of Singapore from a “pyramid-shape” young, post war baby boomers population to a rapidly ageing population. With the ageing of the baby boom generation, the population of Singapore is about to grey rapidly over the next three decades. As such, there is a need for Singapore to understand the profile, perceptions and aspirations of this group, and devise strategies to address the needs and concerns as well as opportunities that arise with the ageing of baby boomers are discussed and presented in this work.

Keywords: Ageing index, Baby boomers, Demographic dependency ratio (DDR), Fertility and mortality rate, Life expectancy, Singapore.

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48 The Effect of Ageing Treatment of Aluminum Alloys for Fuselage Structure-Light Aircraft

Authors: Shwe Wut Hmon Aye, Kay Thi Lwin, Waing Waing Kay Khine Oo

Abstract:

As the material used for fuselage structure must possess low density, high strength to weight ratio, the selection of appropriate materials for fuselage structure is one of the most important tasks. Aluminum metal itself is soft and low in strength. It can be made stronger by giving proper combination of suitable alloy addition, mechanical treatment and thermal treatment. The usual thermal treatment given to aluminum alloys is called age-hardening or precipitation hardening. In this paper, the studies are carried out on 7075 aluminum alloy which is how to improve strength level for fuselage structure. The marked effect of the strength on the ternary alloy is clearly demonstrated at several ageing times and temperatures. It is concluded that aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloy can get the highest strength level in natural ageing.

Keywords: Aluminum alloy, ageing, heat treatment, strength.

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47 Comparison Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Outdoor Polymer Insulators in Artificial Accelerated Salt Fog Ageing Test

Authors: S.Thong-Om, W. Payakcho, J. Grasaesom, A. Oonsivilai, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of silicone rubber outdoor polymer insulators in salt fog ageing test based on IEC 61109. Specimens made ofHTV silicone rubber with ATH content having three different configurations, straight shedsalternated sheds, and incline and alternate sheds, were tested continuously 1000 hrs.in artificial salt fog chamber. Contamination level, reduction of hydrophobicity and hardness measurement were used as physical damaged inspection techniques to evaluate degree of surface deterioration. In addition, chemical changing of tested specimen surface was evaluated by ATR-FTIRto confirm physical damaged inspection. After 1000 hrs.of salt fog test, differences in degree of surface deterioration were observed on all tested specimens. Physical damaged inspection and chemical analysis results confirmed the experimental results as well.

Keywords: Ageing deterioration, Silicone rubber, Polymer Insulator, Salt fog ageing test.

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46 Comparison of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Outdoor Polymer Insulator under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test

Authors: J. Grasaesom, S. Thong-om, W. Payakcho, A. Oonsivilai, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results on ageing deterioration of silicone rubber outdoor polymer insulator under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. In order to comparison effect of chemical contents, silicone rubber outdoor polymer insulators having same configuration and leakage distant from two manufactures were tested together continuously 30,000 test cycles. Many discharge activities were observed in during the test. After 30,000 test cycles, in spite of same configuration, differences in degree of surface aging were observed. Physical analysis such as decreasing in hydrophobicity and increasing in hardness measurement were measured on two-type tested specimen surface in order to confirm degree of surface ageing. Furthermore, chemical analysis by ATR-FTIR to diagnose the chemical change of tested specimen surface was conducted to confirm the physical analysis results.

Keywords: ageing of silicone rubber, salt water dip wheel test, silicone rubber polymer insulator

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45 Study of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Outdoor Polymer Insulators

Authors: S. Thong-om, W. Payakcho, J. Grasasom, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of salt fog ageing test of silicone rubber housing material for outdoor polymer insulator based on IEC 61109. Four types of HTV silicone rubber sheet with different amount of ATH were tested continuously 1000<=hours in salt fog chamber. By visual observation after tested, slightly surface erosion was observed on tested specimen surface near the energized end. Furthermore, increasing in hardness and reduction in hydrophobicity were measured on tested specimen comparing with new specimen. In addition, chemical analysis by ATRFTIR was conducted in order to elucidate the chemical change of tested specimens comparing with new specimen. Physical and chemical results confirmed the experimental results as well.

Keywords: Accelerated ageing test, HTV silicone rubber, housing material, salt fog test, surface erosion, polymer insulator.

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44 Mechanical Properties Enhancement of 66/34Mg-Alloy for Medical Application

Authors: S. O. Adeosun, O. I. Sekunowo, O. P. Gbenebor, W. A. Ayoola, A. O. Odunade, T. A. Idowu

Abstract:

Sand cast samples of the as-received 66/34Mg-Al alloy were first homogenized at 4900C and then divided into three groups on which annealing, normalising and artificial ageing were respectively carried out. Thermal ageing of the samples involved treatment at 5000C, soaked for 4 hours and quenched in water at ambient temperature followed by tempering at 2000C for 2 hours. Test specimens were subjected to microstructure and mechanical analyses and the results compared. Precipitation of significant volume of stable Mg17Al12 crystals in the aged specimen’s matrix conferred superior mechanical characteristics compared with the annealed, normalized and as-cast specimens. The ultimate tensile strength was 93.4MPa with micro-hardness of 64.9HRC and impact energy (toughness) of 4.05J. In particular, its Young modulus was 10.4GPa which compared well with that of cortical (trabecule) bone’s modulus that varies from 12-17GPa.

Keywords: Mg-Al alloy, artificial ageing, medical implant, cortical bone, mechanical properties.

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43 Ageing and Partial Discharge Patterns in Oil-Impregnated Paper and Pressboard Insulation at High Temperature

Authors: R. H. Khawaja, T. R. Blackburn, M. Rehan Arif

Abstract:

The power transformer is the most expensive, indispensable and arguably the most important equipment item in a power system Insulation failure in transformers can cause long term interruption to supply and loss of revenue and the condition assessment of the insulation is thus an important maintenance procedure. Oil-impregnated transformer insulation consists of mainly organic materials including mineral oil and cellulose-base paper and pressboard. The operating life of cellulose-based insulation, as with most organic insulation, depends heavily on its operating temperature rise above ambient. This paper reports results of a laboratory-based experimental investigation of partial discharge (PD) activity at high temperature in oil-impregnated insulation. The experiments reported here are part an on-going programme aimed at investigating the way in which insulation deterioration can be monitored and quantified by use of partial discharge diagnostics. Partial discharge patterns were recorded and analysed during increasing and decreasing phases of the temperature. The effect of ageing of the insulation on the PD patterns in oil and oil-impregnated insulation are also considered.

Keywords: Ageing, high temperature, PD, oil-impregnated insulation.

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42 Electric Field and Potential Distributions along Surface of Silicone Rubber Polymer Insulators Using Finite Element Method

Authors: B. Marungsri, W. Onchantuek, A. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

This paper presents the simulation the results of electric field and potential distributions along surface of silicone rubber polymer insulators. Near the same leakage distance subjected to 15 kV in 50 cycle salt fog ageing test, alternate sheds silicone rubber polymer insulator showed better contamination performance than straight sheds silicone rubber polymer insulator. Severe surface ageing was observed on the straight sheds insulator. The objective of this work is to elucidate that electric field distribution along straight sheds insulator higher than alternate shed insulator in salt fog ageing test. Finite element method (FEM) is adopted for this work. The simulation results confirmed the experimental data, as well.

Keywords: Electric field distribution, potential distribution, silicone rubber polymer insulator, finite element method.

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41 Artificial Accelerated Ageing Test of 22 kVXLPE Cable for Distribution System Applications in Thailand

Authors: A. Rawangpai, B. Maraungsri, N. Chomnawang

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results on artificial ageing test of 22 kV XLPE cable for distribution system application in Thailand. XLPE insulating material of 22 kV cable was sliced to 60-70 μm in thick and was subjected to ac high voltage at 23 Ôùª C, 60 Ôùª C and 75 Ôùª C. Testing voltage was constantly applied to the specimen until breakdown. Breakdown voltage and time to breakdown were used to evaluate life time of insulating material. Furthermore, the physical model by J. P. Crine for predicts life time of XLPE insulating material was adopted as life time model and was calculated in order to compare the experimental results. Acceptable life time results were obtained from Crine-s model comparing with the experimental result. In addition, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for chemical analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for physical analysis were conducted on tested specimens.

Keywords: Artificial accelerated ageing test, XLPE cable, distribution system, insulating material, life time, life time model

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40 Ageing Deterioration of Hi gh-Density Polyethylene Cable Spacer under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test

Authors: P. Kaewchanthuek, R. Rawonghad, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of high-density polyethylene cable spacers for 22 kV distribution systems under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. The strength of anti-tracking and anti-erosion of cable spacer surface was studied in this study. During the test, dry band arc and corona discharge were observed on cable spacer surface. After 30,000 cycles of salt water dip wheel test, obviously surface erosion and tracking were observed especially on the ground end. Chemical analysis results by fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy showed chemical changed from oxidation and carbonization reaction on tested cable spacer. Increasing of C=O and C=C bonds confirmed occurrence of these reactions.

Keywords: Cable spacer, HDPE, ageing of cable spacer, salt water dip wheel test.

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39 The Influence of Water Ingress to Aircraft Cabin Components

Authors: Nils Ischdonat

Abstract:

The accomplished study is based on the appointment and identification of ageing effects and according to this absorption of moisture of aircraft cabin components over the life-cycle. In the first step of the study ceiling panels from same age and from the same aircraft cabin have been examined according to weight changes depending on the position in the aircraft cabin. In the second step of the study different aged ceiling panels have been examined concerning deflection, weight changes and the acoustic sound transmission loss. To prove the assumption of water absorption within the study and with the theoretical background from literature and scientific papers, an older test panel was exposed extreme thermal conditions (humidity and temperature) within a climate chamber to show that there is a general ingress of water to cabin components and that this ingress of water leads to the change of different mechanical properties.

Keywords: Aircraft Cabin, water ingress, ageing effects, sound transmission loss

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38 Precipitation Hardening Behavior of Directly Cold Rolled Al-6Mg Alloy Containing Ternary Sc and Quaternary Zi/Ti

Authors: M. S. Kaiser

Abstract:

Ageing of 75% cold rolled Al-6Mg alloy with ternary 0.4 wt% scandium and quaternary zirconium and titanium has been carried out. Alloy samples are naturally, isochronally and isothermally aged for different time and temperatures. Hardness values of the differently processed alloys have been measured to understand the ageing behavior of Al-6Mg alloy with scandium and quaternary zirconium and titanium addition. Resistivity changes with annealing time and temperature were measured to understand the precipitation behavior and recovery of strain of the alloy. Attempts were also made to understand the grain refining effect of scandium in Al-6Mg alloy. It is observed that significant hardening takes place in the aged alloys due to the precipitation of scandium aluminides and the dendrites of the Al-6Mg alloy have been refined significantly due to addition of scandium.

Keywords: Al-Mg alloys, age hardening, resistivity, metastable phase.

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37 The Determinants of Senior Students' Behavioral Intention on the Blended E-Learning for the Ceramics Teaching Course at the Active Aging University

Authors: Horng-Jyh Chen, Yi-Fang Chen, Chien-Liang Lin

Abstract:

In this paper, the authors try to investigate the determinants of behavioral intention of the blended E-learning course for senior students at the Active Ageing University in Taiwan. Due to lower proficiency in the use of computers and less experience on learning styles of the blended E-learning course for senior students will be expected quite different from those for most young students. After more than five weeks course for two years the questionnaire survey is executed to collect data for statistical analysis in order to understand the determinants of the behavioral intention for senior students. The object of this study is at one of the Active Ageing University in Taiwan total of 84 senior students in the blended E-learning for the ceramics teaching course. The research results show that only the perceived usefulness of the blended E-learning course has significant positive relationship with the behavioral intention.

Keywords: Active Aging University, blended E-learning, ceramics teaching course, behavioral intention

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36 Effect of 2wt% Cu Addition on the Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Peak Aged Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni Alloy at Various Strain Rates

Authors: A. Hossain, A. S. W. Kurny, M. A. Gafur

Abstract:

Effect of 2wt% Cu addition on tensile properties and fracture behavior of Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni alloy at various strain rates were studied. The solution treated Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni (-2Cu) alloys, were aged isochronally for 1 hour at temperatures up to 300oC. The uniaxial tension test was carried out at strain rate ranging from 10-4s-1 to 10-2s-1 in order to investigate the strain rate dependence of tensile properties. Tensile strengths were found to increase with ageing temperature and the maximum being attained ageing for 1 hr at 225oC (peak aged condition). Addition of 2wt% Cu resulted in an increase in tensile properties at all strain rates. Evaluation of tensile properties at three different strain rates (10-4, 10-3 and 10-2 s-1) showed that strain rates affected the tensile properties significantly. At higher strain rates the strength was better but ductility was poor. Microstructures of broken specimens showed that both the void coalescence and the interface debonding affect the fracture behavior of the alloys

Keywords: Al-Si-Mg-Ni-Cu alloy, tensile properties, strain rate, SEM.

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35 Influence of Hygro-Chemo-Mechanical Degradation on Performance of Concrete Gravity Dam

Authors: Kalyan Kumar Mandal, Damodar Maity

Abstract:

The degradation of concrete due to various hygrochemo- mechanical actions is inevitable for the structures particularly built to store water. Therefore, it is essential to determine the material properties of dam-like structures due to ageing to predict the behavior of such structures after a certain age. The degraded material properties are calculated by introducing isotropic degradation index. The predicted material properties are used to study the behavior of aged dam at different ages. The dam is modeled by finite elements and displacement and is considered as an unknown variable. The parametric study reveals that the displacement is quite larger for comparatively lower design life of the structure because the degradation of elastic properties depends on the design life of the dam. The stresses in dam cam be unexpectedly large at any age with in the design life. The outcomes of the present study indicate the importance of the consideration ageing effect of concrete exposed to water for the safe design of dam throughout its life time.

Keywords: Hygro-chemo-mechanical, isotropic degradation, finite element method, Koyna earthquake.

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34 Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Polymer Insulator under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test

Authors: J. Grasaesom, S.Thong-om, W. Payakcho, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of silicone rubber polymer insulators for 22 kV systems under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. Straight shed silicone rubber polymer insulators having leakage distance 685 mm were tested continuously 30,000 cycles. One test cycle includes 4 positions, energized, de-energized, salt water dip and deenergized, respectively. For one test cycle, each test specimen remains stationary for about 40 second in each position and takes 8 second for rotate to next position. By visual observation, sever surface erosion was observed on the trunk near the energized end of tested specimen. Puncture was observed on the upper shed near the energized end. In addition, decreasing in hydrophobicity and increasing in hardness were measured on tested specimen comparing with new specimen. Furthermore, chemical analysis by ATR-FTIR was conducted in order to elucidate the chemical change of tested specimens comparing with new specimen.

Keywords: ageing of silicone rubber, salt water dip wheeltest, silicone rubber polymer insulator

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33 Classification of Health Risk Factors to Predict the Risk of Falling in Older Adults

Authors: L. Lindsay, S. A. Coleman, D. Kerr, B. J. Taylor, A. Moorhead

Abstract:

Cognitive decline and frailty is apparent in older adults leading to an increased likelihood of the risk of falling. Currently health care professionals have to make professional decisions regarding such risks, and hence make difficult decisions regarding the future welfare of the ageing population. This study uses health data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), focusing on adults over the age of 50 years, in order to analyse health risk factors and predict the likelihood of falls. This prediction is based on the use of machine learning algorithms whereby health risk factors are used as inputs to predict the likelihood of falling. Initial results show that health risk factors such as long-term health issues contribute to the number of falls. The identification of such health risk factors has the potential to inform health and social care professionals, older people and their family members in order to mitigate daily living risks.

Keywords: Classification, falls, health risk factors, machine learning, older adults.

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32 Effects of Temperature on Resilient Modulus of Dense Asphalt Mixtures Incorporating Steel Slag Subjected to Short Term Oven Ageing

Authors: Meor O. Hamzah, Teoh C. Yi

Abstract:

As the resources for naturally occurring aggregates diminished at an ever increasing rate, researchers are keen to utilize recycled materials in road construction in harmony with sustainable development. Steel slag, a waste product from the steel making industry, is one of the recycled materials reported to exhibit great potential to replace naturally occurring aggregates in asphalt mixtures. This paper presents the resilient modulus properties of steel slag asphalt mixtures subjected to short term oven ageing (STOA). The resilient modulus test was carried out to evaluate the stiffness of asphalt mixtures at 10ºC, 25ºC and 40ºC. Previous studies showed that stiffness changes in asphalt mixture played an important role in inflicting pavement distress particularly cracking and rutting that are common at low and high temperatures respectively. Temperature was found to significantly influence the resilient modulus of asphalt mixes. The resilient modulus of the asphalt specimens tested decreased by more than 90% when the test temperature increased from 10°C to 40°C.

Keywords: Granite, Resilient Modulus, Steel Slag, Temperature.

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31 Effect of Bentonite on Shear Strength of Bushehr Calcareous Sand

Authors: Arash Poordana, Reza Ziaie Moayed

Abstract:

Calcareous sands are found most commonly in areas adjacent to crude oil and gas, and particularly around water. These types of soil have high compressibility due to high inter-granular porosity, irregularity, fragility, and especially crushing. Also, based on experience, it has been shown that the behavior of these types of soil is not similar to silica sand in loading. Since the destructive effects of cement on the environment are obvious, other alternatives such as bentonite are popular to be used. Bentonite has always been used commercially in civil engineering projects and according to its low hydraulic conductivity, it is used for landfills, cut-off walls, and nuclear wastelands. In the present study, unconfined compression tests in five ageing periods (1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days) after mixing different percentages of bentonite (5%, 7.5% and 10%) with Bushehr calcareous sand were performed. The relative density considered for the specimens is 50%. Optimum water content was then added to each specimen accordingly (19%, 18.5%, and 17.5%). The sample preparation method was wet tamping and the specimens were compacted in five layers. It can be concluded from the results that as the bentonite content increases, the unconfined compression strength of the soil increases. Based on the obtained results, 3-day and 7-day ageing periods showed 30% and 50% increase in the shear strength of soil, respectively.

Keywords: Unconfined compression test, bentonite, bushehr calcareous sand.

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30 Chemical and Sensory Properties of Chardonnay Wines Produced in Different Oak Barrels

Authors: Valentina Obradović, Josip Mesić, Maja Ergović Ravančić, Kamila Mijowska, Brankica Svitlica

Abstract:

French oak and American oak barrels are most famous all over the world, but barrels of different origin can also be used for obtaining high quality wines. The aim of this research was to compare the influence of different Slovenian (Croatian) and French oak barrels on the quality of Chardonnay wine. Grapes were grown in the Croatian wine growing region of Kutjevo in 2015. Chardonnay wines were tested for basic oenological parameters (alcohol, extract, reducing sugar, SO2, acidity), total polyphenols content (Folin-Ciocalteu method), antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH method) and colour density. Sensory evaluation was performed by students of viticulture/oenology. Samples produced by classical fermentation and ageing in French oak barrels had better results for polyphenols and sensory evaluation (especially low toasting level) than samples in Slovenian barrels. All tested samples were scored as a “quality” or “premium quality” wines. Sur lie method of fermentation and ageing in Slovenian oak barrel had very good extraction of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity with the usage of authentic yeasts, while commercial yeast strain resulted in worse chemical and sensory parameters.

Keywords: Chardonnay, French oak, Slovenian oak, sur lie.

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29 Physical Parameters for Reliability Evaluation

Authors: Tazibt W., Mialhe P.

Abstract:

This paper presents ageing experiments controlled by the evolution of junction parameters. The deterioration of the device is related to high injection effects which modified the transport mechanisms in the space charge region of the junction. Physical phenomena linked to the degradation of junction parameters that affect the devices reliability are reported and discussed. We have used the method based on numerical analysis of experimental current-voltage characteristic of the junction, in order to extract the electrical parameters. The simultaneous follow-up of the evolutions of the series resistance and of the transition voltage allow us to introduce a new parameter for reliability evaluation.

Keywords: High injection, junction, parameters, reliability

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28 Adoption of Lean Thinking and Service Improvement for Care Home Service

Authors: Chuang-Chun Chiou

Abstract:

Ageing population is a global trend; therefore the need of care service has been increasing dramatically. There are three basic forms of service delivered to the elderly: institution, community, and home. Particularly, the institutional service can be seen as an extension of medical service. The nursing home or so-called care home which is equipped with professional staff and facilities can provide a variety of service including rehabilitation service, short-term care, and long term care. Similar to hospital and other health care service, care home service do need to provide quality and cost-effective service to satisfy the dwellers. The main purpose of this paper is to show how lean thinking and service innovation can be applied to care home operation. The issues and key factors of implementing lean practice are discussed.

Keywords: Lean, Service improvement, SERVQUAL, Care home service.

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27 Demographic and Socio-Economic Study of the Elderly Population in Kolkata, India

Authors: Ambika Roy Bardhan

Abstract:

Kolkata, the City of Joy, is a greying metropolis not only in respect of its concrete jungle but also because of the largest population of 60-plus residents that it shelters among all other cities in India. Declining birth and death rates and a negative growth of population indicate that the city has reached the last stage of demographic transition. Thus, the obvious consequence has been the ageing of its population. With this background, the present paper attempts to study the demographic and socio-economic status of the elderly population in Kolkata. Analysis and findings have been based on secondary data obtained from Census of India of various years, Sample Registration System Reports and reports by HelpAge India. Findings show that the elderly population is increasing continuously. With respect to gender, the male elderly outnumbers the female elderly population. The percentage of households having one elderly member is more in the city due to the emergence of the nuclear families and erosion of joint family system. With respect to socio-economic status, those elderly who are the heads of the family are lower in percentages than those in the other age groups. Also, male elderly as head of the family are greater in percentage than female elderly. Elderly in the category of currently married records the highest percentage followed by widowed, never married and lastly, separated or divorced. Male elderly outnumber the female elderly as currently married, while female elderly outnumbers the male elderly in the category of widowed. In terms of living status, the percentage of elderly who are living alone is highest in Kolkata and the reason for staying alone as no support from children also happens to be highest in this city. The literacy rate and higher level of education is higher among the male than female elderly. Higher percentages of female elderly have been found to be with disability. Disability in movement and multiple disabilities have been found to be more common among the elderly population in Kolkata. Percentages of male literate pensioners are highest than other categories. Also, in terms of levels of education male elderly who are graduate and above other than technical degree are the highest receivers of pension. Also, in terms of working status, elderly as non-workers are higher in percentages with the population of elderly females outnumbering the males. The old age dependency ratio in the city is increasing continuously and the ratio is higher among females than male. Thus, it can be stated that Kolkata is witnessing continuous and rapid ageing of its population. Increasing dependency ratio is likely to create pressure on the working population, available civic, social and health amenities. This requires intervention in the form of planning, formulation and implementation of laws, policies, programs and measures to safeguard and improve the conditions of the elderly in Kolkata.

Keywords: Demographic, Elderly, Population, Socio-economic.

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26 Comparative Analysis of Total Phenolic Content in Sea Buckthorn Wine and Other Selected Fruit Wines

Authors: Bharti Negi, Gargi Dey

Abstract:

This is the first report from India on a beverage resulting from alcoholic fermentation of the juice of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L) using lab isolated yeast strain. The health promoting potential of the product was evaluated based on its total phenolic content. The most important finding was that under the present fermentation condition, the total phenolic content of the wine product was 689 mg GAE/L. Investigation of influence of bottle ageing on the sea buckthorn wine showed a slight decrease in the phenolic content (534 m mg GAE/L). This study also includes the comparative analysis of the phenolic content of wines from other selected fruit juices like grape, apple and black currant. KeywordsAlcoholic fermentation, Hippophae, Total phenolic content, Wine

Keywords: Alcoholic fermentation, Hippophae, Total phenolic content, Wine

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