Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 671

Search results for: loading

671 Realignment of f-actin Cytoskeleton in Osteocytes after Mechanical Loading

Authors: R. S. A. Nesbitt, J. Macione, E. Babollah, B. Adu-baffour, S. P. Kotha

Abstract:

F-actin fibrils are the cytoskeleton of osteocytes. They react in a dynamic manner to mechanical loading, and strength and reposition their efforts to reinforce the cells structure. We hypothesize that f-actin is temporarly disrupted after loading and repolymerizes in a new orientation to oppose the applied load. In vitro studies are conducted to determine f-actin disruption after varying mechanical stimulus parameters that are known to affect bone formation. Results indicate that the f-actin cytoskeleton is disrupted in vitro as a function of applied mechanical stimulus parameters and that the f-actin bundles reassemble after loading induced disruption within 3 minutes after cessation of loading. The disruption of the factin cytoskeleton depends on the magnitude of stretch, the numbers of loading cycles, frequency, the insertion of rest between loading cycles and extracellular calcium. In vivo studies also demonstrate disruption of the f-actin cytoskeleton in cells embedded in the bone matrix immediately after mechanical loading. These studies suggest that adaptation of the f-actin fiber bundles of the cytoskeleton in response to applied loads occurs by disruption and subsequent repolymerization.

Keywords: Mechanical loading of osteocytes, f-actin cytoskeleton, disruption, re-polymerization.

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670 Features of Rail Strength Analysis in Conditions of Increased Force Loading

Authors: G. Guramishvili, M. Moistsrapishvili, L. Andghuladze

Abstract:

In the article are considered the problems arising at increasing of transferring from rolling stock axles on rail loading from 210 KN up to 270 KN and is offered for rail strength analysis definition of rail force loading complex integral characteristic with taking into account all affecting force factors that is characterizing specific operation condition of rail structure and defines the working capability of structure.

As result of analysis due mentioned method is obtained that in the conditions of 270 KN loading the rail meets the working assessment criteria of rail and rail structures: Strength, rail track stability, rail links stability and its transverse stability, traffic safety condition that is rather important for post-Soviet countries railways.

Keywords: Axial loading, rail force loading, rail structure, rail strength analysis, rail track stability.

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669 Effect of Mode Loading on FCRG Plate with Double Through Crack at Hole

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab, A. Hadjoui

Abstract:

The knowledge of the nature of loading is very important in order to hold account on the total behavior such as vibration, shock, fatigue, etc. Fatigue present 90% of failure when loadings fatigues are very complex. In this paper a study of double through crack at hole for plate subjected to fatigue loading is presented. Various modes loading are studied where the applied load is the same one. The fatigue life is given where the effect of stress ratio is highlighted. This work is conducted on aluminum alloy 2024 T351 used for much aerospace and aeronautics applications. The fatigue crack growth behavior with constant amplitude is studied using the AFGROW code when Forman model is applied. The fatigue crack growth rate and fatigue life for different loading modes are compared with variation of others geometrical parameter such as thickness and dimensions of notch hole.

Keywords: Fatigue crack, mode loading, aluminum alloy

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668 Kinematic Behavior of Geogrid Reinforcements during Earthquakes

Authors: Ahmed Hosny Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Abdel-Moneim

Abstract:

Reinforced earth structures are generally subjected to cyclic loading generated from earthquakes. This paper presents a summary of the results and analyses of a testing program carried out in a large-scale multi-function geosynthetic testing apparatus that accommodates soil samples up to 1.0 m3. This apparatus performs different shear and pullout tests under both static and cyclic loading. The testing program was carried out to investigate the controlling factors affecting soil/geogrid interaction under cyclic loading. The extensibility of the geogrids, the applied normal stresses, the characteristics of the cyclic loading (frequency, and amplitude), and initial static load within the geogrid sheet were considered in the testing program. Based on the findings of the testing program, the effect of these parameters on the pullout resistance of geogrids, as well as the displacement mobility under cyclic loading were evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations for the design of reinforced earth walls under cyclic loading are presented.

Keywords: Geogrid, Soil, Interface, Cyclic Loading, Pullout, and Large scale Testing.

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667 Loading Factor Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor Impeller: Specific Features and Way of Modeling

Authors: K. Soldatova, Y. Galerkin

Abstract:

A loading factor performance is necessary for the modeling of centrifugal compressor gas dynamic performance curve. Measured loading factors are linear function of a flow coefficient at an impeller exit. The performance does not depend on the compressibility criterion. To simulate loading factor performances, the authors present two parameters: a loading factor at zero flow rate and an angle between an ordinate and performance line. The calculated loading factor performances of non-viscous are linear too and close to experimental performances. Loading factor performances of several dozens of impellers with different blade exit angles, blade thickness and number, ratio of blade exit/inlet height, and two different type of blade mean line configuration. There are some trends of influence, which are evident – comparatively small blade thickness influence, and influence of geometry parameters is more for impellers with bigger blade exit angles, etc. Approximating equations for both parameters are suggested. The next phase of work will be simulating of experimental performances with the suggested approximation equations as a base.

Keywords: Centrifugal compressor stage, centrifugal compressor, loading factor, gas dynamic performance curve.

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666 Displacement Fields in Footing-Sand Interactions under Cyclic Loading

Authors: S. Joseph Antony, Z. K. Jahanger

Abstract:

Soils are subjected to cyclic loading in situ in situations such as during earthquakes and in the compaction of pavements. Investigations on the local scale measurement of the displacements of the grain and failure patterns within the soil bed under the cyclic loading conditions are rather limited. In this paper, using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), local scale displacement fields of a dense sand medium interacting with a rigid footing are measured under the plane-strain condition for two commonly used types of cyclic loading, and the quasi-static loading condition for the purposes of comparison. From the displacement measurements of the grains, the failure envelopes of the sand media are also presented. The results show that, the ultimate cyclic bearing capacity (qultcyc) occurred corresponding to a relatively higher settlement value when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. For the sand media under the cyclic loading conditions considered here, the displacement fields in the soil media occurred more widely in the horizontal direction and less deeper along the vertical direction when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. The 'dead zone' in the sand grains beneath the footing is identified for all types of the loading conditions studied here. These grain-scale characteristics have implications on the resulting bulk bearing capacity of the sand media in footing-sand interaction problems.

Keywords: Cyclic loading, DPIV, settlement, soil-structure interactions, strip footing.

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665 Mechanical Model of Gypsum Board Anchors Subjected Cyclic Shear Loading

Authors: Yoshinori Kitsutaka, Fumiya Ikedo

Abstract:

In this study, the mechanical model of various anchors embedded in gypsum board subjected cyclic shear loading were investigated. Shear tests for anchors embedded in 200 mm square size gypsum board were conducted to measure the load - load displacement curves. The strength of the gypsum board was changed for three conditions and 12 kinds of anchors were selected which were ordinary used for gypsum board anchoring. The loading conditions were a monotonous loading and a cyclic loading controlled by a servo-controlled hydraulic loading system to achieve accurate measurement. The fracture energy for each of the anchors was estimated by the analysis of consumed energy calculated by the load - load displacement curve. The effect of the strength of gypsum board and the types of anchors on the shear properties of gypsum board anchors was cleared. A numerical model to predict the load-unload curve of shear deformation of gypsum board anchors caused by such as the earthquake load was proposed and the validity on the model was proved.

Keywords: Gypsum board, anchor, shear test, cyclic loading, load-unload curve.

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664 Study of Crashworthiness Behavior of Thin-Walled Tube under Axial Loading by Using Computational Mechanics

Authors: M. Kamal M. Shah, Noorhifiantylaily Ahmad, O. Irma Wani, J. Sahari

Abstract:

This paper presents the computationally mechanics analysis of energy absorption for cylindrical and square thin wall tubed structure by using ABAQUS/explicit. The crashworthiness behavior of AISI 1020 mild steel thin-walled tube under axial loading has been studied. The influence effects of different model’s cross-section, as well as model length on the crashworthiness behavior of thin-walled tube, are investigated. The model was placed on loading platform under axial loading with impact velocity of 5 m/s to obtain the deformation results of each model under quasi-static loading. The results showed that model undergoes different deformation mode exhibits different energy absorption performance.

Keywords: Axial loading, energy absorption performance, computational mechanics, crashworthiness behavior, deformation mode, thin-walled tubes.

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663 Elastic Strain-Concentration Factor of Notched Bars under Combined Loading of Static Tension and Pure Bending

Authors: Hitham M. Tlilan

Abstract:

The effect of notch depth on the elastic new strainconcentration factor (SNCF) of rectangular bars with single edge Unotch under combined loading is studied here. The finite element method (FEM) and super position technique are used in the current study. This new SNCF under combined loading of static tension and pure bending has been defined under triaxial stress state. The employed specimens have constant gross thickness of 16.7 mm and net section thickness varied to give net-to-gross thickness ratio ho/Ho from 0.2 to 0.95. The results indicated that the elastic SNCF for combined loading increases with increasing notch depth up to ho/Ho = 0.7 and sharply decreases with increasing notch depth. It is also indicated that the elastic SNCF of combined loading is greater than that of pure bending and less than that of the static tension for 0.2 ≤ ho/Ho ≤ 0.7. However, the elastic SNCF of combined loading is the elastic SNCF for static tension and less than that of pure bending for shallow notches (i.e. 0.8 ≤ ho/Ho ≤ 0.95).

Keywords: Bar, notch, strain, tension, bending

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662 Eccentric Loading of CFDST Columns

Authors: Trevor N. Haas, Alexander Koen

Abstract:

Columns have traditionally been constructed of reinforced concrete or structural steel. Much attention was allocated to estimate the axial capacity of the traditional column sections to the detriment of other forms of construction. Other forms of column construction such as Concrete Filled Double Skin Tubes received little research attention, and almost no attention when subjected to eccentric loading. This paper investigates the axial capacity of columns when subjected to eccentric loading. The experimental axial capacities are compared to other established theoretical formulae on concentric loading to determine a possible relationship. The study found a good correlation between the reduction in axial capacity for different column lengths and hollow section ratios.

Keywords: CSDST, CFST, Axial Capacity.

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661 Investigation of Stability of Functionally Graded Material when Encountering Periodic Loading

Authors: M. Amiri

Abstract:

In this work, functionally graded materials (FGMs), subjected to loading, which varies with time has been studied. The material properties of FGM are changing through the thickness of material as power law distribution. The conical shells have been chosen for this study so in the first step capability equations for FGM have been obtained. With Galerkin method, these equations have been replaced with time dependant differential equations with variable coefficient. These equations have solved for different initial conditions with variation methods. Important parameters in loading conditions are semi-vertex angle, external pressure and material properties. Results validation has been done by comparison between with those in previous studies of other researchers.

Keywords: Impulsive semi-vertex angle, loading, functionally graded materials, composite material.

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660 Effect of Moisture Content and Loading Rate on Mechanical Strength of Brown Rice Varieties

Authors: I. Bagheri, M.B. Dehpour

Abstract:

The effect of moisture content and loading rate on mechanical strength of 12 brown rice grain varieties was determined. The results showed that the rupture force of brown rice grain decreased by increasing the moisture content and loading rate. The highest rupture force values was obtained at the moisture content of 8% (w.b.) and loading rate of 10 mm/min; while the lowest rupture force corresponded to the moisture content of 14% (w.b.) and loading rate of 15 mm/min. The 12 varieties were divided into three groups, namely local short grain varieties, local long grain varieties and improved long grain varieties. It was observed that the rupture strength of the three groups were statistically different from each other (P<0.01). It was revealed that the brown rice rupture at lower levels of moisture content was in the form of sudden failure with less deformation; while at higher levels of moisture content the grain rupture was in the form of gradually crushing with more deformation.

Keywords: Brown rice, loading rate, moisture content, ruptureforce

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659 Physical and Mechanical Phenomena Associated with Rock Failure in Brazilian Disc Specimens

Authors: Hamid Reza Nejati, Amin Nazerigivi, Ahmad Reza Sayadi

Abstract:

Failure mechanism of rocks is one of the fundamental aspects to study rock engineering stability. Rock is a material that contains flaws, initial damage, micro-cracks, etc. Failure of rock structure is largely due to tensile stress and was influenced by various parameters. In the present study, the effect of brittleness and loading rate on the physical and mechanical phenomena produced in rock during loading sequences is considered. For this purpose, Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is used to monitor fracturing process of three rock types (onyx marble, sandstone and soft limestone) with different brittleness and sandstone samples under different loading rate. The results of experimental tests revealed that brittleness and loading rate have a significant effect on the mode and number of induced fracture in rocks. An increase in rock brittleness increases the frequency of induced cracks, and the number of tensile fracture decreases when loading rate increases.

Keywords: Brittleness, loading rate, acoustic emission, tensile fracture, shear fracture.

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658 Polydopamine Nanoparticle as a Stable and Capacious Nano-Reservoir of Rifampicin

Authors: Tasnuva Tamanna, Aimin Yu

Abstract:

Application of nanoscience in biomedical field has come across as a new era. This study involves the synthesis of nano drug carrier with antibiotic loading. Based on the founding that polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles could be formed via self-polymerization of dopamine at alkaline pH, one-step synthesis of rifampicin coupled polydopamine (PDA-R) nanoparticles was achieved by adding rifampicin into the dopamine solution. The successful yield of PDA nanoparticles with or without the presence of rifampicin during the polymerization process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Drug loading was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy and the loading efficiency of rifampicin was calculated to be 76%. Such highly capacious nano-reservoir was found very stable with little drug leakage at pH 3.

Keywords: Drug loading, nanoparticles, polydopamine, rifampicin.

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657 Numerical Investigation of Delamination in Carbon-Epoxy Composite using Arcan Specimen

Authors: M. Nikbakht, N. Choupani

Abstract:

In this paper delamination phenomenon in Carbon-Epoxy laminated composite material is investigated numerically. Arcan apparatus and specimen is modeled in ABAQUS finite element software for different loading conditions and crack geometries. The influence of variation of crack geometry on interlaminar fracture stress intensity factor and energy release rate for various mixed mode ratios and pure mode I and II was studied. Also, correction factors for this specimen for different crack length ratios were calculated. The finite element results indicate that for loading angles close to pure mode-II loading, a high ratio of mode-II to mode-I fracture is dominant and there is an opposite trend for loading angles close to pure mode-I loading. It confirms that by varying the loading angle of Arcan specimen pure mode-I, pure mode-II and a wide range of mixed-mode loading conditions can be created and tested. Also, numerical results confirm that the increase of the mode- II loading contribution leads to an increase of fracture resistance in the CF/PEI composite (i.e., a reduction in the total strain energy release rate) and the increase of the crack length leads to a reduction of interlaminar fracture resistance in the CF/PEI composite (i.e., an increase in the total interlaminar strain energy release rate).

Keywords: Fracture Mechanics, Mixed Mode, Arcan Specimen, Finite Element.

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656 Preliminary Investigation on Combustion Characteristics of Rice Husk in FBC

Authors: W. Permchart, S. Tanatvanit

Abstract:

The experimental results on combustion of rice husk in a conical fluidized bed combustor (referred to as the conical FBC) using silica sand as the bed material are presented in this paper. The effects of excess combustion air and combustor loading as well as the sand bed height on the combustion pattern in FBC were investigated. Temperatures and gas concentrations (CO and NO) along over the combustor height as well as in the flue gas downstream from the ash collecting cyclone were measured. The results showed that the axial temperature profiles in FBC were explicitly affected by the combustor loading whereas the excess air and bed height were found to have minor influences on the temperature pattern. Meanwhile, the combustor loading and the excess air significantly affected the axial CO and NO concentration profiles; however, these profiles were almost independent of the bed height. The combustion and thermal efficiencies for this FBC were quantified for different operating conditions.

Keywords: Temperature, Combustor loading, Excess air, Bed height.

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655 Stress Concentration around Countersunk Hole in Isotropic Plate under Transverse Loading

Authors: Parveen K. Saini, Tarun Agarwal

Abstract:

An investigation into the effect of countersunk depth, plate thickness, countersunk angle and plate width on the stress concentration around countersunk hole is carried out with the help of finite element analysis. The variation of stress concentration with respect to these parameters is studied for three types of loading viz. uniformly distributed load, uniformly varying load and functionally distributed load. The results of the finite element analysis are interpreted and some conclusions are drawn. The distribution of stress concentration around countersunk hole in isotropic plates simply supported at all the edges is found similar and is independent of loading. The maximum stress concentration also occurs at a particular point irrespective of the loading conditions.

Keywords: Stress Concentration Factor, Countersunk hole, Finite element, ANSYS.

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654 Loading Methodology for a Capacity Constrained Job-Shop

Authors: Viraj Tyagi, Ajai Jain, P. K. Jain, Aarushi Jain

Abstract:

This paper presents a genetic algorithm based loading methodology for a capacity constrained job-shop with the consideration of alternative process plans for each part to be produced. Performance analysis of the proposed methodology is carried out for two case studies by considering two different manufacturing scenarios. Results obtained indicate that the methodology is quite effective in improving the shop load balance, and hence, it can be included in the frameworks of manufacturing planning systems of job-shop oriented industries.

Keywords: Manufacturing planning, loading, genetic algorithm, Job-Shop

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653 Nitrogen Dynamics and Removal by Algal Turf Scrubber under High Ammonia and Organic Matter Loading in a Recirculating Aquaculture System

Authors: Joshua S. Valeta, Marc C. Verdegem

Abstract:

A study was undertaken to assess the potential of an Algal Turf Scrubber to remove nitrogen from aquaculture effluent to reduce environmental pollution. High total ammonia nitrogen concentrations were introduced to an Algal Turf Scrubber developed under varying hydraulic surface loading rates of African catfish (Clarius gariepinus) effluent in a recirculating aquaculture system. Nutrient removal rates were not affected at total suspended solids concentration of up to 0.04g TSS/l (P > 0.05). Nitrogen removal rates 0.93-0.99g TAN/m²/d were recorded at very high loading rates 3.76-3.81 g TAN/m²/d. Total ammonia removal showed ½ order kinetics between 1.6 to 2.3mg/l Total Ammonia Nitrogen concentrations. Nitrogen removal increased with its loading, which increased with hydraulic surface loading rate. Total Ammonia Nitrogen removal by Algal turf scrubber was higher than reported values for fluidized bed filters and trickling filters. The algal turf scrubber also effectively removed nitrate thereby reducing the need for water exchange.

Keywords: Algal turf, loading rate, nitrogen, organic matter, removal rate.

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652 The Effect of Pulsator on Washing Performance in a Front-Loading Washer

Authors: Eung Ryeol Seo, Hee Tae Lim, Eunsuk Bang, Soon Cheol Kweon, Jeoung-Kyo Jeoung, Ji-Hoon Choic

Abstract:

The object of this study is to investigate the effect of pulsator on washing performance quantitatively for front-loading washer. The front-loading washer with pulsator shows washing performance improvement of 18% and the particle-based body simulation technique has been applied to figure out the relation between washing performance and mechanical forces exerted on textile during washing process. As a result, the mechanical forces, such as collision force and strain force, acting on the textile have turned out to be about twice numerically. The washing performance improvement due to additional pulsate system has been utilized for customers to save 50% of washing time.

Keywords: Front-loading washer, mechanical force, fabric movement, pulsator, time saving.

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651 Thermomechanical Coupled Analysis of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Square Tube: A Finite Element Study

Authors: M. Ali, K. Alam, E. Ohioma

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical investigation on the behavior of fiber reinforced polymer composite tubes (FRP) under thermomechanical coupled loading using finite element software ABAQUS and a special add-on subroutine, CZone. Three cases were explored; pure mechanical loading, pure thermal loading, and coupled thermomechanical loading. The failure index (Tsai-Wu) under all three loading cases was assessed for all plies in the tube walls. The simulation results under pure mechanical loading showed that composite tube failed at a tensile load of 3.1 kN. However, with the superposition of thermal load on mechanical load on the composite tube, the failure index of the previously failed plies in tube walls reduced significantly causing the tube to fail at 6 kN. This showed 93% improvement in the load carrying capacity of the composite tube in present study. The increase in load carrying capacity was attributed to the stress effects of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) on the laminate as well as the inter-lamina stresses induced due to the composite stack layup.

Keywords: Thermal, mechanical, composites, square tubes.

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650 Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Dynamic Harmonic Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, A. Mahigir

Abstract:

Stone column technique has been successfully employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of foundations. A series of finite element numerical analyses of harmonic dynamic loading have been conducted on strengthened raft footing to study the effects of single and group stone columns on settlement of circular footings. The settlement of circular raft footing that improved by single and group of stone columns are studied under harmonic dynamic loading. This loading is caused by heavy machinery foundations. A detailed numerical investigation on behavior of single column and group of stone columns is carried out by varying parameters like weight of machinery, loading frequency and period. The result implies that presence of single and group of stone columns enhanced dynamic behavior of the footing so that the maximum and residual settlement of footing significantly decreased. 

Keywords: Finite element analysis, harmonic loading, settlement, stone column.

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649 The Effect of Fixing Kinesiology Tape onto the Plantar Surface during the Loading Phase of Gait

Authors: Albert K. Chong, Jasim Ahmed Ali Al-Baghdadi, Peter B. Milburn

Abstract:

Precise capture of plantar 3D surface of the foot at the loading gait phases on rigid substrates was found to be valuable for the assessment of the physiology, health and problems of the feet. Photogrammetry, a precision 3D spatial data capture technique is suitable for this type of dynamic application. In this research, the technique is utilised to study the plantar deformation as a result of having a strip of kinesiology tape on the plantar surface during the loading phase of gait. For this pilot study, one healthy adult male subject was recruited under the University’s human research ethics guidelines for this preliminary study. The 3D plantar deformation data with and without applying the tape were analysed. The results and analyses are presented together with detailed findings.

Keywords: Gait, human plantar, loading, Kinesiology Tape.

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648 Stabilizer Fillet Weld Strength under Multiaxial Loading (Effect of Force, Size and Residual Stress)

Authors: Iman Hadipour, Javad Marzbanrad

Abstract:

In this paper, the strength of a stabilizer is determined when the static and fatigue multiaxial loading are applied. Stabilizer is a part of suspension system in the heavy truck for stabilizing the cabin against the vibration of the road which composes of a thin-walled tube joined to a forge component by fillet weld. The component is loaded by non proportional random sequence of torsion and bending. Residual stress of welding process is considered here for static loading. This static loading with road irregularities are applied in this study as fatigue case that can affected in the fillet welded area of this part. The stresses in the welded structure are calculated using FEA. In addition, the fatigue with multi axial loading in the fillet weld is also investigated and the critical zone of the stabilizer is specified and presented by graphs. Residual stresses that have been resulted by the thermal forces are considered in FEA. Force increasing is the element of finding the critical point of the component.

Keywords: Fillet weld, fatigue, weld toe crack, weld root crack, S-N curve, multiaxial load, residual stress, combined force.

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647 Determination of Severe Loading Condition at Critical System Cascading Collapse Considering the Effect of Protection System Hidden Failure

Authors: N. A. Salim, M. M. Othman, I. Musirin, M. S. Serwan

Abstract:

Hidden failure in a protection system has been recognized as one of the main reasons which may cause to a power system instability leading to a system cascading collapse. This paper presents a computationally systematic approach used to obtain the estimated average probability of a system cascading collapse by considering the effect of probability hidden failure in a protection system. The estimated average probability of a system cascading collapse is then used to determine the severe loading condition contributing to the higher risk of critical system cascading collapse. This information is essential to the system utility since it will assist the operator to determine the highest point of increased system loading condition prior to the event of critical system cascading collapse.

Keywords: Critical system cascading collapse, protection system hidden failure, severe loading condition.

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646 Near-Field Robust Adaptive Beamforming Based on Worst-Case Performance Optimization

Authors: Jing-ran Lin, Qi-cong Peng, Huai-zong Shao

Abstract:

The performance of adaptive beamforming degrades substantially in the presence of steering vector mismatches. This degradation is especially severe in the near-field, for the 3-dimensional source location is more difficult to estimate than the 2-dimensional direction of arrival in far-field cases. As a solution, a novel approach of near-field robust adaptive beamforming (RABF) is proposed in this paper. It is a natural extension of the traditional far-field RABF and belongs to the class of diagonal loading approaches, with the loading level determined based on worst-case performance optimization. However, different from the methods solving the optimal loading by iteration, it suggests here a simple closed-form solution after some approximations, and consequently, the optimal weight vector can be expressed in a closed form. Besides simplicity and low computational cost, the proposed approach reveals how different factors affect the optimal loading as well as the weight vector. Its excellent performance in the near-field is confirmed via a number of numerical examples.

Keywords: Robust adaptive beamforming (RABF), near-field, steering vector mismatches, diagonal loading, worst-case performanceoptimization.

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645 Protein Delivery from Polymeric Nanoparticles

Authors: G. Spada, E. Gavini, P. Giunchedi

Abstract:

Aim of this work was to compare the efficacy of two loading methods of proteins onto polymeric nanocarriers: adsorption and encapsulation methods. Preliminary studies of protein loading were done using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as model protein. Nanocarriers were prepared starting from polylactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) polymer; production methods used are two different variants of emulsion evaporation method. Nanoparticles obtained were analyzed in terms of dimensions by Dynamic Light Scattering and Loading Efficiency of BSA by Bradford Assay. Loaded nanoparticles were then submitted to in-vitro protein dissolution test in order to study the effect of the delivery system on the release rate of the protein.

Keywords: Drug delivery, nanoparticles, PLGA, proteinadsorption, protein encapsulation.

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644 Transmission Lines Loading Enhancement Using ADPSO Approach

Authors: M. Mahdavi, H. Monsef, A. Bagheri

Abstract:

Discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) is a powerful stochastic evolutionary algorithm that is used to solve the large-scale, discrete and nonlinear optimization problems. However, it has been observed that standard DPSO algorithm has premature convergence when solving a complex optimization problem like transmission expansion planning (TEP). To resolve this problem an advanced discrete particle swarm optimization (ADPSO) is proposed in this paper. The simulation result shows that optimization of lines loading in transmission expansion planning with ADPSO is better than DPSO from precision view point.

Keywords: ADPSO, TEP problem, Lines loading optimization.

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643 Solving Machine Loading Problem in Flexible Manufacturing Systems Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: S. G. Ponnambalam, Low Seng Kiat

Abstract:

In this paper, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to solve machine loading problem in flexible manufacturing system (FMS), with bicriterion objectives of minimizing system unbalance and maximizing system throughput in the occurrence of technological constraints such as available machining time and tool slots. A mathematical model is used to select machines, assign operations and the required tools. The performance of the PSO is tested by using 10 sample dataset and the results are compared with the heuristics reported in the literature. The results support that the proposed PSO is comparable with the algorithms reported in the literature.

Keywords: Machine loading problem, FMS, Particle Swarm Optimization.

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642 Mixed-Mode Study of Rock Fracture Mechanics by using the Modified Arcan Specimen Test

Authors: R. Hasanpour, N. Choupani

Abstract:

This paper studies mixed-mode fracture mechanics in rock based on experimental and numerical analyses. Experiments were performed on sharp-cracked specimens using the modified Arcan specimen test loading device. The modified Arcan specimen test was, in association with a special loading device, an appropriate apparatus for experimental mixed-mode fracture analysis. By varying the loading angle from 0° to 90°, pure mode-I, pure mode-II and a wide range of mixed-mode data were obtained experimentally. Using the finite element results, correction factors applied to the rectangular fracture specimen. By employing experimentally measured critical loads and the aid of the finite element method, mixed-mode fracture toughness for the limestone under consideration determined.

Keywords: Rock Fracture Mechanics, Mixed-mode Loading, Finite Element Analysis, Arcan Test specimen.

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