Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 178

Search results for: Least squares

178 A Comparison of the Sum of Squares in Linear and Partial Linear Regression Models

Authors: Dursun Aydın

Abstract:

In this paper, estimation of the linear regression model is made by ordinary least squares method and the partially linear regression model is estimated by penalized least squares method using smoothing spline. Then, it is investigated that differences and similarity in the sum of squares related for linear regression and partial linear regression models (semi-parametric regression models). It is denoted that the sum of squares in linear regression is reduced to sum of squares in partial linear regression models. Furthermore, we indicated that various sums of squares in the linear regression are similar to different deviance statements in partial linear regression. In addition to, coefficient of the determination derived in linear regression model is easily generalized to coefficient of the determination of the partial linear regression model. For this aim, it is made two different applications. A simulated and a real data set are considered to prove the claim mentioned here. In this way, this study is supported with a simulation and a real data example.

Keywords: Partial Linear Regression Model, Linear RegressionModel, Residuals, Deviance, Smoothing Spline.

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177 Least Squares Method Identification of Corona Current-Voltage Characteristics and Electromagnetic Field in Electrostatic Precipitator

Authors: H. Nouri, I. E. Achouri, A. Grimes, H. Ait Said, M. Aissou, Y. Zebboudj

Abstract:

This paper aims to analysis the behavior of DC corona discharge in wire-to-plate electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Currentvoltage curves are particularly analyzed. Experimental results show that discharge current is strongly affected by the applied voltage. The proposed method of current identification is to use the method of least squares. Least squares problems that of into two categories: linear or ordinary least squares and non-linear least squares, depending on whether or not the residuals are linear in all unknowns. The linear least-squares problem occurs in statistical regression analysis; it has a closed-form solution. A closed-form solution (or closed form expression) is any formula that can be evaluated in a finite number of standard operations. The non-linear problem has no closed-form solution and is usually solved by iterative.

Keywords: Electrostatic precipitator, current-voltage characteristics, Least Squares method, electric field, magnetic field.

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176 An Adaptive Least-squares Mixed Finite Element Method for Pseudo-parabolic Integro-differential Equations

Authors: Zilong Feng, Hong Li, Yang Liu, Siriguleng He

Abstract:

In this article, an adaptive least-squares mixed finite element method is studied for pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equations. The solutions of least-squares mixed weak formulation and mixed finite element are proved. A posteriori error estimator is constructed based on the least-squares functional and the posteriori errors are obtained.

Keywords: Pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equation, least squares mixed finite element method, adaptive method, a posteriori error estimates.

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175 Wavelet Based Identification of Second Order Linear System

Authors: Sudipta Majumdar, Harish Parthasarathy

Abstract:

In this paper, a wavelet based method is proposed to identify the constant coefficients of a second order linear system and is compared with the least squares method. The proposed method shows improved accuracy of parameter estimation as compared to the least squares method. Additionally, it has the advantage of smaller data requirement and storage requirement as compared to the least squares method.

Keywords: Least squares method, linear system, system identification, wavelet transform.

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174 Some Constructions of Non-Commutative Latin Squares of Order n

Authors: H. V. Chen, A. Y. M. Chin, S. Sharmini

Abstract:

Let n be an integer. We show the existence of at least three non-isomorphic non-commutative Latin squares of order n which are embeddable in groups when n ≥ 5 is odd. By using a similar construction for the case when n ≥ 4 is even, we show that certain non-commutative Latin squares of order n are not embeddable in groups.

Keywords: group, Latin square, embedding.

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173 An Iterative Method for the Least-squares Symmetric Solution of AXB+CYD=F and its Application

Authors: Minghui Wang

Abstract:

Based on the classical algorithm LSQR for solving (unconstrained) LS problem, an iterative method is proposed for the least-squares like-minimum-norm symmetric solution of AXB+CYD=E. As the application of this algorithm, an iterative method for the least-squares like-minimum-norm biymmetric solution of AXB=E is also obtained. Numerical results are reported that show the efficiency of the proposed methods.

Keywords: Matrix equation, bisymmetric matrix, least squares problem, like-minimum norm, iterative algorithm.

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172 Order Reduction by Least-Squares Methods about General Point ''a''

Authors: Integral square error, Least-squares, Markovparameters, Moment matching, Order reduction.

Abstract:

The concept of order reduction by least-squares moment matching and generalised least-squares methods has been extended about a general point ?a?, to obtain the reduced order models for linear, time-invariant dynamic systems. Some heuristic criteria have been employed for selecting the linear shift point ?a?, based upon the means (arithmetic, harmonic and geometric) of real parts of the poles of high order system. It is shown that the resultant model depends critically on the choice of linear shift point ?a?. The validity of the criteria is illustrated by solving a numerical example and the results are compared with the other existing techniques.

Keywords: Integral square error, Least-squares, Markovparameters, Moment matching, Order reduction.

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171 Extended Least Squares LS–SVM

Authors: József Valyon, Gábor Horváth

Abstract:

Among neural models the Support Vector Machine (SVM) solutions are attracting increasing attention, mostly because they eliminate certain crucial questions involved by neural network construction. The main drawback of standard SVM is its high computational complexity, therefore recently a new technique, the Least Squares SVM (LS–SVM) has been introduced. In this paper we present an extended view of the Least Squares Support Vector Regression (LS–SVR), which enables us to develop new formulations and algorithms to this regression technique. Based on manipulating the linear equation set -which embodies all information about the regression in the learning process- some new methods are introduced to simplify the formulations, speed up the calculations and/or provide better results.

Keywords: Function estimation, Least–Squares Support VectorMachines, Regression, System Modeling

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170 Relationship between Sums of Squares in Linear Regression and Semi-parametric Regression

Authors: Dursun Aydın, Bilgin Senel

Abstract:

In this paper, the sum of squares in linear regression is reduced to sum of squares in semi-parametric regression. We indicated that different sums of squares in the linear regression are similar to various deviance statements in semi-parametric regression. In addition to, coefficient of the determination derived in linear regression model is easily generalized to coefficient of the determination of the semi-parametric regression model. Then, it is made an application in order to support the theory of the linear regression and semi-parametric regression. In this way, study is supported with a simulated data example.

Keywords: Semi-parametric regression, Penalized LeastSquares, Residuals, Deviance, Smoothing Spline.

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169 Public Squares and Their Potential for Social Interactions: A Case Study of Historical Public Squares in Tehran

Authors: Asma Mehan

Abstract:

Under the thrust of technological changes, population growth and vehicular traffic, Iranian historical squares have lost their significance and they are no longer the main social nodes of the society. This research focuses on how historical public squares can inspire designers to enhance social interactions among citizens in Iranian urban context. Moreover, the recent master plan of Tehran demonstrates the lack of public spaces designed for the purpose of people’s social gatherings. For filling this gap, first the current situation of 7 selected primary historical public squares in Tehran including Sabze Meydan, Arg, Topkhaneh, Baherstan, Mokhber-al-dole, Rah Ahan and Hassan Abad have been compared. Later, the influencing elements on social interactions of the public squares such as subjective factors (human relationships and memories) and objective factors (natural and built environment) have been investigated. As a conclusion, some strategies are proposed for improving social interactions in historical public squares like; holding cultural, national, athletic and religious events, defining different and new functions in public squares’ surrounding, increasing pedestrian routs, reviving the collective memory, demonstrating the historical importance of square, eliminating visual obstacles across the square, organization the natural elements of the square, appropriate pavement for social activities. Finally, it is argued that the combination of all influencing factors which are: human interactions, natural elements and built environment criteria will lead to enhance the historical public squares’ potential for social interaction.

Keywords: Historical Square, Iranian Public Square, Social Interaction, Tehran.

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168 Short Time Identification of Feed Drive Systems using Nonlinear Least Squares Method

Authors: M.G.A. Nassef, Linghan Li, C. Schenck, B. Kuhfuss

Abstract:

Design and modeling of nonlinear systems require the knowledge of all inside acting parameters and effects. An empirical alternative is to identify the system-s transfer function from input and output data as a black box model. This paper presents a procedure using least squares algorithm for the identification of a feed drive system coefficients in time domain using a reduced model based on windowed input and output data. The command and response of the axis are first measured in the first 4 ms, and then least squares are applied to predict the transfer function coefficients for this displacement segment. From the identified coefficients, the next command response segments are estimated. The obtained results reveal a considerable potential of least squares method to identify the system-s time-based coefficients and predict accurately the command response as compared to measurements.

Keywords: feed drive systems, least squares algorithm, onlineparameter identification, short time window

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167 Recursive Least Squares Adaptive Filter a better ISI Compensator

Authors: O. P. Sharma, V. Janyani, S. Sancheti

Abstract:

Inter-symbol interference if not taken care off may cause severe error at the receiver and the detection of signal becomes difficult. An adaptive equalizer employing Recursive Least Squares algorithm can be a good compensation for the ISI problem. In this paper performance of communication link in presence of Least Mean Square and Recursive Least Squares equalizer algorithm is analyzed. A Model of communication system having Quadrature amplitude modulation and Rician fading channel is implemented using MATLAB communication block set. Bit error rate and number of errors is evaluated for RLS and LMS equalizer algorithm, due to change in Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and fading component gain in Rician fading Channel.

Keywords: Least mean square (LMS), Recursive least squares(RLS), Adaptive equalization, Bit error rate (BER), Rician fading channel, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), Signal to noiseratio (SNR).

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166 Gauss-Seidel Iterative Methods for Rank Deficient Least Squares Problems

Authors: Davod Khojasteh Salkuyeh, Sayyed Hasan Azizi

Abstract:

We study the semiconvergence of Gauss-Seidel iterative methods for the least squares solution of minimal norm of rank deficient linear systems of equations. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the semiconvergence of the Gauss-Seidel iterative method are given. We also show that if the linear system of equations is consistent, then the proposed methods with a zero vector as an initial guess converge in one iteration. Some numerical results are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

Keywords: rank deficient least squares problems, AOR iterativemethod, Gauss-Seidel iterative method, semiconvergence.

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165 Online Estimation of Clutch Drag Torque in Wet Dual Clutch Transmission Based on Recursive Least Squares

Authors: Hongkui Li, Tongli Lu , Jianwu Zhang

Abstract:

This paper focuses on developing an estimation method of clutch drag torque in wet DCT. The modelling of clutch drag torque is investigated. As the main factor affecting the clutch drag torque, dynamic viscosity of oil is discussed. The paper proposes an estimation method of clutch drag torque based on recursive least squares by utilizing the dynamic equations of gear shifting synchronization process. The results demonstrate that the estimation method has good accuracy and efficiency.

Keywords: Clutch drag torque, wet DCT, dynamic viscosity, recursive least squares.

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164 Electric Load Forecasting Using Genetic Based Algorithm, Optimal Filter Estimator and Least Error Squares Technique: Comparative Study

Authors: Khaled M. EL-Naggar, Khaled A. AL-Rumaih

Abstract:

This paper presents performance comparison of three estimation techniques used for peak load forecasting in power systems. The three optimum estimation techniques are, genetic algorithms (GA), least error squares (LS) and, least absolute value filtering (LAVF). The problem is formulated as an estimation problem. Different forecasting models are considered. Actual recorded data is used to perform the study. The performance of the above three optimal estimation techniques is examined. Advantages of each algorithms are reported and discussed.

Keywords: Forecasting, Least error squares, Least absolute Value, Genetic algorithms

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163 A Study on the Least Squares Reduced Parameter Approximation of FIR Digital Filters

Authors: S. Seyedtabaii, E. Seyedtabaii

Abstract:

Rounding of coefficients is a common practice in hardware implementation of digital filters. Where some coefficients are very close to zero or one, as assumed in this paper, this rounding action also leads to some computation reduction. Furthermore, if the discarded coefficient is of high order, a reduced order filter is obtained, otherwise the order does not change but computation is reduced. In this paper, the Least Squares approximation to rounded (or discarded) coefficient FIR filter is investigated. The result also succinctly extended to general type of FIR filters.

Keywords: Digital filter, filter approximation, least squares, model order reduction.

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162 Variogram Fitting Based on the Wilcoxon Norm

Authors: Hazem Al-Mofleh, John Daniels, Joseph McKean

Abstract:

Within geostatistics research, effective estimation of the variogram points has been examined, particularly in developing robust alternatives. The parametric fit of these variogram points which eventually defines the kriging weights, however, has not received the same attention from a robust perspective. This paper proposes the use of the non-linear Wilcoxon norm over weighted non-linear least squares as a robust variogram fitting alternative. First, we introduce the concept of variogram estimation and fitting. Then, as an alternative to non-linear weighted least squares, we discuss the non-linear Wilcoxon estimator. Next, the robustness properties of the non-linear Wilcoxon are demonstrated using a contaminated spatial data set. Finally, under simulated conditions, increasing levels of contaminated spatial processes have their variograms points estimated and fit. In the fitting of these variogram points, both non-linear Weighted Least Squares and non-linear Wilcoxon fits are examined for efficiency. At all levels of contamination (including 0%), using a robust estimation and robust fitting procedure, the non-weighted Wilcoxon outperforms weighted Least Squares.

Keywords: Non-Linear Wilcoxon, robust estimation, Variogram estimation.

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161 Hybrid Artificial Bee Colony and Least Squares Method for Rule-Based Systems Learning

Authors: Ahcene Habbi, Yassine Boudouaoui

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of automatic rule generation for fuzzy systems design. The proposed approach is based on hybrid artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization and weighted least squares (LS) method and aims to find the structure and parameters of fuzzy systems simultaneously. More precisely, two ABC based fuzzy modeling strategies are presented and compared. The first strategy uses global optimization to learn fuzzy models, the second one hybridizes ABC and weighted least squares estimate method. The performances of the proposed ABC and ABC-LS fuzzy modeling strategies are evaluated on complex modeling problems and compared to other advanced modeling methods.

Keywords: Automatic design, learning, fuzzy rules, hybrid, swarm optimization.

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160 A Modified Genetic Based Technique for Solving the Power System State Estimation Problem

Authors: A. A. Hossam-Eldin, E. N. Abdallah, M. S. El-Nozahy

Abstract:

Power system state estimation is the process of calculating a reliable estimate of the power system state vector composed of bus voltages' angles and magnitudes from telemetered measurements on the system. This estimate of the state vector provides the description of the system necessary for the operation and security monitoring. Many methods are described in the literature for solving the state estimation problem, the most important of which are the classical weighted least squares method and the nondeterministic genetic based method; however both showed drawbacks. In this paper a modified version of the genetic algorithm power system state estimation is introduced, Sensitivity of the proposed algorithm to genetic operators is discussed, the algorithm is applied to case studies and finally it is compared with the classical weighted least squares method formulation.

Keywords: Genetic algorithms, ill-conditioning, state estimation, weighted least squares.

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159 Short-Term Electric Load Forecasting Using Multiple Gaussian Process Models

Authors: Tomohiro Hachino, Hitoshi Takata, Seiji Fukushima, Yasutaka Igarashi

Abstract:

This paper presents a Gaussian process model-based short-term electric load forecasting. The Gaussian process model is a nonparametric model and the output of the model has Gaussian distribution with mean and variance. The multiple Gaussian process models as every hour ahead predictors are used to forecast future electric load demands up to 24 hours ahead in accordance with the direct forecasting approach. The separable least-squares approach that combines the linear least-squares method and genetic algorithm is applied to train these Gaussian process models. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed electric load forecasting.

Keywords: Direct method, electric load forecasting, Gaussian process model, genetic algorithm, separable least-squares method.

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158 Calibration Method for an Augmented Reality System

Authors: S. Malek, N. Zenati-Henda, M. Belhocine, S. Benbelkacem

Abstract:

In geometrical camera calibration, the objective is to determine a set of camera parameters that describe the mapping between 3D references coordinates and 2D image coordinates. In this paper, a technique of calibration and tracking based on both a least squares method is presented and a correlation technique developed as part of an augmented reality system. This approach is fast and it can be used for a real time system

Keywords: Camera calibration, pinhole model, least squares method, augmented reality, strong calibration.

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157 Transformer Top-Oil Temperature Modeling and Simulation

Authors: T. C. B. N. Assunção, J. L. Silvino, P. Resende

Abstract:

The winding hot-spot temperature is one of the most critical parameters that affect the useful life of the power transformers. The winding hot-spot temperature can be calculated as function of the top-oil temperature that can estimated by using the ambient temperature and transformer loading measured data. This paper proposes the estimation of the top-oil temperature by using a method based on Least Squares Support Vector Machines approach. The estimated top-oil temperature is compared with measured data of a power transformer in operation. The results are also compared with methods based on the IEEE Standard C57.91-1995/2000 and Artificial Neural Networks. It is shown that the Least Squares Support Vector Machines approach presents better performance than the methods based in the IEEE Standard C57.91-1995/2000 and artificial neural networks.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Hot-spot Temperature, Least Squares Support Vector, Top-oil Temperature.

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156 Dynamic Process Monitoring of an Ammonia Synthesis Fixed-Bed Reactor

Authors: Bothinah Altaf, Gary Montague, Elaine B. Martin

Abstract:

This study involves the modeling and monitoring of an ammonia synthesis fixed-bed reactor using partial least squares (PLS) and its variants. The process exhibits complex dynamic behavior due to the presence of heat recycling and feed quench. One limitation of static PLS model in this situation is that it does not take account of the process dynamics and hence dynamic PLS was used. Although it showed, superior performance to static PLS in terms of prediction, the monitoring scheme was inappropriate hence adaptive PLS was considered. A limitation of adaptive PLS is that non-conforming observations also contribute to the model, therefore, a new adaptive approach was developed, robust adaptive dynamic PLS. This approach updates a dynamic PLS model and is robust to non-representative data. The developed methodology showed a clear improvement over existing approaches in terms of the modeling of the reactor and the detection of faults.

Keywords: Ammonia synthesis fixed-bed reactor, dynamic partial least squares modeling, recursive partial least squares, robust modeling.

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155 A Robust LS-SVM Regression

Authors: József Valyon, Gábor Horváth

Abstract:

In comparison to the original SVM, which involves a quadratic programming task; LS–SVM simplifies the required computation, but unfortunately the sparseness of standard SVM is lost. Another problem is that LS-SVM is only optimal if the training samples are corrupted by Gaussian noise. In Least Squares SVM (LS–SVM), the nonlinear solution is obtained, by first mapping the input vector to a high dimensional kernel space in a nonlinear fashion, where the solution is calculated from a linear equation set. In this paper a geometric view of the kernel space is introduced, which enables us to develop a new formulation to achieve a sparse and robust estimate.

Keywords: Support Vector Machines, Least Squares SupportVector Machines, Regression, Sparse approximation.

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154 Application of the Least Squares Method in the Adjustment of Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-142b) Regression Models

Authors: L. J. de Bessa Neto, V. S. Filho, J. V. Ferreira Nunes, G. C. Bergamo

Abstract:

There are many situations in which human activities have significant effects on the environment. Damage to the ozone layer is one of them. The objective of this work is to use the Least Squares Method, considering the linear, exponential, logarithmic, power and polynomial models of the second degree, to analyze through the coefficient of determination (R²), which model best fits the behavior of the chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-142b) in parts per trillion between 1992 and 2018, as well as estimates of future concentrations between 5 and 10 periods, i.e. the concentration of this pollutant in the years 2023 and 2028 in each of the adjustments. A total of 809 observations of the concentration of HCFC-142b in one of the monitoring stations of gases precursors of the deterioration of the ozone layer during the period of time studied were selected and, using these data, the statistical software Excel was used for make the scatter plots of each of the adjustment models. With the development of the present study, it was observed that the logarithmic fit was the model that best fit the data set, since besides having a significant R² its adjusted curve was compatible with the natural trend curve of the phenomenon.

Keywords: Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-142b), ozone (O3), least squares method, regression models.

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153 Voltage Problem Location Classification Using Performance of Least Squares Support Vector Machine LS-SVM and Learning Vector Quantization LVQ

Authors: Khaled Abduesslam. M, Mohammed Ali, Basher H Alsdai, Muhammad Nizam, Inayati

Abstract:

This paper presents the voltage problem location classification using performance of Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) in electrical power system for proper voltage problem location implemented by IEEE 39 bus New- England. The data was collected from the time domain simulation by using Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT). Outputs from simulation data such as voltage, phase angle, real power and reactive power were taken as input to estimate voltage stability at particular buses based on Power Transfer Stability Index (PTSI).The simulation data was carried out on the IEEE 39 bus test system by considering load bus increased on the system. To verify of the proposed LS-SVM its performance was compared to Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ). The results showed that LS-SVM is faster and better as compared to LVQ. The results also demonstrated that the LS-SVM was estimated by 0% misclassification whereas LVQ had 7.69% misclassification.

Keywords: IEEE 39 bus, Least Squares Support Vector Machine, Learning Vector Quantization, Voltage Collapse.

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152 Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Spectroscopy to Detect Microplastics and Pieces of Plastic in Almond Flour

Authors: H. Apaza, L. Chévez, H. Loro

Abstract:

Plastic and microplastic pollution in human food chain is a big problem for human health that requires more elaborated techniques that can identify their presences in different kinds of food. Hyperspectral imaging technique is an optical technique than can detect the presence of different elements in an image and can be used to detect plastics and microplastics in a scene. To do this statistical techniques are required that need to be evaluated and compared in order to find the more efficient ones. In this work, two problems related to the presence of plastics are addressed, the first is to detect and identify pieces of plastic immersed in almond seeds, and the second problem is to detect and quantify microplastic in almond flour. To do this we make use of the analysis hyperspectral images taken in the range of 900 to 1700 nm using 4 unmixing techniques of hyperspectral imaging which are: least squares unmixing (LSU), non-negatively constrained least squares unmixing (NCLSU), fully constrained least squares unmixing (FCLSU), and scaled constrained least squares unmixing (SCLSU). NCLSU, FCLSU, SCLSU techniques manage to find the region where the plastic is found and also manage to quantify the amount of microplastic contained in the almond flour. The SCLSU technique estimated a 13.03% abundance of microplastics and 86.97% of almond flour compared to 16.66% of microplastics and 83.33% abundance of almond flour prepared for the experiment. Results show the feasibility of applying near-infrared hyperspectral image analysis for the detection of plastic contaminants in food.

Keywords: Food, plastic, microplastic, NIR hyperspectral imaging, unmixing.

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151 An Accurate Method for Phylogeny Tree Reconstruction Based on a Modified Wild Dog Algorithm

Authors: Essam Al Daoud

Abstract:

This study solves a phylogeny problem by using modified wild dog pack optimization. The least squares error is considered as a cost function that needs to be minimized. Therefore, in each iteration, new distance matrices based on the constructed trees are calculated and used to select the alpha dog. To test the suggested algorithm, ten homologous genes are selected and collected from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databanks (i.e., 16S, 18S, 28S, Cox 1, ITS1, ITS2, ETS, ATPB, Hsp90, and STN). The data are divided into three categories: 50 taxa, 100 taxa and 500 taxa. The empirical results show that the proposed algorithm is more reliable and accurate than other implemented methods.

Keywords: Least squares, neighbor joining, phylogenetic tree, wild dogpack.

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150 An Iterative Method for the Symmetric Arrowhead Solution of Matrix Equation

Authors: Minghui Wang, Luping Xu, Juntao Zhang

Abstract:

In this paper, according to the classical algorithm LSQR for solving the least-squares problem, an iterative method is proposed for least-squares solution of constrained matrix equation. By using the Kronecker product, the matrix-form LSQR is presented to obtain the like-minimum norm and minimum norm solutions in a constrained matrix set for the symmetric arrowhead matrices. Finally, numerical examples are also given to investigate the performance.

Keywords: Symmetric arrowhead matrix, iterative method, like-minimum norm, minimum norm, Algorithm LSQR.

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149 Solving SPDEs by a Least Squares Method

Authors: Hassan Manouzi

Abstract:

We present in this paper a useful strategy to solve stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) involving stochastic coefficients. Using the Wick-product of higher order and the Wiener-Itˆo chaos expansion, the SPDEs is reformulated as a large system of deterministic partial differential equations. To reduce the computational complexity of this system, we shall use a decomposition-coordination method. To obtain the chaos coefficients in the corresponding deterministic equations, we use a least square formulation. Once this approximation is performed, the statistics of the numerical solution can be easily evaluated.

Keywords: Least squares, Wick product, SPDEs, finite element, Wiener chaos expansion, gradient method.

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