Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2209

Search results for: height ratio.

2209 Design Optimisation of Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) for Improved Performance

Authors: M. M. Isa, R. Abd-Rahman, H. H. Goh

Abstract:

A compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) is a wellknown non-imaging concentrator that will concentrate the solar radiation onto receiver (PV cell). One of disadvantage of CPC is has tall and narrow height compared to its diameter entry aperture area. Therefore, for economic reason, a truncation had been done by removed from the top of the full height CPC. This also will lead to the decreases of concentration ratio but it will be negligible. In this paper, the flux distribution of untruncated and truncated 2-D hollow compound parabolic trough concentrator (hCPTC) design is presented. The untruncated design has initial height H=193.4mm with concentration ratio C_(2-D)=4. This paper presents the optical simulation of compound parabolic trough concentrator using raytracing software TracePro. Results showed that, after the truncation, the height of CPC reduced 45% from initial height with the geometrical concentration ratio only decrease 10%. Thus, the cost of reflector and material dielectric usage can be saved especially at manufacturing site.

Keywords: Compound parabolic trough concentrator, optical modelling, ray-tracing analysis.

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2208 Study of Hydrocarbons Metering Issues in Algerian Fields under the New Law Context

Authors: A. Hadjadj, S. Maamir

Abstract:

Since the advent of the law 86/14 concerning the
exploitation of the national territory by foreign companies in
partnership with the Algerian oil and gas company, the problem of
hydrocarbons metering in the sharing production come out.
More generally, good management counting hydrocarbons can
provide data on the production wells, the field and the reservoir for
medium and long term planning, particularly in the context of the
management and field development.
In this work, we are interested in the transactional metering which
is a very delicate and crucial period in the current context of the new
hydrocarbon’s law characterized by assets system between the
various activities of Sonatrach and its foreign partners.
After a state of the art on hydrocarbons metering devices in
Algeria and elsewhere, we will decline the advantages and
disadvantages of each system, and then we describe the problem to
try to reach an optimal solution.

Keywords: Flowmeter orifice, heat flow, Sonatrach, Transactional metering.

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2207 Effect of Endplate Shape on Performance and Stability of Wings-in Ground (WIG) Craft

Authors: Kyoungwoo Park, Chol Ho Hong, Kwang Soo Kim, Juhee Lee

Abstract:

Numerical analysis for the aerodynamic characteristics of the WIG (wing-in ground effect) craft with highly cambered and aspect ratio of one is performed to predict the ground effect for the case of with- and without- lower-extension endplate. The analysis is included varying angles of attack from 0 to10 deg. and ground clearances from 5% of chord to 50%. Due to the ground effect, the lift by rising in pressure on the lower surface is increased and the influence of wing-tip vortices is decreased. These two significant effects improve the lift-drag ratio. On the other hand, the endplate prevents the high-pressure air escaping from the air cushion at the wing tip and causes to increase the lift and lift-drag ratio further. It is found from the visualization of computation results that two wing-tip vortices are generated from each surface of the wing tip and their strength are weak and diminished rapidly. Irodov-s criteria are also evaluated to investigate the static height stability. The comparison of Irodov-s criteria shows that the endplate improves the deviation of the static height stability with respect to pitch angles and heights. As the results, the endplate can improve the aerodynamic characteristics and static height stability of wings in ground effect, simultaneously.

Keywords: WIG craft, Endplate, Ground Effect, Aerodynamics, CFD, Lift-drag ratio, Static height stability.

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2206 Numerical Analysis on the Performance of Heatsink with Microchannels

Authors: Jer-Huan Jang, Han-Chieh Chiu, Wei-Chung Yeih, Jia-Jui Yang, Chien-Sheng Huang

Abstract:

In this paper, numerical simulation is used to investigate the thermal performance of liquid cooling heatsink with microchannels due to geometric arrangement. Commercial software ICEPAK is utilized for the analysis. The considered parameters include aspect ratio, porosity and the length and height of microchannel. The aspect ratio varies from 3 to 16 and the length of microchannel is 10mm, 14mm, and 18mm. The height of microchannel is 2mm, 3mm and 4mm. It is found short channel have better thermal efficiency than long channel at 490Pa. No matter the length of channel the best aspect ratio is 4. It is also noted that pressure difference at 2940Pa the best aspect ratio from 4 to 8, it means pressure difference affect aspect ratio, effective thermal resistance at low pressure difference but lower effective thermal resistance at high pressure difference.

Keywords: thermal resistance, liquid cooling, microchannels, numerical analysis, pressure difference

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2205 Ultra-Light Overhead Conveyor Systems for Logistics Applications

Authors: Batin Latif Aylak, Bernd Noche

Abstract:

Overhead conveyor systems satisfy by their simple
construction, wide application range and their full compatibility with
other manufacturing systems, which are designed according to
international standards. Ultra-light overhead conveyor systems are
rope-based conveying systems with individually driven vehicles. The
vehicles can move automatically on the rope and this can be realized
by energy and signals. Crossings are realized by switches. Overhead
conveyor systems are particularly used in the automotive industry but
also at post offices. Overhead conveyor systems always must be
integrated with a logistical process by finding the best way for a
cheaper material flow and in order to guarantee precise and fast
workflows. With their help, any transport can take place without
wasting ground and space, without excessive company capacity, lost
or damaged products, erroneous delivery, endless travels and without
wasting time. Ultra-light overhead conveyor systems provide optimal
material flow, which produces profit and saves time. This article
illustrates the advantages of the structure of the ultra-light overhead
conveyor systems in logistics applications and explains the steps of
their system design. After an illustration of the steps, currently
available systems on the market will be shown by means of their
technical characteristics. Due to their simple construction, demands
to an ultra-light overhead conveyor system will be illustrated.

Keywords: Logistics, material flow, overhead conveyor.

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2204 In vitro and in vivo Anticholinesterase Activity of the Volatile Oil of the Aerial Parts of Ocimum basilicum L. and O. africanum Lour. Growing in Egypt

Authors: M. G. Tadros, S. M. Ezzat, M. M. Salama, M. A. Farag

Abstract:

In this study, the in vitro anticholinesterase activity of
the volatile oils of both O. basilicum and O. africanum was
investigated and both samples showed significant activity. The major
constituents of the two oils were isolated using several column
chromatographies. Linalool, 1,8-cineol and eugenol were isolated
from the volatile oil of O. basilicum and camphor was isolated from
the volatile oil of O. africanum. The anticholinesterase activities of
the isolated compounds were also evaluated where 1,8-cineol showed
the highest inhibitory activity followed by camphor. To confirm these
activities, learning and memory enhancing effects were tested in
mice. Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine, a
cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anti-amnesic effects of
both volatile oils and their terpenoids were investigated by the
passive avoidance task in mice. We also examined their effects on
brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Results showed that scopolamineinduced
cognitive dysfunction was significantly attenuated by
administration of the volatile oils and their terpenoids, eugenol and
camphor, in the passive avoidance task and inhibited brain
acetylcholinesterase activity. These results suggest that O. basilicum
and O. africanum volatile oils can be good candidates for further
studies on Alzheimer’s disease via their acetylcholinesterase
inhibitory actions.

Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Ocimum africanum, Ocimum basilicum, passive avoidance.

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2203 Design of Gravity Dam by Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Farzin Salmasi

Abstract:

The design of a gravity dam is performed through an interactive process involving a preliminary layout of the structure followed by a stability and stress analysis. This study presents a method to define the optimal top width of gravity dam with genetic algorithm. To solve the optimization task (minimize the cost of the dam), an optimization routine based on genetic algorithms (GAs) was implemented into an Excel spreadsheet. It was found to perform well and GA parameters were optimized in a parametric study. Using the parameters found in the parametric study, the top width of gravity dam optimization was performed and compared to a gradient-based optimization method (classic method). The accuracy of the results was within close proximity. In optimum dam cross section, the ratio of is dam base to dam height is almost equal to 0.85, and ratio of dam top width to dam height is almost equal to 0.13. The computerized methodology may provide the help for computation of the optimal top width for a wide range of height of a gravity dam.

Keywords: Chromosomes, dam, genetic algorithm, globaloptimum, preliminary layout, stress analysis, theoretical profile.

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2202 A Study of the Relation of Wave Height and Erosion at Bangkhuntien Shoreline, Thailand

Authors: Prasertsak Ekphisutsuntorn, Prungchan Wongwises, Chaiyuth Chinnarasri, Usa Humphries, Suphat Vongvisessomjai

Abstract:

In this paper, the significant wave height at the Upper Gulf of Thailand and the changing of wave height at Bangkhuntien shoreline were simulated by using the Simulating WAves Nearshore Model (SWAN) version 40.51. The simulated results indicated that the significant wave height by SWAN model corresponded with the observed data. The results showed that the maximum significant wave height at the Bangkhuntien shoreline were 1.06-2.05 m. and the average significant wave height at the Bangkhuntien shoreline were 0.30-0.47 m. The significant wave height can be used to calculate the erosion through the Bangkhuntien shoreline. The erosion rates at the Bangkhuntien shoreline were prepared by using the aerial photo and they were about 1.80 m/yr. from 1980- 1986, 4.75 m/yr from 1987-1993, 15.28 m/yr from 1994-1996 and 10.03 m/yr from 1997-2002. The relation between the wave energy and the erosion were in good agreement. Therefore, the significant wave height was one of the major factors of the erosion at the Bangkhuntien shoreline.

Keywords: significant wave height, erosion, SWAN, relation, Bangkhuntien shoreline

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2201 Relationship between Transparency, Liquidity and Valuation

Authors: Zahra Lashgari, Naghmeh Sadat MaghamiTekiyeh

Abstract:

Recent evidences on liquidity and valuation of securities in the capital markets clearly show the importance of stock market liquidity and valuation of firms. In this paper, relationship between transparency, liquidity, and valuation is studied by using data obtained from 70 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange during2003-2012. In this study, discriminatory earnings management, as a sign of lack of transparency and Tobin's Q, was used as the criteria of valuation. The results indicate that there is a significant and reversed relationship between earnings management and liquidity. On the other hand, there is a relationship between liquidity and transparency.The results also indicate a significant relationship between transparency and valuation. Transparency has an indirect effect on firm valuation alone or through the liquidity channel. Although the effect of transparency on the value of a firm was reduced by adding the variable of liquidity, the cumulative effect of transparency and liquidity increased.

Keywords: Firm valuation, Earnings management, Liquidity, Tobin's Q, Transparency.

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2200 A Study on Leaching Behavior of Na, Ca and K Using Column Leach Test

Authors: Barman P.J, Kartha S A, Gupta S, Pradhan B.

Abstract:

Column leach test has been performed to examine the behavior of leaching of sodium, calcium and potassium in landfills. In the column leach apparatus, two different layers of contaminated and uncontaminated soils of different height ratios (ratio of depth of contaminated soil to the depth of uncontaminated soil) are taken. Water is poured from an overhead tank at a particular flowrate to the inlet of the soil column for a certain ponding depth over the contaminated soil. Subsequent infiltration causes leaching and the leachates are collected from the bottom of the column. The concentrations of Na, Ca and K in the leachate are measured using flame photometry. The experiments are further extended by changing the rates of flow from the overhead tank to the inlet of the column in achieving the same ponding depth. The experiments are performed for different scenarios in which the height ratios are altered and the variations of concentrations of Na, Ca, and K are observed. The study brings an estimation of leaching in landfill sites for different heights and precipitation intensity where a ponding depth is maintained over the landfill. It has been observed that the leaching behavior of Na, Ca, and K are not similar. Calcium exhibits highest amount of leaching compared to Sodium and Potassium under similar experimental conditions.

Keywords: Column leaching, flow rate, uncontaminated soil, contaminated soil, concentration, height ratio.

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2199 Effect of Gating Sprue Height on Mechanical Properties of Thin Wall Ductile Iron

Authors: E. F. Ochulor, S. O. Adeosun, S. A. Balogun

Abstract:

Effect of sprue/metal head height on mould filling, microstructure and mechanical properties of TWDI casting is studied. Results show that metal/sprue height of 50 mm is not sufficient to push the melt through the gating channel, but as it is increased from 100-350 mm, proper mould filling is achieved. However at higher heights between 200 mm and 350 mm, defects associated with incomplete solidification, carbide precipitation and turbulent flow are evident. This research shows that superior UTS, hardness, nodularity and nodule count are obtained at 100 mm sprue height.

Keywords: Melt pressure and velocity, nodularity, nodule count, sprue height.

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2198 Eco-Roof Systems in Subtropical Climates for Sustainable Development and Mitigation of Climate Change

Authors: M. O’Driscoll, M. Anwar, M. G. Rasul

Abstract:

The benefits of eco-roofs is quite well known, however there remains very little research conducted for the implementation of eco-roofs in subtropical climates such as Australia. There are many challenges facing Australia as it moves into the future, climate change is proving to be one of the leading challenges. In order to move forward with the mitigation of climate change, the impacts of rapid urbanization need to be offset. Eco-roofs are one way to achieve this; this study presents the energy savings and environmental benefits of the implementation of eco-roofs in subtropical climates. An experimental set-up was installed at Rockhampton campus of Central Queensland University, where two shipping containers were converted into small offices, one with an eco-roof and one without. These were used for temperature, humidity and energy consumption data collection. In addition, a computational model was developed using Design Builder software (state-of-the-art building energy simulation software) for simulating energy consumption of shipping containers and environmental parameters, this was done to allow comparison between simulated and real world data. This study found that eco-roofs are very effective in subtropical climates and provide energy saving of about 13% which agrees well with simulated results. 

Keywords: Climate Change, Eco/Green roof, Energy savings, Subtropical climate.

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2197 Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Triangular Enclosure as an Attic for Different Geometries and Boundary Conditions

Authors: H. Golchoobian, S. Saedodin, M. H. Taheri, A. Sarafraz

Abstract:

In this paper, natural convection in an attic is numerically investigated. The geometry of the problem is considered to be a triangular enclosure. ANSYS Fluent software is used for modeling and numerical solution. This study is for steady state. Four right-angled triangles with height to base ratios of 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 are considered. The behavior of various parameters related to its performance, including temperature distribution and velocity vectors are evaluated, and graphs for the Nusselt number have been drawn. Also, in this study, the effect of geometric shape of enclosure with different height-to-base ratios has been evaluated for three types of boundary conditions of winter, summer day and one another state. It can be concluded that as the bottom side temperature and ratio of base to height of the enclosure increases, the convective effects become more prominent and circulation happened.

Keywords: Enclosure, natural convection, numerical solution, Nusselt number, triangular.

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2196 Analysis of the Visual Preference of Patterns in Pedestrian Roads

Authors: Kang, Eun Sung, Song, Hyeong Wook, Kim, Hong Kyu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to analyze the visual preference of patterns in pedestrian roads. In this study, animation was applied for the estimation of dynamic streetscape. Six patterns of pedestrian were selected in order to analyze the visual preference. The shapes are straight, s-curve, and zigzag. The ratio of building's height and road's width are 2:1 and 1:1. Twelve adjective pairs used in the field investigation were selected from adjectives which are used usually in the estimation of streetscape. They are interesting-boring, simple-complex, calm-noisy, open-enclosed, active-inactive, lightly-depressing, regular-irregular, unique-usual, rhythmic-not rhythmic, united-not united, stable-unstable, tidy-untidy. Dynamic streetscape must be considered important in pedestrian shopping mall and park because it will be an attraction. So, s-curve pedestrian road, which is the most beautiful as a result of this study, should be designed in this area. Also, the ratio of building's height and road's width along pedestrian road should be reduced.

Keywords: Visual preference, streetscape, animation, simulation, pedestrian.

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2195 Effect of Equivalence Ratio on Performance of Fluidized Bed Gasifier Run with Sized Biomass

Authors: J. P. Makwana, A. K. Joshi, Rajesh N. Patel, Darshil Patel

Abstract:

Recently, fluidized bed gasification becomes an attractive technology for power generation due to its higher efficiency. The main objective pursued in this work is to investigate the producer gas production potential from sized biomass (sawdust and pigeon pea) by applying the air gasification technique. The size of the biomass selected for the study was in the range of 0.40-0.84 mm. An experimental study was conducted using a fluidized bed gasifier with 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. During the experiments, the fuel properties and the effects of operating parameters such as gasification temperatures 700 to 900 °C, equivalence ratio 0.16 to 0.46 were studied. It was concluded that substantial amounts of producer gas (up to 1110 kcal/m3) could be produced utilizing biomass such as sawdust and pigeon pea by applying this fluidization technique. For both samples, the rise of temperature till 900 °C and equivalence ratio of 0.4 favored further gasification reactions and resulted into producer gas with calorific value 1110 kcal/m3.

Keywords: Sized biomass, fluidized bed gasifier, equivalence ratio, temperature profile, gas composition.

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2194 Temperature-Dependent Barrier Characteristics of Inhomogeneous Pd/n-GaN Schottky Barrier Diodes Surface

Authors: K. Al-Heuseen, M. R. Hashim

Abstract:

The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Pd/n-GaN Schottky barrier were studied at temperatures over room temperature (300-470K). The values of ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height (φB0), flat barrier height (φBF) and series resistance (Rs) obtained from I-V-T measurements were found to be strongly temperature dependent while (φBo) increase, (n), (φBF) and (Rs) decrease with increasing temperature. The apparent Richardson constant was found to be 2.1x10-9 Acm-2K-2 and mean barrier height of 0.19 eV. After barrier height inhomogeneities correction, by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD) of the barrier heights, the Richardson constant and the mean barrier height were obtained as 23 Acm-2K-2 and 1.78eV, respectively. The corrected Richardson constant was very closer to theoretical value of 26 Acm-2K-2. 

Keywords: Electrical properties, Gaussian distribution, Pd-GaN Schottky diodes, thermionic emission.

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2193 Numerical Study of Heat Transfer and Laminar Flow over a Backward Facing Step with and without Obstacle

Authors: Hussein Togun, Tuqa Abdulrazzaq, S. N. Kazi, A. Badarudin, M. K. A. Ariffin, M. N. M. Zubir

Abstract:

Heat transfer and laminar fluid flow over backward facing step with and without obstacle numerically studied in this paper. The finite volume method adopted to solve continuity, momentum and energy equations in two dimensions. Backward facing step without obstacle and with different dimension of obstacle were presented. The step height and expansion ratio of channel were 4.8mm and 2 respectively, the range of Reynolds number varied from 75 to 225, constant heat flux subjected on downstream of wall was 2000W/m2, and length of obstacle was 1.5, 3, and 4.5mm with width 1.5mm. The separation length noticed increase with increase Reynolds number and height of obstacle. The result shows increase of heat transfer coefficient for backward facing step with obstacle in compared to those without obstacle. The maximum enhancement of heat transfer observed at 4.5mm of height obstacle due to increase recirculation flow after the obstacle in addition that at backward. Streamline of velocity showing the increase of recirculation region with used obstacle in compared without obstacle and highest recirculation region observed at obstacle height 4.5mm. The amount of enhancement heat transfer was varied between 3-5% compared to backward without obstacle.

Keywords: Separation flow, Backward facing step, Heat transfer, Laminar flow.

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2192 Effect of Scale on Slab Heat Transfer in a Walking Beam Type Reheating Furnace

Authors: Man Young Kim

Abstract:

In this work, the effects of scale on thermal behavior of the slab in a walking-beam type reheating furnace is studied by considering scale formation and growth in a furnace environment. Also, mathematical heat transfer model to predict the thermal radiation in a complex shaped reheating furnace with slab and skid buttons is developed with combined nongray WSGGM and blocked-off solution procedure. The model can attack the heat flux distribution within the furnace and the temperature distribution in the slab throughout the reheating furnace process by considering the heat exchange between the slab and its surroundings, including the radiant heat transfer among the slabs, the skids, the hot combustion gases and the furnace wall as well as the gas convective heat transfer in the furnace. With the introduction of the mathematical formulations validation of the present numerical model is conducted by calculating two example problems of blocked-off and nongray gas radiative heat transfer. After discussing the formation and growth of the scale on the slab surface, slab heating characteristics with scale is investigated in terms of temperature rise with time. 

Keywords: Reheating Furnace, Scale, Steel Slab, Radiative Heat Transfer, WSGGM.

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2191 Over-Height Vehicle Detection in Low Headroom Roads Using Digital Video Processing

Authors: Vahid Khorramshahi, Alireza Behrad, Neeraj K. Kanhere

Abstract:

In this paper we present a new method for over-height vehicle detection in low headroom streets and highways using digital video possessing. The accuracy and the lower price comparing to present detectors like laser radars and the capability of providing extra information like speed and height measurement make this method more reliable and efficient. In this algorithm the features are selected and tracked using KLT algorithm. A blob extraction algorithm is also applied using background estimation and subtraction. Then the world coordinates of features that are inside the blobs are estimated using a noble calibration method. As, the heights of the features are calculated, we apply a threshold to select overheight features and eliminate others. The over-height features are segmented using some association criteria and grouped using an undirected graph. Then they are tracked through sequential frames. The obtained groups refer to over-height vehicles in a scene.

Keywords: Feature extraction, over-height vehicle detection, traffic monitoring, vehicle tracking.

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2190 Preliminary Investigation on Combustion Characteristics of Rice Husk in FBC

Authors: W. Permchart, S. Tanatvanit

Abstract:

The experimental results on combustion of rice husk in a conical fluidized bed combustor (referred to as the conical FBC) using silica sand as the bed material are presented in this paper. The effects of excess combustion air and combustor loading as well as the sand bed height on the combustion pattern in FBC were investigated. Temperatures and gas concentrations (CO and NO) along over the combustor height as well as in the flue gas downstream from the ash collecting cyclone were measured. The results showed that the axial temperature profiles in FBC were explicitly affected by the combustor loading whereas the excess air and bed height were found to have minor influences on the temperature pattern. Meanwhile, the combustor loading and the excess air significantly affected the axial CO and NO concentration profiles; however, these profiles were almost independent of the bed height. The combustion and thermal efficiencies for this FBC were quantified for different operating conditions.

Keywords: Temperature, Combustor loading, Excess air, Bed height.

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2189 Pressure-Detecting Method for Estimating Levitation Gap Height of Swirl Gripper

Authors: Kaige Shi, Chao Jiang, Xin Li

Abstract:

The swirl gripper is an electrically activated noncontact handling device that uses swirling airflow to generate a lifting force. This force can be used to pick up a workpiece placed underneath the swirl gripper without any contact. It is applicable, for example, in the semiconductor wafer production line, where contact must be avoided during the handling and moving of a workpiece to minimize damage. When a workpiece levitates underneath a swirl gripper, the gap height between them is crucial for safe handling. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method to estimate the levitation gap height by detecting pressure at two points. The method is based on theoretical model of the swirl gripper, and has been experimentally verified. Furthermore, the force between the gripper and the workpiece can also be estimated using the detected pressure. As a result, the nonlinear relationship between the force and gap height can be linearized by adjusting the rotating speed of the fan in the swirl gripper according to the estimated force and gap height. The linearized relationship is expected to enhance handling stability of the workpiece.

Keywords: Swirl gripper, noncontact handling, levitation, gap height estimation.

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2188 Foot Anthropometry of Primary School Children in the South of Thailand

Authors: S. Rawangwong, J. Chatthong, W. Boonchouytan

Abstract:

The objective of the research was to study of foot anthropometry of children aged 7-12 years in the South of Thailand Thirty-three dimensions were measured on 305 male and 295 female subjects with 3 age ranges (7-12 years old). The instrumentation consists of four types of anthropometer, digital vernier caliper, digital height gauge and measuring tape. The mean values and standard deviations of average age, height, and weight of the male subjects were 9.52(±1.70) years, 137.80(±11.55) cm, and 37.57(±11.65) kg. Female average age, height, and weight subjects were 9.53(±1.70) years, 137.88(±11.55) cm, and 34.90(±11.57) kg respectively. The comparison of the 33 comparison measured anthropometric. Between male and female subjects were sexual differences in size on women in almost all areas of significance (p<0.05). The comparison of size and proportion elementary school students 11-12 years old men in Southern of Thailand with Thai boys aged 11-12 years of industrial standards at stage 4 year A.D. 2000-2001 Number nine ratio. Concluded that students male in Southern of Thailand has a size different from the proportions of research Industrial Standards. Ministry of Industry, Phase 4, when every year from A.D. 2000-2001 ratio was significantly (p<0.05).All of the feet studied were classified into 4 categories according to the ratios of diagonal foot breadth to the maximum foot length and heel breadth to the foot breadth. They were short but thick, small but long, small, and large. The numbers of the males feet classified in these categories were 86, 64, 40, and 115 persons or 28.20, 20.98, 13.11, and 37.70% respectively. For the female feet, the same values were 46, 59, 81, and 109 persons or 15.59, 20.00, 27.46, and 36.95% respectively.

Keywords: Ergonomics, foot anthropometry, male and female, primary school children

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2187 Measurement of I-V Characteristics of a PtSi/p-Si Schottky Barrier Diode at low Temperatures

Authors: Somayeh Gholami, Meysam Khakbaz

Abstract:

The current-voltage characteristics of a PtSi/p-Si Schottky barrier diode was measured at the temperature of 85 K and from the forward bias region of the I-V curve, the electrical parameters of the diode were measured by three methods. The results obtained from the two methods which considered the series resistance were in close agreement with each other and from them barrier height (), ideality factor (n) and series resistance () were found to be 0.2045 eV, 2.877 and 14.556 K respectively. By measuring the I-V characteristics in the temperature range of 85-136 K the electrical parameters were observed to have strong dependency on temperature. The increase of barrier height and decrease of ideality factor with increasing temperature is attributed to the existence of barrier height inhomogeneities in the silicide-semiconductor structure.

Keywords: Schottky diode, barrier height, series resistance, I-V, barrier height inhomogeneities.

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2186 A Contractor Iteration Method Using Eigenpairs for Positive Solutions of Nonlinear Elliptic Equation

Authors: Hailong Zhu, Zhaoxiang Li, Kejun Zhuang

Abstract:

By means of Contractor Iteration Method, we solve and visualize the Lane-Emden(-Fowler) equation Δu + up = 0, in Ω, u = 0, on ∂Ω. It is shown that the present method converges quadratically as Newton’s method and the computation of Contractor Iteration Method is cheaper than the Newton’s method.

Keywords: Positive solutions, newton's method, contractor iteration method, Eigenpairs.

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2185 Conversion in Chemical Reactors using Hollow Cylindrical Catalyst Pellet

Authors: Mohammad Asif

Abstract:

Heterogeneous catalysis is vital for a number of chemical, refinery and pollution control processes. The use of catalyst pellets of hollow cylindrical shape provide several distinct advantages over other common shapes, and can therefore help to enhance conversion levels in reactors. A better utilization of the catalytic material is probably most notable of these features due to the absence of the pellet core, which helps to significantly lower the effect of the internal transport resistance. This is reflected in the enhancement of the effectiveness factor. For the case of the first order irreversible kinetics, a substantial increase in the effectiveness factor can be obtained by varying shape parameters. Important shape parameters of a finite hollow cylinder are the ratio of the inside to the outside radii (κ) and the height to the diameter ratio (γ). A high value of κ the generally helps to enhance the effectiveness factor. On the other hand, lower values of the effectiveness factors are obtained when the dimension of the height and the diameter are comparable. Thus, the departure of parameter γ from the unity favors higher effectiveness factor. Since a higher effectiveness factor is a measure of a greater utilization of the catalytic material, higher conversion levels can be achieved using the hollow cylindrical pellets possessing optimized shape parameters.

Keywords: Finite hollow cylinder, Catalyst pellet, Effectiveness factor, Thiele Modulus, Conversion

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2184 Wave-Structure Interaction for Submerged Quarter-Circle Breakwaters of Different Radii - Reflection Characteristics

Authors: Arkal Vittal Hegde, L. Ravikiran

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of a series of experiments conducted on physical models of Quarter-circle breakwater (QBW) in a two dimensional monochromatic wave flume. The purpose of the experiments was to evaluate the reflection coefficient Kr of QBW models of different radii (R) for different submergence ratios (d/hc), where d is the depth of water and hc is the height of the breakwater crest from the sea bed. The radii of the breakwater models studied were 20cm, 22.5cm, 25cm, 27.5cm and submergence ratios used varied from 1.067 to 1.667. The wave climate off the Mangalore coast was used for arriving at the various model wave parameters. The incident wave heights (Hi) used in the flume varied from 3 to 18cm, and wave periods (T) ranged from 1.2 s to 2.2 s. The water depths (d) of 40cm, 45cm and 50cm were used in the experiments. The data collected was analyzed to compute variation of reflection coefficient Kr=Hr/Hi (where Hr=reflected wave height) with the wave steepness Hi/gT2 for various R/Hi (R=breakwater radius) values. It was found that the reflection coefficient increased as incident wave steepness increased. Also as wave height decreases reflection coefficient decreases and as structure radius R increased Kr decreased slightly.

Keywords: Incident wave steepness, Quarter-circle breakwater, Reflection coefficient, Submergence ratio.

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2183 Generalized Inverse Eigenvalue Problems for Symmetric Arrow-head Matrices

Authors: Yongxin Yuan

Abstract:

In this paper, we first give the representation of the general solution of the following inverse eigenvalue problem (IEP): Given X ∈ Rn×p and a diagonal matrix Λ ∈ Rp×p, find nontrivial real-valued symmetric arrow-head matrices A and B such that AXΛ = BX. We then consider an optimal approximation problem: Given real-valued symmetric arrow-head matrices A, ˜ B˜ ∈ Rn×n, find (A, ˆ Bˆ) ∈ SE such that Aˆ − A˜2 + Bˆ − B˜2 = min(A,B)∈SE (A−A˜2 +B −B˜2), where SE is the solution set of IEP. We show that the optimal approximation solution (A, ˆ Bˆ) is unique and derive an explicit formula for it.

Keywords: Partially prescribed spectral information, symmetric arrow-head matrix, inverse problem, optimal approximation.

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2182 On Hyperbolic Gompertz Growth Model

Authors: Angela Unna Chukwu, Samuel Oluwafemi Oyamakin

Abstract:

We proposed a Hyperbolic Gompertz Growth Model (HGGM), which was developed by introducing a shape parameter (allometric). This was achieved by convoluting hyperbolic sine function on the intrinsic rate of growth in the classical gompertz growth equation. The resulting integral solution obtained deterministically was reprogrammed into a statistical model and used in modeling the height and diameter of Pines (Pinus caribaea). Its ability in model prediction was compared with the classical gompertz growth model, an approach which mimicked the natural variability of height/diameter increment with respect to age and therefore provides a more realistic height/diameter predictions using goodness of fit tests and model selection criteria. The Kolmogorov Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test was also used to test the compliance of the error term to normality assumptions while the independence of the error term was confirmed using the runs test. The mean function of top height/Dbh over age using the two models under study predicted closely the observed values of top height/Dbh in the hyperbolic gompertz growth models better than the source model (classical gompertz growth model) while the results of R2, Adj. R2, MSE and AIC confirmed the predictive power of the Hyperbolic Gompertz growth models over its source model.

Keywords: Height, Dbh, forest, Pinus caribaea, hyperbolic, gompertz.

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2181 Classification of Initial Stripe Height Patterns using Radial Basis Function Neural Network for Proportional Gain Prediction

Authors: Prasit Wonglersak, Prakarnkiat Youngkong, Ittipon Cheowanish

Abstract:

This paper aims to improve a fine lapping process of hard disk drive (HDD) lapping machines by removing materials from each slider together with controlling the strip height (SH) variation to minimum value. The standard deviation is the key parameter to evaluate the strip height variation, hence it is minimized. In this paper, a design of experiment (DOE) with factorial analysis by twoway analysis of variance (ANOVA) is adopted to obtain a statistically information. The statistics results reveal that initial stripe height patterns affect the final SH variation. Therefore, initial SH classification using a radial basis function neural network is implemented to achieve the proportional gain prediction.

Keywords: Stripe height variation, Two-way analysis ofvariance (ANOVA), Radial basis function neural network, Proportional gain prediction.

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2180 A Small-Scale Study of Fire Whirls and Investigation of the Effects of Near-Ground Height on the Behavior of Fire Whirls

Authors: M. Arabghahestani, A. Darwish Ahmad, N. K. Akafuah

Abstract:

In this work, small-scale experiments of fire whirl were conducted to study the spinning fire phenomenon and to gain comprehensive understandings of fire tornadoes and the factors that affect their behavior. High speed imaging was used to track the flames at both temporal and spatial scales. This allowed us to better understand the role of the near-ground height in creating a boundary layer flow profile that, in turn contributes to formation of vortices around the fire, and consequent fire whirls. Based on the results obtained from these observations, we were able to spot the differences in the fuel burning rate of the fire itself as a function of a newly defined specific non-dimensional near-ground height. Based on our observations, there is a cutoff non-dimensional height, beyond which a normal fire can be turned into a fire whirl. Additionally, the results showed that the fire burning rate decreases by moving the fire to a height higher than the ground level. These effects were justified by the interactions between vortices formed by, the back pressure and the boundary layer velocity profile, and the vortices generated by the fire itself.

Keywords: Boundary layer profile, fire whirls, near-ground height, vortex interactions.

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