Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30123
Pressure-Detecting Method for Estimating Levitation Gap Height of Swirl Gripper

Authors: Kaige Shi, Chao Jiang, Xin Li

Abstract:

The swirl gripper is an electrically activated noncontact handling device that uses swirling airflow to generate a lifting force. This force can be used to pick up a workpiece placed underneath the swirl gripper without any contact. It is applicable, for example, in the semiconductor wafer production line, where contact must be avoided during the handling and moving of a workpiece to minimize damage. When a workpiece levitates underneath a swirl gripper, the gap height between them is crucial for safe handling. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method to estimate the levitation gap height by detecting pressure at two points. The method is based on theoretical model of the swirl gripper, and has been experimentally verified. Furthermore, the force between the gripper and the workpiece can also be estimated using the detected pressure. As a result, the nonlinear relationship between the force and gap height can be linearized by adjusting the rotating speed of the fan in the swirl gripper according to the estimated force and gap height. The linearized relationship is expected to enhance handling stability of the workpiece.

Keywords: Swirl gripper, noncontact handling, levitation, gap height estimation.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3461936

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 51

References:


[1] K. Reddig, "Overview of automation in the photovoltaic industry," Photovolt. Int., vol. 4, pp. 18-29, 2009.
[2] T. Giesen et al., "Advanced production challenges for automated ultra-thin wafer handling," presented at the 27th Eur. Photovoltaic Sol. Energy Conf. Exhib., Frankfurt, Germany, 2012.
[3] E. H. Brandt, "Levitation in Physics," Science, vol. 243, no. 4889, pp. 349-355, Jan 1989, doi: 10.1126/science.243.4889.349.
[4] J. A. Paivanas and J. K. Hassan, "Air Film System for Handling Semiconductor Wafers," Ibm Journal of Research and Development, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 361-375, 1979 1979.
[5] V. Vandaele, P. Lambert, and A. Delchambre, "Non-contact handling in microassembly: Acoustical levitation," Precision Engineering-Journal of the International Societies for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 491-505, Oct 2005, doi: 10.1016/j.precisioneng.2005.03.003.
[6] X. F. Brun and S. N. Melkote, "Modeling and Prediction of the Flow, Pressure, and Holding Force Generated by a Bernoulli Handling Device," Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering-Transactions of the Asme, vol. 131, no. 3, Jun 2009, Art no. 031018, doi: 10.1115/1.3139222.
[7] X. F. Brun and S. N. Melkote, "Analysis of stresses and breakage of crystalline silicon wafers during handling and transport," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93, no. 8, pp. 1238-1247, Aug 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2009.01.016.
[8] S. Davis, J. O. Gray, and D. G. Caldwell, "An end effector based on the Bernoulli principle for handling sliced fruit and vegetables," Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 249-257, Apr 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.rcim.2006.11.002.
[9] G. Dini, G. Fantoni, and F. Failli, "Grasping leather plies by Bernoulli grippers," Cirp Annals-Manufacturing Technology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 21-24, 2009 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.cirp.2009.03.076.
[10] F. Erzincanli, J. M. Sharp, and S. Erhal, "Design and operational considerations of a non-contact robotic handling system for non-rigid materials," International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 353-361, Apr 1998, doi: 10.1016/s0890-6955(97)00037-0.
[11] B. R. Rawal, V. Pare, and K. Tripathi, "Development of noncontact end effector for handling of bakery products," International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 38, no. 5-6, pp. 524-528, Aug 2008, doi: 10.1007/s00170-007-1166-x.
[12] X. Li, K. Kawashima, and T. Kagawa, "Analysis of vortex levitation," Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1448-1454, Sep 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2008.03.010.
[13] X. Li, S. Iio, K. Kawashima, and T. Kagawa, "Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of a Noncontact Handling Device Using Air-Swirling Flow," Journal of Engineering Mechanics-Asce, vol. 137, no. 6, pp. 400-409, Jun 2011, doi: 10.1061/(asce)em.1943-7889.0000237.
[14] X. Li, M. Horie, and T. Kagawa, "Study on the basic characteristics of a vortex bearing element," International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 64, no. 1-4, pp. 1-12, Jan 2013, doi: 10.1007/s00170-012-4372-0.
[15] L. Xin, W. Zhong, T. Kagawa, H. Liu, and G. Tao, "Development of a Pneumatic Sucker for Gripping Workpieces With Rough Surface," Ieee Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 639-646, Apr 2016, doi: 10.1109/tase.2014.2361251.
[16] X. Li and T. Kagawa, "Development of a new noncontact gripper using swirl vanes," Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 63-70, Feb 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.rcim.2012.07.002.
[17] X. Li, M. Horie, and T. Kagawa, "Pressure-Distribution Methods for Estimating Lifting Force of a Swirl Gripper," Ieee-Asme Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 707-718, Apr 2014, doi: 10.1109/tmech.2013.2256793.
[18] X. Li and T. Kagawa, "Theoretical and Experimental Study of Factors Affecting the Suction Force of a Bernoulli Gripper," (in English), Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Article vol. 140, no. 9, p. 11, Sep 2014, Art no. 04014066, doi: 10.1061/(asce)em.1943-7889.0000774.
[19] K. Shi and X. Li, "Optimization of outer diameter of Bernoulli gripper," Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, vol. 77, pp. 284-294, Oct 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2016.03.024.
[20] K. Shi and X. Li, "Experimental and theoretical study of dynamic characteristics of Bernoulli gripper," Precision Engineering-Journal of the International Societies for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, vol. 52, pp. 323-331, Apr 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.precisioneng.2018.01.006.
[21] D. Liu, W. Liang, H. Zhu, C. S. Teo, K. K. Tan, and Ieee, "Development of a Distributed Bernoulli Gripper for Ultra-thin Wafer Handling," in IEEE International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), Munich, Germany, 2017.
[22] B. R. Munson, D. F. Young, T. H. Okiishi, and W. W. Huebsch, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics 6th ed. 2009.