Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4277

Search results for: finite state machine

4277 Quranic Braille System

Authors: Abdallah M. Abualkishik, Khairuddin Omar

Abstract:

This article concerned with the translation of Quranic verses to Braille symbols, by using Visual basic program. The system has the ability to translate the special vibration for the Quran. This study limited for the (Noun + Scoon) vibrations. It builds on an existing translation system that combines a finite state machine with left and right context matching and a set of translation rules. This allows to translate the Arabic language from text to Braille symbols after detect the vibration for the Quran verses.

Keywords: Braille, Quran vibration, Finite State Machine.

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4276 A Data Hiding Model with High Security Features Combining Finite State Machines and PMM method

Authors: Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of the Internet and telecommunication techniques. Information security is becoming more and more important. Applications such as covert communication, copyright protection, etc, stimulate the research of information hiding techniques. Traditionally, encryption is used to realize the communication security. However, important information is not protected once decoded. Steganography is the art and science of communicating in a way which hides the existence of the communication. Important information is firstly hidden in a host data, such as digital image, video or audio, etc, and then transmitted secretly to the receiver.In this paper a data hiding model with high security features combining both cryptography using finite state sequential machine and image based steganography technique for communicating information more securely between two locations is proposed. The authors incorporated the idea of secret key for authentication at both ends in order to achieve high level of security. Before the embedding operation the secret information has been encrypted with the help of finite-state sequential machine and segmented in different parts. The cover image is also segmented in different objects through normalized cut.Each part of the encoded secret information has been embedded with the help of a novel image steganographic method (PMM) on different cuts of the cover image to form different stego objects. Finally stego image is formed by combining different stego objects and transmit to the receiver side. At the receiving end different opposite processes should run to get the back the original secret message.

Keywords: Cover Image, Finite state sequential machine, Melaymachine, Pixel Mapping Method (PMM), Stego Image, NCUT.

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4275 Finite-time Stability Analysis of Fractional-order with Multi-state Time Delay

Authors: Liqiong Liu, Shouming Zhong

Abstract:

In this paper, the finite-time stabilization of a class of multi-state time delay of fractional-order system is proposed. First, we define finite-time stability with the fractional-order system. Second, by using Generalized Gronwall's approach and the methods of the inequality, we get some conditions of finite-time stability for the fractional system with multi-state delay. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the result.

Keywords: Finite-time stabilization, fractional-order system, Gronwall inequality.

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4274 Maintenance Alternatives Related to Costs of Wind Turbines Using Finite State Markov Model

Authors: Boukelkoul Lahcen

Abstract:

The cumulative costs for O&M may represent as much as 65%-90% of the turbine's investment cost. Nowadays the cost effectiveness concept becomes a decision-making and technology evaluation metric. The cost of energy metric accounts for the effect replacement cost and unscheduled maintenance cost parameters. One key of the proposed approach is the idea of maintaining the WTs which can be captured via use of a finite state Markov chain. Such a model can be embedded within a probabilistic operation and maintenance simulation reflecting the action to be done. In this paper, an approach of estimating the cost of O&M is presented. The finite state Markov model is used for decision problems with number of determined periods (life cycle) to predict the cost according to various options of maintenance.

Keywords: Cost, finite state, Markov model, operation, maintenance.

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4273 Design of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine for the Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Authors: Arash Hassanpour Isfahani, Siavash Sadeghi

Abstract:

Permanent magnet synchronous machines are known as a good candidate for hybrid electric vehicles due to their unique merits. However they have two major drawbacks i.e. high cost and small speed range. In this paper an optimal design of a permanent magnet machine is presented. A reduction of permanent magnet material for a constant torque and an extension in speed and torque ranges are chosen as the optimization aims. For this purpose the analytical model of the permanent magnet synchronous machine is derived and the appropriate design algorithm is devised. The genetic algorithm is then employed to optimize some machine specifications. Finally the finite element method is used to validate the designed machine.

Keywords: Design, Finite Element, Hybrid electric vehicle, Optimization, Permanent magnet synchronous machine.

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4272 Novel Direct Flux and Torque Control of Optimally Designed 6 Phase Reluctance Machine with Special Current Waveform

Authors: E T. Rakgati, E. Matlotse

Abstract:

In this paper the principle, basic torque theory and design optimisation of a six-phase reluctance dc machine are considered. A trapezoidal phase current waveform for the machine drive is proposed and evaluated to minimise ripple torque. Low cost normal laminated salient-pole rotors with and without slits and chamfered poles are investigated. The six-phase machine is optimised in multi-dimensions by linking the finite-element analysis method directly with an optimisation algorithm; the objective function is to maximise the torque per copper losses of the machine. The armature reaction effect is investigated in detail and found to be severe. The measured and calculated torque performances of a 35 kW optimum designed six-phase reluctance dc machine drive are presented.

Keywords: Reluctance dc machine, current waveform, design optimisation, finite element analysis, armature reaction effect.

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4271 Modal Analysis of Machine Tool Column Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Migbar Assefa

Abstract:

The performance of a machine tool is eventually assessed by its ability to produce a component of the required geometry in minimum time and at small operating cost. It is customary to base the structural design of any machine tool primarily upon the requirements of static rigidity and minimum natural frequency of vibration. The operating properties of machines like cutting speed, feed and depth of cut as well as the size of the work piece also have to be kept in mind by a machine tool structural designer. This paper presents a novel approach to the design of machine tool column for static and dynamic rigidity requirement. Model evaluation is done effectively through use of General Finite Element Analysis software ANSYS. Studies on machine tool column are used to illustrate finite element based concept evaluation technique. This paper also presents results obtained from the computations of thin walled box type columns that are subjected to torsional and bending loads in case of static analysis and also results from modal analysis. The columns analyzed are square and rectangle based tapered open column, column with cover plate, horizontal partitions and with apertures. For the analysis purpose a total of 70 columns were analyzed for bending, torsional and modal analysis. In this study it is observed that the orientation and aspect ratio of apertures have no significant effect on the static and dynamic rigidity of the machine tool structure.

Keywords: Finite Element Modeling, Modal Analysis, Machine tool structure, Static Analysis.

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4270 Mechanism of Damping in Welded Structures using Finite Element Approach

Authors: B. Singh, B. K. Nanda

Abstract:

The characterization and modeling of the dynamic behavior of many built-up structures under vibration conditions is still a subject of current research. The present study emphasizes the theoretical investigation of slip damping in layered and jointed welded cantilever structures using finite element approach. Application of finite element method in damping analysis is relatively recent, as such, some problems particularly slip damping analysis has not received enough attention. To validate the finite element model developed, experiments have been conducted on a number of mild steel specimens under different initial conditions of vibration. Finite element model developed affirms that the damping capacity of such structures is influenced by a number of vital parameters such as; pressure distribution, kinematic coefficient of friction and micro-slip at the interfaces, amplitude, frequency of vibration, length and thickness of the specimen. Finite element model developed can be utilized effectively in the design of machine tools, automobiles, aerodynamic and space structures, frames and machine members for enhancing their damping capacity.

Keywords: Amplitude, finite element method, slip damping, tack welding.

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4269 Finite Element Prediction on the Machining Stability of Milling Machine with Experimental Verification

Authors: Jui P. Hung, Yuan L. Lai, Hui T. You

Abstract:

Chatter vibration has been a troublesome problem for a machine tool toward the high precision and high speed machining. Essentially, the machining performance is determined by the dynamic characteristics of the machine tool structure and dynamics of cutting process, which can further be identified in terms of the stability lobe diagram. Therefore, realization on the machine tool dynamic behavior can help to enhance the cutting stability. To assess the dynamic characteristics and machining stability of a vertical milling system under the influence of a linear guide, this study developed a finite element model integrated the modeling of linear components with the implementation of contact stiffness at the rolling interface. Both the finite element simulations and experimental measurements reveal that the linear guide with different preload greatly affects the vibration behavior and milling stability of the vertical column spindle head system, which also clearly indicate that the predictions of the machining stability agree well with the cutting tests. It is believed that the proposed model can be successfully applied to evaluate the dynamics performance of machine tool systems of various configurations.

Keywords: Machining stability, Vertical milling machine, Linearguide, Contact stiffness.

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4268 Design and Simulation of Low Speed Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) Machine

Authors: Ahmad Darabi, Hassan Moradi, Hossein Azarinfar

Abstract:

In this paper presented initial design of Low Speed Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) Machine with Non-Slotted TORUS topology type by use of certain algorithm (Appendix). Validation of design algorithm studied by means of selected data of an initial prototype machine. Analytically design calculation carried out by means of design algorithm and obtained results compared with results of Finite Element Method (FEM).

Keywords: Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) Machine, Design Algorithm, Finite Element Method (FEM), TORUS

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4267 Design Optimization of a Double Stator Cup- Rotor Machine

Authors: E. Diryak, P. Lefley, L. Petkovska, G. Cvetkovski

Abstract:

This paper presents the optimum design for a double stator, cup rotor machine; a novel type of BLDC PM Machine. The optimization approach is divided into two stages: the first stage is calculating the machine configuration using Matlab, and the second stage is the optimization of the machine using Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Under the design specifications, the machine model will be selected from three pole numbers, namely, 8, 10 and 12 with an appropriate slot number. A double stator brushless DC permanent magnet machine is designed to achieve low cogging torque; high electromagnetic torque and low ripple torque.

Keywords: Permanent magnet machine, low- cogging torque, low- ripple torque, high- electromagnetic torque, design optimization.

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4266 Model Checking Consistency of UML Diagrams Using Alloy

Authors: Akie Nimiya, Tomoyuki Yokogawa, Hisashi Miyazaki, Sousuke Amasaki, Yoichiro Sato, Michiyoshi Hayase

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a method for detecting consistency violation between UML state machine diagrams and communication diagrams using Alloy. Using input language of Alloy, the proposed method expresses system behaviors described by state machine diagrams, message sequences described by communication diagrams, and a consistency property. As a result of application for an example system, we confirmed that consistency violation could be detected using Alloy correctly.

Keywords: Model checking, UML, state machine diagrams, communication diagram, alloy.

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4265 Review Risk and Threats Due to Dam Break

Authors: A.Roshandel, N.Hedayat, H.kiamanesh

Abstract:

The one of most important objects in implementation of damage analysis observations is manner of dam break wave propagation. In this paper velocity and wave height due dam break in with and without tailwater states for appointment hazardous lands and flood radius are investigate. In order to modeling above phenomenon finite volume method of Roe type for solving shallow water equations is used. Results indicated that in the dry bed state risk radius due to dam break is too high. While in the wet bed risk radius has a less wide. Therefore in the first state constructions and storage facilities are encountered with destruction risk. Further velocity due to dam break in the second state is more comparing to the first state. Hence erosion and scour the river bed in the dry bed is too more compare to the wet bed.

Keywords: Dam break, finite volume method, tailwater, risk radius, scour

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4264 Effect of the Machine Frame Structures on the Frequency Responses of Spindle Tool

Authors: Yuan L. Lai, Yong R. Chen, Jui P. Hung, Tzuo L. Luo, Hsi H. Hsiao

Abstract:

Chatter vibration has been a troublesome problem for a machine tool toward the high precision and high speed machining. Essentially, the machining performance is determined by the dynamic characteristics of the machine tool structure and dynamics of cutting process. Therefore the dynamic vibration behavior of spindle tool system greatly determines the performance of machine tool. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influences of the machine frame structure on the dynamic frequency of spindle tool unit through finite element modeling approach. To this end, a realistic finite element model of the vertical milling system was created by incorporated the spindle-bearing model into the spindle head stock of the machine frame. Using this model, the dynamic characteristics of the milling machines with different structural designs of spindle head stock and identical spindle tool unit were demonstrated. The results of the finite element modeling reveal that the spindle tool unit behaves more compliant when the excited frequency approaches the natural mode of the spindle tool; while the spindle tool show a higher dynamic stiffness at lower frequency that may be initiated by the structural mode of milling head. Under this condition, it is concluded that the structural configuration of spindle head stock associated with the vertical column of milling machine plays an important role in determining the machining dynamics of the spindle unit.

Keywords: Machine tools, Compliance, Frequency response function, Machine frame structure, Spindle unit

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4263 CompleX-Machine: An Automated Testing Tool Using X-Machine Theory

Authors: E. K. A. Ogunshile

Abstract:

This paper is aimed at creating an Automatic Java X-Machine testing tool for software development. The nature of software development is changing; thus, the type of software testing tools required is also changing. Software is growing increasingly complex and, in part due to commercial impetus for faster software releases with new features and value, increasingly in danger of containing faults. These faults can incur huge cost for software development organisations and users; Cambridge Judge Business School’s research estimated the cost of software bugs to the global economy is $312 billion. Beyond the cost, faster software development methodologies and increasing expectations on developers to become testers is driving demand for faster, automated, and effective tools to prevent potential faults as early as possible in the software development lifecycle. Using X-Machine theory, this paper will explore a new tool to address software complexity, changing expectations on developers, faster development pressures and methodologies, with a view to reducing the huge cost of fixing software bugs.

Keywords: Conformance testing, finite state machine, software testing, X-Machine.

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4262 Prediction of the Dynamic Characteristics of a Milling Machine Using the Integrated Model of Machine Frame and Spindle Unit

Authors: Jui P. Hung, Yuan L. Lai, Tzuo L. Luo, Hsi H. Hsiao

Abstract:

The machining performance is determined by the frequency characteristics of the machine-tool structure and the dynamics of the cutting process. Therefore, the prediction of dynamic vibration behavior of spindle tool system is of great importance for the design of a machine tool capable of high-precision and high-speed machining. The aim of this study is to develop a finite element model to predict the dynamic characteristics of milling machine tool and hence evaluate the influence of the preload of the spindle bearings. To this purpose, a three dimensional spindle bearing model of a high speed engraving spindle tool was created. In this model, the rolling interfaces with contact stiffness defined by Harris model were used to simulate the spindle bearing components. Then a full finite element model of a vertical milling machine was established by coupling the spindle tool unit with the machine frame structure. Using this model, the vibration mode that had a dominant influence on the dynamic stiffness was determined. The results of the finite element simulations reveal that spindle bearing with different preloads greatly affect the dynamic behavior of the spindle tool unit and hence the dynamic responses of the vertical column milling system. These results were validated by performing vibration on the individual spindle tool unit and the milling machine prototype, respectively. We conclude that preload of the spindle bearings is an important component affecting the dynamic characteristics and machining performance of the entire vertical column structure of the milling machine.

Keywords: Dynamic compliance, Milling machine, Spindle unit, Bearing preload.

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4261 Symmetrical Analysis of a Six-Phase Induction Machine Under Fault Conditions

Authors: E. K.Appiah, G. M'boungui, A. A. Jimoh, J. L. Munda, A.S.O. Ogunjuyigbe

Abstract:

The operational behavior of a six-phase squirrel cage induction machine with faulted stator terminals is presented in this paper. The study is carried out using the derived mathematical model of the machine in the arbitrary reference frame. Tests are conducted on a 1 kW experimental machine. Steady-state and dynamic performance are analyzed for the machine unloaded and loaded conditions. The results shows that with one of the stator phases experiencing either an open- circuit or short circuit fault the machine still produces starting torque, albeit the running performance is significantly derated.

Keywords: Performance, fault conditions, six-phase induction machine.

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4260 FSM-based Recognition of Dynamic Hand Gestures via Gesture Summarization Using Key Video Object Planes

Authors: M. K. Bhuyan

Abstract:

The use of human hand as a natural interface for humancomputer interaction (HCI) serves as the motivation for research in hand gesture recognition. Vision-based hand gesture recognition involves visual analysis of hand shape, position and/or movement. In this paper, we use the concept of object-based video abstraction for segmenting the frames into video object planes (VOPs), as used in MPEG-4, with each VOP corresponding to one semantically meaningful hand position. Next, the key VOPs are selected on the basis of the amount of change in hand shape – for a given key frame in the sequence the next key frame is the one in which the hand changes its shape significantly. Thus, an entire video clip is transformed into a small number of representative frames that are sufficient to represent a gesture sequence. Subsequently, we model a particular gesture as a sequence of key frames each bearing information about its duration. These constitute a finite state machine. For recognition, the states of the incoming gesture sequence are matched with the states of all different FSMs contained in the database of gesture vocabulary. The core idea of our proposed representation is that redundant frames of the gesture video sequence bear only the temporal information of a gesture and hence discarded for computational efficiency. Experimental results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme for key frame extraction, subsequent gesture summarization and finally gesture recognition.

Keywords: Hand gesture, MPEG-4, Hausdorff distance, finite state machine.

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4259 FEA-Based Calculation of Performances of IPM Machines with Five Topologies for Hybrid- Electric Vehicle Traction

Authors: Aimeng Wang, Dejun Ma, Hui Wang

Abstract:

The paper presents a detailed calculation of characteristic of five different topology permanent magnet machines for high performance traction including hybrid -electric vehicles using finite element analysis (FEA) method. These machines include V-shape single layer interior PM, W-shape single-layer interior PM, Segment interior PM and surface PM on the rotor and with distributed winding on the stator. The performance characteristics which include the back-emf voltage and its harmonic, magnet mass, iron loss and ripple torque are compared and analyzed. One of a 7.5kW IPM prototype was tested and verified finite-element analysis results. The aim of the paper is given some guidance and reference for machine designer which are interested in IPM machine selection for high performance traction application.

Keywords: Interior permanent magnet machine, finite-element analysis (FEA), five topologies, electric vehicle.

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4258 Automata-Based String Analysis for Detecting Malware in Android Programs

Authors: Assad Maalouf, Lunjin Lu, James Lynott

Abstract:

We design and implement a precise model of string operations using finite state machine transformers and state transformers to approximate the values string variables can take throughout the execution of the program.We use our model to analyze Android program string variables. Our experimental results show that our string analysis is very efficient at detecting the contextual effect of string operations on the string variables. Our model proved to be very useful when it came to verifying statements about the string variables of the program.

Keywords: Abstract interpretation, android, static analysis, string analysis.

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4257 Steady State Thermal Analysis and Design of a Cooling System in an AFPM Motor

Authors: K. Sarrafan, A. Darabi

Abstract:

In this paper, the steady-state temperature of a sample 500 KW two rotor one stator Non-slotted axial flux permanent magnet motor is calculated using the finite element simulator software package. Due to the high temperature in various parts of the machine, especially at stator winding, a cooling system is designed for the motor and the temperature is recalculated. The results show that the temperature obtained for the parts is within the permissible range.

Keywords: Axial Flux, Cooling System, Permanent Magnet, Thermal Analysis.

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4256 Selection the Optimum Cooling Scheme for Generators based on the Electro-Thermal Analysis

Authors: Diako Azizi, Ahmad Gholami, Vahid Abbasi

Abstract:

Optimal selection of electrical insulations in electrical machinery insures reliability during operation. From the insulation studies of view for electrical machines, stator is the most important part. This fact reveals the requirement for inspection of the electrical machine insulation along with the electro-thermal stresses. In the first step of the study, a part of the whole structure of machine in which covers the general characteristics of the machine is chosen, then based on the electromagnetic analysis (finite element method), the machine operation is simulated. In the simulation results, the temperature distribution of the total structure is presented simultaneously by using electro-thermal analysis. The results of electro-thermal analysis can be used for designing an optimal cooling system. In order to design, review and comparing the cooling systems, four wiring structures in the slots of Stator are presented. The structures are compared to each other in terms of electrical, thermal distribution and remaining life of insulation by using Finite Element analysis. According to the steps of the study, an optimization algorithm has been presented for selection of appropriate structure.

Keywords: Electrical field, field distribution, insulation, winding, finite element method, electro thermal

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4255 Simulation of Dam Break using Finite Volume Method

Authors: A.Roshandel, N.Hedayat, H.kiamanesh

Abstract:

Today, numerical simulation is a powerful tool to solve various hydraulic engineering problems. The aim of this research is numerical solutions of shallow water equations using finite volume method for Simulations of dam break over wet and dry bed. In order to solve Riemann problem, Roe-s approximate solver is used. To evaluate numerical model, simulation was done in 1D and 2D states. In 1D state, two dam break test over dry bed (with and without friction) were studied. The results showed that Structural failure around the dam and damage to the downstream constructions in bed without friction is more than friction bed. In 2D state, two tests for wet and dry beds were done. Generally in wet bed case, waves are propagated to canal sides but in dry bed it is not significant. Therefore, damage to the storage facilities and agricultural lands in wet bed case is more than in dry bed.

Keywords: dam break, dry bed, finite volume method, shallow water equations.

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4254 Steady State Temperature Distribution of Cast-Resin Dry Type Transformer Based on New Thermal Model Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Magdy B. Eteiba, Essam A. Alzahab, Yomna O. Shaker

Abstract:

In this paper, a thermal model of cast- resin dry type transformer is proposed. The proposed thermal model is solved by finite element technique to get the temperature at any location of the transformer. The basic modes of heat transfer such as conduction; convection and radiation are used to get the steady state temperature distribution of the transformer. The predicted temperatures are compared with experimental results reported in this paper and it is found a good agreement between them. The effects of various parameters such as width of air duct, ambient temperature and emissivity of the outer surface were also studied.

Keywords: Convection, dry type transformer, finite-elementtechnique, thermal model.

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4253 Investigation of Grid Supply Harmonic Effects in Wound Rotor Induction Machines

Authors: Nur Sarma, Paul M. Tuohy, Siniša Djurović

Abstract:

This paper presents an in-depth investigation of the effects of several grid supply harmonic voltages on the stator currents of an example wound rotor induction machine. The observed effects of higher order grid supply harmonics are identified using a finite element time stepping transient model, as well as a time-stepping electromagnetic model. In addition, a number of analytical equations to calculate the spectral content of the stator currents are presented in the paper. The presented equations are validated through comparison with the obtained spectra predicted using the finite element and electromagnetic models. The presented study provides a better understanding of the origin of supply harmonic effects identified in the stator currents of the example wound rotor induction machine. Furthermore, the study helps to understand the effects of higher order supply harmonics on the harmonic emissions of the wound rotor induction machine.  

Keywords: Wound rotor induction machine, supply harmonics, current spectrum, power spectrum, power quality, harmonic emissions, finite element analysis.

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4252 A Hybrid System of Hidden Markov Models and Recurrent Neural Networks for Learning Deterministic Finite State Automata

Authors: Pavan K. Rallabandi, Kailash C. Patidar

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an optimization technique or a learning algorithm using the hybrid architecture by combining the most popular sequence recognition models such as Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) and Hidden Markov models (HMMs). In order to improve the sequence/pattern recognition/classification performance by applying a hybrid/neural symbolic approach, a gradient descent learning algorithm is developed using the Real Time Recurrent Learning of Recurrent Neural Network for processing the knowledge represented in trained Hidden Markov Models. The developed hybrid algorithm is implemented on automata theory as a sample test beds and the performance of the designed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated on learning the deterministic finite state automata.

Keywords: Hybrid systems, Hidden Markov Models, Recurrent neural networks, Deterministic finite state automata.

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4251 Magnetic End Leakage Flux in a Spoke Type Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

Authors: Petter Eklund, Jonathan Sjölund, Sandra Eriksson, Mats Leijon

Abstract:

The spoke type rotor can be used to obtain magnetic flux concentration in permanent magnet machines. This allows the air gap magnetic flux density to exceed the remanent flux density of the permanent magnets but gives problems with leakage fluxes in the magnetic circuit. The end leakage flux of one spoke type permanent magnet rotor design is studied through measurements and finite element simulations. The measurements are performed in the end regions of a 12 kW prototype generator for a vertical axis wind turbine. The simulations are made using three dimensional finite elements to calculate the magnetic field distribution in the end regions of the machine. Also two dimensional finite element simulations are performed and the impact of the two dimensional approximation is studied. It is found that the magnetic leakage flux in the end regions of the machine is equal to about 20% of the flux in the permanent magnets. The overestimation of the performance by the two dimensional approximation is quantified and a curve-fitted expression for its behavior is suggested.

Keywords: End effects, end leakage flux, permanent magnet machine, spoke type rotor.

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4250 Analysis of GI/M(n)/1/N Queue with Single Working Vacation and Vacation Interruption

Authors: P. Vijaya Laxmi, V. Goswami, V. Suchitra

Abstract:

This paper presents a finite buffer renewal input single working vacation and vacation interruption queue with state dependent services and state dependent vacations, which has a wide range of applications in several areas including manufacturing, wireless communication systems. Service times during busy period, vacation period and vacation times are exponentially distributed and are state dependent. As a result of the finite waiting space, state dependent services and state dependent vacation policies, the analysis of these queueing models needs special attention. We provide a recursive method using the supplementary variable technique to compute the stationary queue length distributions at pre-arrival and arbitrary epochs. An efficient computational algorithm of the model is presented which is fast and accurate and easy to implement. Various performance measures have been discussed. Finally, some special cases and numerical results have been depicted in the form of tables and graphs. 

Keywords: State Dependent Service, Vacation Interruption, Supplementary Variable, Single Working Vacation, Blocking Probability.

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4249 An Optimal Control of Water Pollution in a Stream Using a Finite Difference Method

Authors: Nopparat Pochai, Rujira Deepana

Abstract:

Water pollution assessment problems arise frequently in environmental science. In this research, a finite difference method for solving the one-dimensional steady convection-diffusion equation with variable coefficients is proposed; it is then used to optimize water treatment costs.

Keywords: Finite difference, One-dimensional, Steady state, Waterpollution control, Optimization, Convection-diffusion equation.

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4248 Research on Axial End Flux Leakage and Detent Force of Transverse Flux PM Linear Machine

Authors: W. R. Li, J. K. Xia, R. Q. Peng, Z. Y. Guo, L. Jiang

Abstract:

According to 3D magnetic circuit of the transverse flux PM linear machine, distribution law is presented, and analytical expression of axial end flux leakage is derived using numerical method. Maxwell stress tensor is used to solve detent force of mover. A 3D finite element model of the transverse flux PM machine is built to analyze the flux distribution and detent force. Experimental results of the prototype verified the validity of axial end flux leakage and detent force theoretical derivation, the research on axial end flux leakage and detent force provides a valuable reference to other types of linear machine.

Keywords: Transverse flux PM linear machine, flux distribution, axial end flux leakage, detent force.

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