Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Souvik Bhattacharyya

36 Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Metric for Pixel Factor Mapping and Extended Pixel Mapping Method

Authors: Indradip Banerjee, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

In this paper, an approach is presented to investigate the performance of Pixel Factor Mapping (PFM) and Extended PMM (Pixel Mapping Method) through the qualitative and quantitative approach. These methods are tested against a number of well-known image similarity metrics and statistical distribution techniques. The PFM has been performed in spatial domain as well as frequency domain and the Extended PMM has also been performed in spatial domain through large set of images available in the internet.

Keywords: Qualitative, quantitative, PFM, EXTENDED PMM.

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35 A Robust Image Steganography Method Using PMM in Bit Plane Domain

Authors: Souvik Bhattacharyya, Aparajita Khan, Indradip Banerjee, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Steganography is the art and science that hides the information in an appropriate cover carrier like image, text, audio and video media. In this work the authors propose a new image based steganographic method for hiding information within the complex bit planes of the image. After slicing into bit planes the cover image is analyzed to extract the most complex planes in decreasing order based on their bit plane complexity. The complexity function next determines the complex noisy blocks of the chosen bit plane and finally pixel mapping method (PMM) has been used to embed secret bits into those regions of the bit plane. The novel approach of using pixel mapping method (PMM) in bit plane domain adaptively embeds data on most complex regions of image, provides high embedding capacity, better imperceptibility and resistance to steganalysis attack.

Keywords: PMM (Pixel Mapping Method), Bit Plane, Steganography, SSIM, KL-Divergence.

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34 DWT Based Image Steganalysis

Authors: Indradip Banerjee, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

‘Steganalysis’ is one of the challenging and attractive interests for the researchers with the development of information hiding techniques. It is the procedure to detect the hidden information from the stego created by known steganographic algorithm. In this paper, a novel feature based image steganalysis technique is proposed. Various statistical moments have been used along with some similarity metric. The proposed steganalysis technique has been designed based on transformation in four wavelet domains, which include Haar, Daubechies, Symlets and Biorthogonal. Each domain is being subjected to various classifiers, namely K-nearest-neighbor, K* Classifier, Locally weighted learning, Naive Bayes classifier, Neural networks, Decision trees and Support vector machines. The experiments are performed on a large set of pictures which are available freely in image database. The system also predicts the different message length definitions.

Keywords: Steganalysis, Moments, Wavelet Domain, KNN, K*, LWL, Naive Bayes Classifier, Neural networks, Decision trees, SVM.

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33 Biometric Steganography Using Variable Length Embedding

Authors: Souvik Bhattacharyya, Indradip Banerjee, Anumoy Chakraborty, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Recent growth in digital multimedia technologies has presented a lot of facilities in information transmission, reproduction and manipulation. Therefore, the concept of information security is one of the superior articles in the present day situation. The biometric information security is one of the information security mechanisms. It has the advantages as well as disadvantages. The biometric system is at risk to a range of attacks. These attacks are anticipated to bypass the security system or to suspend the normal functioning. Various hazards have been discovered while using biometric system. Proper use of steganography greatly reduces the risks in biometric systems from the hackers. Steganography is one of the fashionable information hiding technique. The goal of steganography is to hide information inside a cover medium like text, image, audio, video etc. through which it is not possible to detect the existence of the secret information. Here in this paper a new security concept has been established by making the system more secure with the help of steganography along with biometric security. Here the biometric information has been embedded to a skin tone portion of an image with the help of proposed steganographic technique.

Keywords: Biometrics, Skin tone detection, Series, Polynomial, Cover Image, Stego Image.

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32 Distances over Incomplete Diabetes and Breast Cancer Data Based on Bhattacharyya Distance

Authors: Loai AbdAllah, Mahmoud Kaiyal

Abstract:

Missing values in real-world datasets are a common problem. Many algorithms were developed to deal with this problem, most of them replace the missing values with a fixed value that was computed based on the observed values. In our work, we used a distance function based on Bhattacharyya distance to measure the distance between objects with missing values. Bhattacharyya distance, which measures the similarity of two probability distributions. The proposed distance distinguishes between known and unknown values. Where the distance between two known values is the Mahalanobis distance. When, on the other hand, one of them is missing the distance is computed based on the distribution of the known values, for the coordinate that contains the missing value. This method was integrated with Wikaya, a digital health company developing a platform that helps to improve prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer. In order for Wikaya’s recommendation system to work distance between users need to be measured. Since there are missing values in the collected data, there is a need to develop a distance function distances between incomplete users profiles. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed distance function in reflecting the actual similarity between different objects, when some of them contain missing values, we integrated it within the framework of k nearest neighbors (kNN) classifier, since its computation is based only on the similarity between objects. To validate this, we ran the algorithm over diabetes and breast cancer datasets, standard benchmark datasets from the UCI repository. Our experiments show that kNN classifier using our proposed distance function outperforms the kNN using other existing methods.

Keywords: Missing values, distance metric, Bhattacharyya distance.

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31 Performance of a Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump for Simultaneous Water Cooling and Heating

Authors: J. Sarkar, Souvik Bhattacharyya, M. Ramgopal

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental as well as the simulated performance studies on the transcritical CO2 heat pumps for simultaneous water cooling and heating; effects of water mass flow rates and water inlet temperatures of both evaporator and gas cooler on the cooling and heating capacities, system COP and water outlets temperatures are investigated. Study shows that both the water mass flow rate and inlet temperature have significant effect on system performances. Test results show that the effect of evaporator water mass flow rate on the system performances and water outlet temperatures is more pronounced (COP increases 0.6 for 1 kg/min) compared to the gas cooler water mass flow rate (COP increases 0.4 for 1 kg/min) and the effect of gas cooler water inlet temperature is more significant (COP decreases 0.48 for given ranges) compared to the evaporator water inlet temperature (COP increases 0.43 for given ranges). Comparisons of experimental values with simulated results show the maximum deviation of 5% for cooling capacity, 10% for heating capacity, 16% for system COP. This study offers useful guidelines for selecting appropriate water mass flow rate to obtain required system performance.

Keywords: CO2 heat pump, experiment, simulation, performance characteristics.

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30 An Approach of Quantum Steganography through Special SSCE Code

Authors: Indradip Banerjee, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Encrypted messages sending frequently draws the attention of third parties, perhaps causing attempts to break and reveal the original messages. Steganography is introduced to hide the existence of the communication by concealing a secret message in an appropriate carrier like text, image, audio or video. Quantum steganography where the sender (Alice) embeds her steganographic information into the cover and sends it to the receiver (Bob) over a communication channel. Alice and Bob share an algorithm and hide quantum information in the cover. An eavesdropper (Eve) without access to the algorithm can-t find out the existence of the quantum message. In this paper, a text quantum steganography technique based on the use of indefinite articles (a) or (an) in conjunction with the nonspecific or non-particular nouns in English language and quantum gate truth table have been proposed. The authors also introduced a new code representation technique (SSCE - Secret Steganography Code for Embedding) at both ends in order to achieve high level of security. Before the embedding operation each character of the secret message has been converted to SSCE Value and then embeds to cover text. Finally stego text is formed and transmits to the receiver side. At the receiver side different reverse operation has been carried out to get back the original information.

Keywords: Quantum Steganography, SSCE (Secret SteganographyCode for Embedding), Security, Cover Text, Stego Text.

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29 Hiding Data in Images Using PCP

Authors: Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

In recent years, everything is trending toward digitalization and with the rapid development of the Internet technologies, digital media needs to be transmitted conveniently over the network. Attacks, misuse or unauthorized access of information is of great concern today which makes the protection of documents through digital media a priority problem. This urges us to devise new data hiding techniques to protect and secure the data of vital significance. In this respect, steganography often comes to the fore as a tool for hiding information. Steganography is a process that involves hiding a message in an appropriate carrier like image or audio. It is of Greek origin and means "covered or hidden writing". The goal of steganography is covert communication. Here the carrier can be sent to a receiver without any one except the authenticated receiver only knows existence of the information. Considerable amount of work has been carried out by different researchers on steganography. In this work the authors propose a novel Steganographic method for hiding information within the spatial domain of the gray scale image. The proposed approach works by selecting the embedding pixels using some mathematical function and then finds the 8 neighborhood of the each selected pixel and map each bit of the secret message in each of the neighbor pixel coordinate position in a specified manner. Before embedding a checking has been done to find out whether the selected pixel or its neighbor lies at the boundary of the image or not. This solution is independent of the nature of the data to be hidden and produces a stego image with minimum degradation.

Keywords: Cover Image, LSB, Pixel Coordinate Position (PCP), Stego Image.

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28 A Data Hiding Model with High Security Features Combining Finite State Machines and PMM method

Authors: Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of the Internet and telecommunication techniques. Information security is becoming more and more important. Applications such as covert communication, copyright protection, etc, stimulate the research of information hiding techniques. Traditionally, encryption is used to realize the communication security. However, important information is not protected once decoded. Steganography is the art and science of communicating in a way which hides the existence of the communication. Important information is firstly hidden in a host data, such as digital image, video or audio, etc, and then transmitted secretly to the receiver.In this paper a data hiding model with high security features combining both cryptography using finite state sequential machine and image based steganography technique for communicating information more securely between two locations is proposed. The authors incorporated the idea of secret key for authentication at both ends in order to achieve high level of security. Before the embedding operation the secret information has been encrypted with the help of finite-state sequential machine and segmented in different parts. The cover image is also segmented in different objects through normalized cut.Each part of the encoded secret information has been embedded with the help of a novel image steganographic method (PMM) on different cuts of the cover image to form different stego objects. Finally stego image is formed by combining different stego objects and transmit to the receiver side. At the receiving end different opposite processes should run to get the back the original secret message.

Keywords: Cover Image, Finite state sequential machine, Melaymachine, Pixel Mapping Method (PMM), Stego Image, NCUT.

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27 Data Hiding in Images in Discrete Wavelet Domain Using PMM

Authors: Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Over last two decades, due to hostilities of environment over the internet the concerns about confidentiality of information have increased at phenomenal rate. Therefore to safeguard the information from attacks, number of data/information hiding methods have evolved mostly in spatial and transformation domain.In spatial domain data hiding techniques,the information is embedded directly on the image plane itself. In transform domain data hiding techniques the image is first changed from spatial domain to some other domain and then the secret information is embedded so that the secret information remains more secure from any attack. Information hiding algorithms in time domain or spatial domain have high capacity and relatively lower robustness. In contrast, the algorithms in transform domain, such as DCT, DWT have certain robustness against some multimedia processing.In this work the authors propose a novel steganographic method for hiding information in the transform domain of the gray scale image.The proposed approach works by converting the gray level image in transform domain using discrete integer wavelet technique through lifting scheme.This approach performs a 2-D lifting wavelet decomposition through Haar lifted wavelet of the cover image and computes the approximation coefficients matrix CA and detail coefficients matrices CH, CV, and CD.Next step is to apply the PMM technique in those coefficients to form the stego image. The aim of this paper is to propose a high-capacity image steganography technique that uses pixel mapping method in integer wavelet domain with acceptable levels of imperceptibility and distortion in the cover image and high level of overall security. This solution is independent of the nature of the data to be hidden and produces a stego image with minimum degradation.

Keywords: Cover Image, Pixel Mapping Method (PMM), StegoImage, Integer Wavelet Tranform.

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26 A Distance Function for Data with Missing Values and Its Application

Authors: Loai AbdAllah, Ilan Shimshoni

Abstract:

Missing values in data are common in real world applications. Since the performance of many data mining algorithms depend critically on it being given a good metric over the input space, we decided in this paper to define a distance function for unlabeled datasets with missing values. We use the Bhattacharyya distance, which measures the similarity of two probability distributions, to define our new distance function. According to this distance, the distance between two points without missing attributes values is simply the Mahalanobis distance. When on the other hand there is a missing value of one of the coordinates, the distance is computed according to the distribution of the missing coordinate. Our distance is general and can be used as part of any algorithm that computes the distance between data points. Because its performance depends strongly on the chosen distance measure, we opted for the k nearest neighbor classifier to evaluate its ability to accurately reflect object similarity. We experimented on standard numerical datasets from the UCI repository from different fields. On these datasets we simulated missing values and compared the performance of the kNN classifier using our distance to other three basic methods. Our  experiments show that kNN using our distance function outperforms the kNN using other methods. Moreover, the runtime performance of our method is only slightly higher than the other methods.

Keywords: Missing values, Distance metric, Bhattacharyya distance.

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25 3D Liver Segmentation from CT Images Using a Level Set Method Based on a Shape and Intensity Distribution Prior

Authors: Nuseiba M. Altarawneh, Suhuai Luo, Brian Regan, Guijin Tang

Abstract:

Liver segmentation from medical images poses more challenges than analogous segmentations of other organs. This contribution introduces a liver segmentation method from a series of computer tomography images. Overall, we present a novel method for segmenting liver by coupling density matching with shape priors. Density matching signifies a tracking method which operates via maximizing the Bhattacharyya similarity measure between the photometric distribution from an estimated image region and a model photometric distribution. Density matching controls the direction of the evolution process and slows down the evolving contour in regions with weak edges. The shape prior improves the robustness of density matching and discourages the evolving contour from exceeding liver’s boundaries at regions with weak boundaries. The model is implemented using a modified distance regularized level set (DRLS) model. The experimental results show that the method achieves a satisfactory result. By comparing with the original DRLS model, it is evident that the proposed model herein is more effective in addressing the over segmentation problem. Finally, we gauge our performance of our model against matrices comprising of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity.

Keywords: Bhattacharyya distance, distance regularized level set (DRLS) model, liver segmentation, level set method.

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24 A Distributed Algorithm for Intrinsic Cluster Detection over Large Spatial Data

Authors: Sauravjyoti Sarmah, Rosy Das, Dhruba Kr. Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

Clustering algorithms help to understand the hidden information present in datasets. A dataset may contain intrinsic and nested clusters, the detection of which is of utmost importance. This paper presents a Distributed Grid-based Density Clustering algorithm capable of identifying arbitrary shaped embedded clusters as well as multi-density clusters over large spatial datasets. For handling massive datasets, we implemented our method using a 'sharednothing' architecture where multiple computers are interconnected over a network. Experimental results are reported to establish the superiority of the technique in terms of scale-up, speedup as well as cluster quality.

Keywords: Clustering, Density-based, Grid-based, Adaptive Grid.

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23 Face Localization Using Illumination-dependent Face Model for Visual Speech Recognition

Authors: Robert E. Hursig, Jane X. Zhang

Abstract:

A robust still image face localization algorithm capable of operating in an unconstrained visual environment is proposed. First, construction of a robust skin classifier within a shifted HSV color space is described. Then various filtering operations are performed to better isolate face candidates and mitigate the effect of substantial non-skin regions. Finally, a novel Bhattacharyya-based face detection algorithm is used to compare candidate regions of interest with a unique illumination-dependent face model probability distribution function approximation. Experimental results show a 90% face detection success rate despite the demands of the visually noisy environment.

Keywords: Audio-visual speech recognition, Bhattacharyyacoefficient, face detection,

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22 Cut Flower Production: A Source of Incremental Income for the Marginal Farmers of the State of West Bengal in India

Authors: Ruma Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

The basic objective of this paper is to measure and compare the profitability of investments made by the small and marginal farmers of the state of West Bengal in floriculture shifting from the traditional cultivation of paddy. A comparison of IRR is made to establish the fact that cultivation of flowers yield higher returns farmers whose land size is so small that viability of paddy cultivation is raising a question mark. A detailed study of the price behavior of the flower crop has been carried out in which the factors leading to the volatility of the price and the dispersion of the range have also been discussed. Finally the incremental incomes of the farmers have been calculated with the help of imputed income from paddy cultivation and the reported income from the selected flowers. The study shows that the farmers stand gainers if they opt for flower cultivation.

Keywords: Bazar Samity, Floriculture, Marginal Farmers.

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21 OPTIMAL Placement of FACTS Devices by Genetic Algorithm for the Increased Load Ability of a Power System

Authors: A. B.Bhattacharyya, B. S.K.Goswami

Abstract:

This paper presents Genetic Algorithm (GA) based approach for the allocation of FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) devices for the improvement of Power transfer capacity in an interconnected Power System. The GA based approach is applied on IEEE 30 BUS System. The system is reactively loaded starting from base to 200% of base load. FACTS devices are installed in the different locations of the power system and system performance is noticed with and without FACTS devices. First, the locations, where the FACTS devices to be placed is determined by calculating active and reactive power flows in the lines. Genetic Algorithm is then applied to find the amount of magnitudes of the FACTS devices. This approach of GA based placement of FACTS devices is tremendous beneficial both in terms of performance and economy is clearly observed from the result obtained.

Keywords: FACTS Devices, Line Power Flow, OptimalLocation of FACTS Devices, Genetic Algorithm.

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20 Communicative Competence: Novice versus Professional Engineers' Perceptions

Authors: Ena Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

The notion of communicative competence has been deemed fuzzy in communication studies. This fuzziness has led to tensions among engineers across tenures in interpreting what constitutes communicative competence. The study seeks to investigate novice and professional engineers- understanding of the said notion in terms of two main elements of communicative competence: linguistic and rhetorical competence. Novice engineers are final year engineering students, whilst professional engineers represent engineers who have at least 5 years working experience. Novice and professional engineers were interviewed to gauge their perceptions on linguistic and rhetorical features deemed necessary to enhance communicative competence for the profession. Both groups indicated awareness and differences on the importance of the sub-sets of communicative competence, namely, rhetorical explanatory competence, linguistic oral immediacy competence, technical competence and meta-cognitive competence. Such differences, a possible attribute of the learning theory, inadvertently indicate sublime differences in the way novice and professional engineers perceive communicative competence.

Keywords: Communicative competence, technical oral presentation, linguistic competence, rhetorical competence.

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19 Metallurgical Analysis of Surface Defect in Telescopic Front Fork

Authors: Souvik Das, Janak Lal, Arthita Dey, Goutam Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Bhattacharya

Abstract:

Telescopic Front Fork (TFF) used in two wheelers, mainly motorcycle, is made from high strength steel, and is manufactured by high frequency induction welding process wherein hot rolled and pickled coils are used as input raw material for rolling of hollow tubes followed by heat treatment, surface treatment, cold drawing, tempering, etc. The final application demands superior quality TFF tubes w.r.t. surface finish and dimensional tolerances. This paper presents the investigation of two different types of failure of fork during operation. The investigation consists of visual inspection, chemical analysis, characterization of microstructure, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In this paper, comprehensive investigations of two failed tube samples were investigated. In case of Sample #1, the result revealed that there was a pre-existing crack, known as hook crack, which leads to the cracking of the tube. Metallographic examination exhibited that during field operation the pre-existing hook crack was surfaced out leading to crack in the pipe. In case of Sample #2, presence of internal oxidation with decarburised grains inside the material indicates origin of the defect from slab stage.

Keywords: Telescopic front fork, induction welding, hook crack, internal oxidation.

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18 A Robust Method for Hand Tracking Using Mean-shift Algorithm and Kalman Filter in Stereo Color Image Sequences

Authors: Mahmoud Elmezain, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Robert Niese, Bernd Michaelis

Abstract:

Real-time hand tracking is a challenging task in many computer vision applications such as gesture recognition. This paper proposes a robust method for hand tracking in a complex environment using Mean-shift analysis and Kalman filter in conjunction with 3D depth map. The depth information solve the overlapping problem between hands and face, which is obtained by passive stereo measuring based on cross correlation and the known calibration data of the cameras. Mean-shift analysis uses the gradient of Bhattacharyya coefficient as a similarity function to derive the candidate of the hand that is most similar to a given hand target model. And then, Kalman filter is used to estimate the position of the hand target. The results of hand tracking, tested on various video sequences, are robust to changes in shape as well as partial occlusion.

Keywords: Computer Vision and Image Analysis, Object Tracking, Gesture Recognition.

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17 Interaction of Electroosmotic Flow on Isotachophoretic Transport of Ions

Authors: S. Bhattacharyya, Partha P. Gopmandal

Abstract:

A numerical study on the influence of electroosmotic flow on analyte preconcentration by isotachophoresis ( ITP) is made. We consider that the double layer induced electroosmotic flow ( EOF) counterbalance the electrophoretic velocity and a stationary ITP stacked zones results. We solve the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the Nernst-Planck equations to determine the local convective velocity and the preconcentration dynamics of ions. Our numerical algorithm is based on a finite volume method along with a secondorder upwind scheme. The present numerical algorithm can capture the the sharp boundaries of step-changes ( plateau mode) or zones of steep gradients ( peak mode) accurately. The convection of ions due to EOF reduces the resolution of the ITP transition zones and produces a dispersion in analyte zones. The role of the electrokinetic parameters which induces dispersion is analyzed. A one-dimensional model for the area-averaged concentrations based on the Taylor-Aristype effective diffusivity is found to be in good agreement with the computed solutions.

Keywords: Interfaces, Electroosmotic flow, QUICK Scheme, Dispersion, Effective Diffusivity.

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16 Spatial Disparity in Education and Medical Facilities: A Case Study of Barddhaman District, West Bengal, India

Authors: Amit Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

The economic scenario of any region does not show the real picture for the measurement of overall development. Therefore, economic development must be accompanied by social development to be able to make an assessment to measure the level of development. The spatial variation with respect to social development has been discussed taking into account the quality of functioning of a social system in a specific area. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the spatial distribution of social infrastructural facilities and analyze the magnitude of regional disparities at inter- block level in Barddhman district. It starts with the detailed account of the selection process of social infrastructure indicators and describes the methodology employed in the empirical analysis. Analyzing the block level data, this paper tries to identify the disparity among the blocks in the levels of social development. The results have been subsequently explained using both statistical analysis and geo spatial technique. The paper reveals that the social development is not going on at the same rate in every part of the district. Health facilities and educational facilities are concentrated at some selected point. So overall development activities come to be concentrated in a few centres and the disparity is seen over the blocks.

Keywords: Disparity, inter-block, social development, spatial variation.

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15 Transport of Analytes under Mixed Electroosmotic and Pressure Driven Flow of Power Law Fluid

Authors: Naren Bag, S. Bhattacharyya, Partha P. Gopmandal

Abstract:

In this study, we have analyzed the transport of analytes under a two dimensional steady incompressible flow of power-law fluids through rectangular nanochannel. A mathematical model based on the Cauchy momentum-Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations is considered to study the combined effect of mixed electroosmotic (EO) and pressure driven (PD) flow. The coupled governing equations are solved numerically by finite volume method. We have studied extensively the effect of key parameters, e.g., flow behavior index, concentration of the electrolyte, surface potential, imposed pressure gradient and imposed electric field strength on the net average flow across the channel. In addition to study the effect of mixed EOF and PD on the analyte distribution across the channel, we consider a nonlinear model based on general convective-diffusion-electromigration equation. We have also presented the retention factor for various values of electrolyte concentration and flow behavior index.

Keywords: Electric double layer, finite volume method, flow behavior index, mixed electroosmotic/pressure driven flow, Non-Newtonian power-law fluids, numerical simulation.

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14 Strategic Investment in Infrastructure Development to Facilitate Economic Growth in the United States

Authors: Arkaprabha Bhattacharyya, Makarand Hastak

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented in terms of its global reach and economic impacts. Historically, investment in infrastructure development projects has been touted to boost the economic growth of a nation. The State and Local governments responsible for delivering infrastructure assets work under tight budgets. Therefore, it is important to understand which infrastructure projects have the highest potential of boosting economic growth in the post-pandemic era. This paper presents relationships between infrastructure projects and economic growth. Statistical relationships between investment in different types of infrastructure projects (transit, water and wastewater, highways, power, manufacturing etc.) and indicators of economic growth are presented using historic data between 2002 and 2020 from the U.S. Census Bureau and U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). The outcome of the paper is the comparison of statistical correlations between investment in different types of infrastructure projects and indicators of economic growth. The comparison of the statistical correlations is useful in ranking the types of infrastructure projects based on their ability to influence economic prosperity. Therefore, investment in the infrastructures with the higher rank will have a better chance of boosting the economic growth. Once, the ranks are derived, they can be used by the decision-makers in infrastructure investment related decision-making process.

Keywords: Economic growth, infrastructure development, infrastructure projects, strategic investment.

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13 Enrichment of Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn in Surface Soil

Authors: Gitimoni Deka, Krishna G Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

The textile industry produces highly coloured effluents containing polar and non-polar compounds. The textile mill run by the Assam Polyester Co-operative Society Limited (APOL) is situated at Rangia, about 55 km from Guwahati (26011' N, 91047' E) in the northern bank of the river Brahmaputra, Assam (India). This unit was commissioned in June 1988 and started commercial production in November 1988. The installed capacity of the weaving unit was 8000 m/day and that of the processing unit was 20,000 m/day. The mill has its own dyeing unit with a capacity of 1500-2000 kg/day. The western side of the mill consists of vast agricultural land and the far northern and southern side of the mill has scattered human population. The eastern side of the mill has a major road for thoroughfare. The mill releases its effluents into the agricultural land in the western side of the mill. The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of the textile mill on surface soil quality in and around the mill with particular reference to Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn. Surface soil samples, collected along different directions at 200, 500 and 1000 m were digested and the metals were estimated with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The metals were found in the range of: Cr 50.9 – 105.0 mg kg-1, Mn 19.2- 78.6 mg kg-1, Ni 41.9 – 50.6 mg kg-1 and Zn 187.8 – 1095.8 mg kg-1. The study reveals enrichment of Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn in the soil near the textile mill.

Keywords: Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, soil quality, heavy metal enrichment.

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12 Using Mean-Shift Tracking Algorithms for Real-Time Tracking of Moving Images on an Autonomous Vehicle Testbed Platform

Authors: Benjamin Gorry, Zezhi Chen, Kevin Hammond, Andy Wallace, Greg Michaelson

Abstract:

This paper describes new computer vision algorithms that have been developed to track moving objects as part of a long-term study into the design of (semi-)autonomous vehicles. We present the results of a study to exploit variable kernels for tracking in video sequences. The basis of our work is the mean shift object-tracking algorithm; for a moving target, it is usual to define a rectangular target window in an initial frame, and then process the data within that window to separate the tracked object from the background by the mean shift segmentation algorithm. Rather than use the standard, Epanechnikov kernel, we have used a kernel weighted by the Chamfer distance transform to improve the accuracy of target representation and localization, minimising the distance between the two distributions in RGB color space using the Bhattacharyya coefficient. Experimental results show the improved tracking capability and versatility of the algorithm in comparison with results using the standard kernel. These algorithms are incorporated as part of a robot test-bed architecture which has been used to demonstrate their effectiveness.

Keywords: Hume, functional programming, autonomous vehicle, pioneer robot, vision.

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11 Conjugate Mixed Convection Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation of Cu-Water Nanofluid in an Enclosure with Thick Wavy Bottom Wall

Authors: Sanjib Kr Pal, S. Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

Mixed convection of Cu-water nanofluid in an enclosure with thick wavy bottom wall has been investigated numerically. A co-ordinate transformation method is used to transform the computational domain into an orthogonal co-ordinate system. The governing equations in the computational domain are solved through a pressure correction based iterative algorithm. The fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed for a wide range of Richardson number (0.1 ≤ Ri ≤ 5), nanoparticle volume concentration (0.0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.2), amplitude (0.0 ≤ α ≤ 0.1) of the wavy thick- bottom wall and the wave number (ω) at a fixed Reynolds number. Obtained results showed that heat transfer rate increases remarkably by adding the nanoparticles. Heat transfer rate is dependent on the wavy wall amplitude and wave number and decreases with increasing Richardson number for fixed amplitude and wave number. The Bejan number and the entropy generation are determined to analyze the thermodynamic optimization of the mixed convection.

Keywords: Entropy generation, mixed convection, conjugate heat transfer, numerical, nanofluid, wall waviness.

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10 A Numerical Study on Electrophoresis of a Soft Particle with Charged Core Coated with Polyelectrolyte Layer

Authors: Partha Sarathi Majee, S. Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

Migration of a core-shell soft particle under the influence of an external electric field in an electrolyte solution is studied numerically. The soft particle is coated with a positively charged polyelectrolyte layer (PEL) and the rigid core is having a uniform surface charge density. The Darcy-Brinkman extended Navier-Stokes equations are solved for the motion of the ionized fluid, the non-linear Nernst-Planck equations for the ion transport and the Poisson equation for the electric potential. A pressure correction based iterative algorithm is adopted for numerical computations. The effects of convection on double layer polarization (DLP) and diffusion dominated counter ions penetration are investigated for a wide range of Debye layer thickness, PEL fixed surface charge density, and permeability of the PEL. Our results show that when the Debye layer is in order of the particle size, the DLP effect is significant and produces a reduction in electrophoretic mobility. However, the double layer polarization effect is negligible for a thin Debye layer or low permeable cases. The point of zero mobility and the existence of mobility reversal depending on the electrolyte concentration are also presented.

Keywords: Debye length, double layer polarization, electrophoresis, mobility reversal, soft particle.

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9 Double Layer Polarization and Non-Linear Electroosmosis in and around a Charged Permeable Aggregate

Authors: Partha P. Gopmandal, S. Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

We have studied the migration of a charged permeable aggregate in electrolyte under the influence of an axial electric field and pressure gradient. The migration of the positively charged aggregate leads to a deformation of the anionic cloud around it. The hydrodynamics of the aggregate is governed by the interaction of electroosmotic flow in and around the particle, hydrodynamic friction and electric force experienced by the aggregate. We have computed the non-linear Nernest-Planck equations coupled with the Dracy- Brinkman extended Navier-Stokes equations and Poisson equation for electric field through a finite volume method. The permeability of the aggregate enable the counterion penetration. The penetration of counterions depends on the volume charge density of the aggregate and ionic concentration of electrolytes at a fixed field strength. The retardation effect due to the double layer polarization increases the drag force compared to an uncharged aggregate. Increase in migration sped from the electrophretic velocity of the aggregate produces further asymmetry in charge cloud and reduces the electric body force exerted on the particle. The permeability of the particle have relatively little influence on the electric body force when Double layer is relatively thin. The impact of the key parameters of electrokinetics on the hydrodynamics of the aggregate is analyzed.

Keywords: Electrophoresis, Advective flow, Polarization effect, Numerical solution.

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8 Communicative Competence in Technical Oral Presentation: That “Magic“ Perceived by ESL Educators versus Content Experts

Authors: Ena Bhattacharyya, Zullina H. Shaari

Abstract:

Till date, English as a Second Language (ESL) educators involved in teaching language and communication to engineering students face an uphill task in developing graduate communicative competency. This challenge is accentuated by the apparent lack of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) materials for engineering students in the engineering curriculum. As such, most ESL educators are forced to play multiple roles. They don tasks such as curriculum designers, material writers and teachers with limited knowledge of the disciplinary content. Previous research indicates that prospective professional engineers should possess some sub-sets of competency: technical, linguistic oral immediacy, meta-cognitive and rhetorical explanatory competence. Another study revealed that engineering students need to be equipped with technical and linguistic oral immediacy competence. However, little is known whether these competency needs are in line with the educators- perceptions of communicative competence. This paper examines the best mix of communicative competence subsets that create the magic for engineering students in technical oral presentations. For the purpose of this study, two groups of educators were interviewed. These educators were language and communication lecturers involved in teaching a speaking course and content experts who assess students- technical oral presentations at tertiary level. The findings indicate that these two groups differ in their perceptions

Keywords: Communicative competence, Content experts, Educators, Technical Oral Presentations

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7 A Low-Power Two-Stage Seismic Sensor Scheme for Earthquake Early Warning System

Authors: Arvind Srivastav, Tarun Kanti Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

The north-eastern, Himalayan, and Eastern Ghats Belt of India comprise of earthquake-prone, remote, and hilly terrains. Earthquakes have caused enormous damages in these regions in the past. A wireless sensor network based earthquake early warning system (EEWS) is being developed to mitigate the damages caused by earthquakes. It consists of sensor nodes, distributed over the region, that perform majority voting of the output of the seismic sensors in the vicinity, and relay a message to a base station to alert the residents when an earthquake is detected. At the heart of the EEWS is a low-power two-stage seismic sensor that continuously tracks seismic events from incoming three-axis accelerometer signal at the first-stage, and, in the presence of a seismic event, triggers the second-stage P-wave detector that detects the onset of P-wave in an earthquake event. The parameters of the P-wave detector have been optimized for minimizing detection time and maximizing the accuracy of detection.Working of the sensor scheme has been verified with seven earthquakes data retrieved from IRIS. In all test cases, the scheme detected the onset of P-wave accurately. Also, it has been established that the P-wave onset detection time reduces linearly with the sampling rate. It has been verified with test data; the detection time for data sampled at 10Hz was around 2 seconds which reduced to 0.3 second for the data sampled at 100Hz.

Keywords: Earthquake early warning system, EEWS, STA/LTA, polarization, wavelet, event detector, P-wave detector.

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