Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Gautam Sanyal

30 Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Metric for Pixel Factor Mapping and Extended Pixel Mapping Method

Authors: Indradip Banerjee, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

In this paper, an approach is presented to investigate the performance of Pixel Factor Mapping (PFM) and Extended PMM (Pixel Mapping Method) through the qualitative and quantitative approach. These methods are tested against a number of well-known image similarity metrics and statistical distribution techniques. The PFM has been performed in spatial domain as well as frequency domain and the Extended PMM has also been performed in spatial domain through large set of images available in the internet.

Keywords: Qualitative, quantitative, PFM, EXTENDED PMM.

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29 Performance Analysis of Cellular Wireless Network by Queuing Priority Handoff calls

Authors: Raj Kumar Samanta, Partha Bhattacharjee Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

In this paper, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the dropping probabilities of cellular wireless networks by queuing handoff instead of reserving guard channels. Usually, prioritized handling of handoff calls is done with the help of guard channel reservation. To evaluate the proposed model, gamma inter-arrival and general service time distributions have been considered. Prevention of some of the attempted calls from reaching to the switching center due to electromagnetic propagation failure or whimsical user behaviour (missed call, prepaid balance etc.), make the inter-arrival time of the input traffic to follow gamma distribution. The performance is evaluated and compared with that of guard channel scheme.

Keywords: Cellular wireless networks, non-classical traffic, mathematicalmodel, guard channel, queuing, handoff.

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28 A Robust Image Steganography Method Using PMM in Bit Plane Domain

Authors: Souvik Bhattacharyya, Aparajita Khan, Indradip Banerjee, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Steganography is the art and science that hides the information in an appropriate cover carrier like image, text, audio and video media. In this work the authors propose a new image based steganographic method for hiding information within the complex bit planes of the image. After slicing into bit planes the cover image is analyzed to extract the most complex planes in decreasing order based on their bit plane complexity. The complexity function next determines the complex noisy blocks of the chosen bit plane and finally pixel mapping method (PMM) has been used to embed secret bits into those regions of the bit plane. The novel approach of using pixel mapping method (PMM) in bit plane domain adaptively embeds data on most complex regions of image, provides high embedding capacity, better imperceptibility and resistance to steganalysis attack.

Keywords: PMM (Pixel Mapping Method), Bit Plane, Steganography, SSIM, KL-Divergence.

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27 DWT Based Image Steganalysis

Authors: Indradip Banerjee, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

‘Steganalysis’ is one of the challenging and attractive interests for the researchers with the development of information hiding techniques. It is the procedure to detect the hidden information from the stego created by known steganographic algorithm. In this paper, a novel feature based image steganalysis technique is proposed. Various statistical moments have been used along with some similarity metric. The proposed steganalysis technique has been designed based on transformation in four wavelet domains, which include Haar, Daubechies, Symlets and Biorthogonal. Each domain is being subjected to various classifiers, namely K-nearest-neighbor, K* Classifier, Locally weighted learning, Naive Bayes classifier, Neural networks, Decision trees and Support vector machines. The experiments are performed on a large set of pictures which are available freely in image database. The system also predicts the different message length definitions.

Keywords: Steganalysis, Moments, Wavelet Domain, KNN, K*, LWL, Naive Bayes Classifier, Neural networks, Decision trees, SVM.

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26 Biometric Steganography Using Variable Length Embedding

Authors: Souvik Bhattacharyya, Indradip Banerjee, Anumoy Chakraborty, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Recent growth in digital multimedia technologies has presented a lot of facilities in information transmission, reproduction and manipulation. Therefore, the concept of information security is one of the superior articles in the present day situation. The biometric information security is one of the information security mechanisms. It has the advantages as well as disadvantages. The biometric system is at risk to a range of attacks. These attacks are anticipated to bypass the security system or to suspend the normal functioning. Various hazards have been discovered while using biometric system. Proper use of steganography greatly reduces the risks in biometric systems from the hackers. Steganography is one of the fashionable information hiding technique. The goal of steganography is to hide information inside a cover medium like text, image, audio, video etc. through which it is not possible to detect the existence of the secret information. Here in this paper a new security concept has been established by making the system more secure with the help of steganography along with biometric security. Here the biometric information has been embedded to a skin tone portion of an image with the help of proposed steganographic technique.

Keywords: Biometrics, Skin tone detection, Series, Polynomial, Cover Image, Stego Image.

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25 Stochastic Estimation of Wireless Traffic Parameters

Authors: Somenath Mukherjee, Raj Kumar Samanta, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Different services based on different switching techniques in wireless networks leads to drastic changes in the properties of network traffic. Because of these diversities in services, network traffic is expected to undergo qualitative and quantitative variations. Hence, assumption of traffic characteristics and the prediction of network events become more complex for the wireless networks. In this paper, the traffic characteristics have been studied by collecting traces from the mobile switching centre (MSC). The traces include initiation and termination time, originating node, home station id, foreign station id. Traffic parameters namely, call interarrival and holding times were estimated statistically. The results show that call inter-arrival and distribution time in this wireless network is heavy-tailed and follow gamma distributions. They are asymptotically long-range dependent. It is also found that the call holding times are best fitted with lognormal distribution. Based on these observations, an analytical model for performance estimation is also proposed.

Keywords: Wireless networks, traffic analysis, long-range dependence, heavy-tailed distribution.

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24 Dynamic Admission Control Based on Effective Demand for Next Generation Wireless Networks

Authors: Somenath Mukherjee, Rajdeep Ray, Raj Kumar Samanta, Mofazzal H. Khondekar, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

In next generation wireless networks (i.e., 4G and beyond), one of the main objectives is to ensure highest level of customer satisfaction in terms of data transfer speed, decrease in cost and delay, non-rejection and no drop of calls, availability of ‘always-on’ connectivity and services, continuity of connected services, hastle-free roaming in addition to the convenience of use of network services from anywhere and anytime. To take care of these requirements effectively, internet service providers (ISPs) and network planners have to go for major capacity enhancement of network resources and at the same time these resources are to be used effectively and efficiently to reduce cost and to increase revenue. In this work, the effective bandwidth available in a Mobile Switching Center (MSC) of a wireless network providing multi-class multimedia services is analyzed. Bandwidth requirement of the users for a customized Quality of Service (QoS) is estimated. The findings of the QoS estimation are applied for the capacity planning and admission control of the multi-class traffic flows coming into the MSC.

Keywords: Next generation wireless network, mobile switching center, multi-class traffic, quality of service, admission control, effective bandwidth.

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23 An Approach of Quantum Steganography through Special SSCE Code

Authors: Indradip Banerjee, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Encrypted messages sending frequently draws the attention of third parties, perhaps causing attempts to break and reveal the original messages. Steganography is introduced to hide the existence of the communication by concealing a secret message in an appropriate carrier like text, image, audio or video. Quantum steganography where the sender (Alice) embeds her steganographic information into the cover and sends it to the receiver (Bob) over a communication channel. Alice and Bob share an algorithm and hide quantum information in the cover. An eavesdropper (Eve) without access to the algorithm can-t find out the existence of the quantum message. In this paper, a text quantum steganography technique based on the use of indefinite articles (a) or (an) in conjunction with the nonspecific or non-particular nouns in English language and quantum gate truth table have been proposed. The authors also introduced a new code representation technique (SSCE - Secret Steganography Code for Embedding) at both ends in order to achieve high level of security. Before the embedding operation each character of the secret message has been converted to SSCE Value and then embeds to cover text. Finally stego text is formed and transmits to the receiver side. At the receiver side different reverse operation has been carried out to get back the original information.

Keywords: Quantum Steganography, SSCE (Secret SteganographyCode for Embedding), Security, Cover Text, Stego Text.

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22 Hiding Data in Images Using PCP

Authors: Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

In recent years, everything is trending toward digitalization and with the rapid development of the Internet technologies, digital media needs to be transmitted conveniently over the network. Attacks, misuse or unauthorized access of information is of great concern today which makes the protection of documents through digital media a priority problem. This urges us to devise new data hiding techniques to protect and secure the data of vital significance. In this respect, steganography often comes to the fore as a tool for hiding information. Steganography is a process that involves hiding a message in an appropriate carrier like image or audio. It is of Greek origin and means "covered or hidden writing". The goal of steganography is covert communication. Here the carrier can be sent to a receiver without any one except the authenticated receiver only knows existence of the information. Considerable amount of work has been carried out by different researchers on steganography. In this work the authors propose a novel Steganographic method for hiding information within the spatial domain of the gray scale image. The proposed approach works by selecting the embedding pixels using some mathematical function and then finds the 8 neighborhood of the each selected pixel and map each bit of the secret message in each of the neighbor pixel coordinate position in a specified manner. Before embedding a checking has been done to find out whether the selected pixel or its neighbor lies at the boundary of the image or not. This solution is independent of the nature of the data to be hidden and produces a stego image with minimum degradation.

Keywords: Cover Image, LSB, Pixel Coordinate Position (PCP), Stego Image.

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21 A Data Hiding Model with High Security Features Combining Finite State Machines and PMM method

Authors: Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of the Internet and telecommunication techniques. Information security is becoming more and more important. Applications such as covert communication, copyright protection, etc, stimulate the research of information hiding techniques. Traditionally, encryption is used to realize the communication security. However, important information is not protected once decoded. Steganography is the art and science of communicating in a way which hides the existence of the communication. Important information is firstly hidden in a host data, such as digital image, video or audio, etc, and then transmitted secretly to the receiver.In this paper a data hiding model with high security features combining both cryptography using finite state sequential machine and image based steganography technique for communicating information more securely between two locations is proposed. The authors incorporated the idea of secret key for authentication at both ends in order to achieve high level of security. Before the embedding operation the secret information has been encrypted with the help of finite-state sequential machine and segmented in different parts. The cover image is also segmented in different objects through normalized cut.Each part of the encoded secret information has been embedded with the help of a novel image steganographic method (PMM) on different cuts of the cover image to form different stego objects. Finally stego image is formed by combining different stego objects and transmit to the receiver side. At the receiving end different opposite processes should run to get the back the original secret message.

Keywords: Cover Image, Finite state sequential machine, Melaymachine, Pixel Mapping Method (PMM), Stego Image, NCUT.

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20 Data Hiding in Images in Discrete Wavelet Domain Using PMM

Authors: Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Over last two decades, due to hostilities of environment over the internet the concerns about confidentiality of information have increased at phenomenal rate. Therefore to safeguard the information from attacks, number of data/information hiding methods have evolved mostly in spatial and transformation domain.In spatial domain data hiding techniques,the information is embedded directly on the image plane itself. In transform domain data hiding techniques the image is first changed from spatial domain to some other domain and then the secret information is embedded so that the secret information remains more secure from any attack. Information hiding algorithms in time domain or spatial domain have high capacity and relatively lower robustness. In contrast, the algorithms in transform domain, such as DCT, DWT have certain robustness against some multimedia processing.In this work the authors propose a novel steganographic method for hiding information in the transform domain of the gray scale image.The proposed approach works by converting the gray level image in transform domain using discrete integer wavelet technique through lifting scheme.This approach performs a 2-D lifting wavelet decomposition through Haar lifted wavelet of the cover image and computes the approximation coefficients matrix CA and detail coefficients matrices CH, CV, and CD.Next step is to apply the PMM technique in those coefficients to form the stego image. The aim of this paper is to propose a high-capacity image steganography technique that uses pixel mapping method in integer wavelet domain with acceptable levels of imperceptibility and distortion in the cover image and high level of overall security. This solution is independent of the nature of the data to be hidden and produces a stego image with minimum degradation.

Keywords: Cover Image, Pixel Mapping Method (PMM), StegoImage, Integer Wavelet Tranform.

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19 User Behavior Based Enhanced Protocol (UBEP) for Secure Near Field Communication

Authors: Vinay Gautam, Vivek Gautam

Abstract:

With increase in the unauthorized users access, it is required to increase the security in the Near Field Communication (NFC). In the paper we propose a user behavior based enhanced protocol entitled ‘User Behavior based Enhanced Protocol (UBEP)’ to increase the security in NFC enabled devices. The UBEP works on the history of interaction of a user with system.The propose protocol considers four different factors (touch, time and distance & angle) of user behavior to know the authenticity or authorization of the users. These factors can be same for a user during interaction with the system. The UBEP uses two phase user verification system to authenticate a user. Firstly the acquisition phase is used to acquire and store the user interaction with NFC device and the same information is used in future to detect the authenticity of the user. The second phase (recognition) uses analysis of current and previous scenario of user interaction and digital signature verification system to finally authenticate user. The analysis of user based input makes a NFC transaction more advance and secure. This security is very tactical because it is completely depends on usage of the device.

Keywords: Security, Network Field communication, NFC Protocol.

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18 Analysis of Short Bearing in Turbulent Regime Considering Micropolar Lubrication

Authors: S. S. Gautam, S. Samanta

Abstract:

The aim of the paper work is to investigate and predict the static performance of journal bearing in turbulent flow condition considering micropolar lubrication. The Reynolds equation has been modified considering turbulent micropolar lubrication and is solved for steady state operations. The Constantinescu-s turbulence model is adopted using the coefficients. The analysis has been done for a parallel and inertia less flow. Load capacity and friction factor have been evaluated for various operating parameters.

Keywords: hydrodynamic bearing, micropolar lubrication, coupling number, characteristic length, perturbation analysis

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17 An Improved Design of Area Efficient Two Bit Comparator

Authors: Shashank Gautam, Pramod Sharma

Abstract:

In present era, development of digital circuits, signal processors and other integrated circuits, magnitude comparators are challenged by large area and more power consumption. Comparator is most basic circuit that performs comparison. This paper presents a technique to design a two bit comparator which consumes less area and power. DSCH and MICROWIND version 3 are used to design the schematic and design the layout of the schematic, observe the performance parameters at different nanometer technologies respectively.

Keywords: Chip design, consumed power, layout area, two bit comparator.

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16 Detecting Subsurface Circular Objects from Low Contrast Noisy Images: Applications in Microscope Image Enhancement

Authors: Soham De, Nupur Biswas, Abhijit Sanyal, Pulak Ray, Alokmay Datta

Abstract:

Particle detection in very noisy and low contrast images is an active field of research in image processing. In this article, a method is proposed for the efficient detection and sizing of subsurface spherical particles, which is used for the processing of softly fused Au nanoparticles. Transmission Electron Microscopy is used for imaging the nanoparticles, and the proposed algorithm has been tested with the two-dimensional projected TEM images obtained. Results are compared with the data obtained by transmission optical spectroscopy, as well as with conventional circular object detection algorithms.

Keywords: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Circular Hough Transform, Au Nanoparticles, Median Filter, Laplacian Sharpening Filter, Canny Edge Detection

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15 Designing of Full Adder Using Low Power Techniques

Authors: Shashank Gautam

Abstract:

This paper proposes techniques like MT CMOS, POWER GATING, DUAL STACK, GALEOR and LECTOR to reduce the leakage power. A Full Adder has been designed using these techniques and power dissipation is calculated and is compared with general CMOS logic of Full Adder. Simulation results show the validity of the proposed techniques is effective to save power dissipation and to increase the speed of operation of the circuits to a large extent.

Keywords: Low Power, MT CMOS, Galeor, Lector, Power Gating, Dual Stack, Full Adder.

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14 Evaluation of Ultrasonic C-Scan Images by Fractal Dimension

Authors: S. Samanta, D. Datta, S. S. Gautam

Abstract:

In this paper, quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic Cscan images through estimation of their Fractal Dimension (FD) is discussed. Necessary algorithm for evaluation of FD of any 2-D digitized image is implemented by developing a computer code. For the evaluation purpose several C-scan images of the Kevlar composite impacted by high speed bullet and glass fibre composite having flaw in the form of inclusion is used. This analysis automatically differentiates a C-scan image showing distinct damage zone, from an image that contains no such damage.

Keywords: C-scan, Impact, Fractal Dimension, Kevlar composite and Inclusion Flaw

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13 Parameter Estimation of Diode Circuit Using Extended Kalman Filter

Authors: Amit Kumar Gautam, Sudipta Majumdar

Abstract:

This paper presents parameter estimation of a single-phase rectifier using extended Kalman filter (EKF). The state space model has been obtained using Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL) and Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL). The capacitor voltage and diode current of the circuit have been estimated using EKF. Simulation results validate the better accuracy of the proposed method as compared to the least mean square method (LMS). Further, EKF has the advantage that it can be used for nonlinear systems.

Keywords: Extended Kalman filter, parameter estimation, single phase rectifier, state space modelling.

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12 A Differential Calculus Based Image Steganography with Crossover

Authors: Srilekha Mukherjee, Subha Ash, Goutam Sanyal

Abstract:

Information security plays a major role in uplifting the standard of secured communications via global media. In this paper, we have suggested a technique of encryption followed by insertion before transmission. Here, we have implemented two different concepts to carry out the above-specified tasks. We have used a two-point crossover technique of the genetic algorithm to facilitate the encryption process. For each of the uniquely identified rows of pixels, different mathematical methodologies are applied for several conditions checking, in order to figure out all the parent pixels on which we perform the crossover operation. This is done by selecting two crossover points within the pixels thereby producing the newly encrypted child pixels, and hence the encrypted cover image. In the next lap, the first and second order derivative operators are evaluated to increase the security and robustness. The last lap further ensures reapplication of the crossover procedure to form the final stego-image. The complexity of this system as a whole is huge, thereby dissuading the third party interferences. Also, the embedding capacity is very high. Therefore, a larger amount of secret image information can be hidden. The imperceptible vision of the obtained stego-image clearly proves the proficiency of this approach.

Keywords: Steganography, Crossover, Differential Calculus, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Cross-correlation Coefficient.

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11 Process Optimization for Enhanced Production of Cell Biomass and Metabolites of Fluorescent Pseudomonad R81

Authors: M.V.R.K Sarma, Krishna Saharan, Lalit Kumar, Ashwani Gautam, Avhijeet Kapoor, Nishant Srivastava, Vikram Sahai, V.S Bisaria

Abstract:

The fluorescent pseudomonad strain R81 is a root colonizing rhizobacteria which promotes the growth of many plants by various mechanisms. Its broth containing siderophore (ironchelating compound) and 2,4- diacetyl phloroglucinol (DAPG) is used for preparing bioinoculant formulations for agronomical applications. Glycerol was found to be the best carbon source for improved biomass production. Splitting of nitrogen source to NH4Cl and urea had a stabilizing effect on pH during batch cultivation. Ltryptophan at 0.5 % in the medium increased the siderophore production to 850 mg/l. During batch cultivation of the strain in a bioreactor, a maximum of 4 g/l of dry cell mass, 1.8 g/l of siderophore and 20 mg/l of DAPG was achieved when glycerol was 15 g/l and C/N ratio was maintained at 12.5. In case of intermittent feeding of fresh medium during fed-batch cultivation, the dry cell mass was increased to 25 g/l with improved production of DAPG to 70 mg/l.

Keywords: Batch cultivation, Fed-batch cultivation, fluorescent pseudomonad, Metabolites

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10 Online Optic Disk Segmentation Using Fractals

Authors: Srinivasan Aruchamy, Partha Bhattacharjee, Goutam Sanyal

Abstract:

Optic disk segmentation plays a key role in the mass screening of individuals with diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma ailments. An efficient hardware-based algorithm for optic disk localization and segmentation would aid for developing an automated retinal image analysis system for real time applications. Herein, TMS320C6416DSK DSP board pixel intensity based fractal analysis algorithm for an automatic localization and segmentation of the optic disk is reported. The experiment has been performed on color and fluorescent angiography retinal fundus images. Initially, the images were pre-processed to reduce the noise and enhance the quality. The retinal vascular tree of the image was then extracted using canny edge detection technique. Finally, a pixel intensity based fractal analysis is performed to segment the optic disk by tracing the origin of the vascular tree. The proposed method is examined on three publicly available data sets of the retinal image and also with the data set obtained from an eye clinic. The average accuracy achieved is 96.2%. To the best of the knowledge, this is the first work reporting the use of TMS320C6416DSK DSP board and pixel intensity based fractal analysis algorithm for an automatic localization and segmentation of the optic disk. This will pave the way for developing devices for detection of retinal diseases in the future.

Keywords: Color retinal fundus images, Diabetic retinopathy, Fluorescein angiography retinal fundus images, Fractal analysis.

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9 Influence of Distributed Generation on Congestion and LMP in Competitive Electricity Market

Authors: Durga Gautam, Mithulananthan Nadarajah

Abstract:

This paper presents the influence of distributed generation (DG) on congestion and locational marginal price (LMP) in an optimal power flow (OPF) based wholesale electricity market. The problem of optimal placement to manage congestion and reduce LMP is formulated for the objective of social welfare maximization. From competitive electricity market standpoint, DGs have great value when they reduce load in particular locations and at particular times when feeders are heavily loaded. The paper lies on the groundwork that solution to optimal mix of generation and transmission resources can be achieved by addressing congestion and corresponding LMP. Obtained as lagrangian multiplier associated with active power flow equation for each node, LMP gives the short run marginal cost (SRMC) of electricity. Specific grid locations are examined to study the influence of DG penetration on congestion and corresponding shadow prices. The influence of DG on congestion and locational marginal prices has been demonstrated in a modified IEEE 14 bus test system.

Keywords: Congestion management, distributed generation, electricity market, locational marginal price, optimal power flow, social welfare.

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8 Power Quality Improvement Using PI and Fuzzy Logic Controllers Based Shunt Active Filter

Authors: Dipen A. Mistry, Bhupelly Dheeraj, Ravit Gautam, Manmohan Singh Meena, Suresh Mikkili

Abstract:

In recent years the large scale use of the power electronic equipment has led to an increase of harmonics in the power system. The harmonics results into a poor power quality and have great adverse economical impact on the utilities and customers. Current harmonics are one of the most common power quality problems and are usually resolved by using shunt active filter (SHAF). The main objective of this work is to develop PI and Fuzzy logic controllers (FLC) to analyze the performance of Shunt Active Filter for mitigating current harmonics under balanced and unbalanced sinusoidal source voltage conditions for normal load and increased load. When the supply voltages are ideal (balanced), both PI and FLC are converging to the same compensation characteristics. However, the supply voltages are non-ideal (unbalanced), FLC offers outstanding results. Simulation results validate the superiority of FLC with triangular membership function over the PI controller.

Keywords: DC link voltage, Fuzzy logic controller, Harmonics, PI controller, Shunt Active Filter.

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7 Adaptive Hysteresis Based SHAF Using PI and FLC Controller for Current Harmonics Mitigation

Authors: Ravit Gautam, Dipen A. Mistry, Manmohan Singh Meena, Bhupelly Dheeraj, Suresh Mikkili

Abstract:

Due to the increased use of the power electronic equipment, harmonics in the power system has increased to a greater extent. These harmonics results a poor power quality causing a major effect on the customers. Shunt active filters (SHAF) are used for the mitigations of the current harmonics and to maintain constant DC link voltage. PI and Fuzzy logic controllers (FLC) were used to control the performance of the shunt active filter under both balance and unbalance source voltage condition. The results found were not satisfying the IEEE-519 standards of THD to be less than 5%. Hysteresis band current control was used to obtain the gating signals for SHAF, though it has some drawbacks and thus to obtain a better performance of the SHAF to mitigate the harmonics, adaptive hysteresis band current control scheme is implemented. Adaptive hysteresis based SHAF is used to obtain better compensation of current harmonics and to regulate the DC link voltage in a better way.

Keywords: DC Link Voltage, Fuzzy Logic Controller, Adaptive Hysteresis, Harmonics, Shunt Active Filter.

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6 Wavelet-Based Classification of Myocardial Ischemia, Arrhythmia, Congestive Heart Failure and Sleep Apnea

Authors: Santanu Chattopadhyay, Gautam Sarkar, Arabinda Das

Abstract:

This paper presents wavelet based classification of various heart diseases. Electrocardiogram signals of different heart patients have been studied. Statistical natures of electrocardiogram signals for different heart diseases have been compared with the statistical nature of electrocardiograms for normal persons. Under this study four different heart diseases have been considered as follows: Myocardial Ischemia (MI), Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), Arrhythmia and Sleep Apnea. Statistical nature of electrocardiograms for each case has been considered in terms of kurtosis values of two types of wavelet coefficients: approximate and detail. Nine wavelet decomposition levels have been considered in each case. Kurtosis corresponding to both approximate and detail coefficients has been considered for decomposition level one to decomposition level nine. Based on significant difference, few decomposition levels have been chosen and then used for classification.

Keywords: Arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, discrete wavelet transform, electrocardiogram, myocardial ischemia, sleep apnea.

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5 Attention Based Fully Convolutional Neural Network for Simultaneous Detection and Segmentation of Optic Disc in Retinal Fundus Images

Authors: Sandip Sadhukhan, Arpita Sarkar, Debprasad Sinha, Goutam Kumar Ghorai, Gautam Sarkar, Ashis K. Dhara

Abstract:

Accurate segmentation of the optic disc is very important for computer-aided diagnosis of several ocular diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and hypertensive retinopathy. The paper presents an accurate and fast optic disc detection and segmentation method using an attention based fully convolutional network. The network is trained from scratch using the fundus images of extended MESSIDOR database and the trained model is used for segmentation of optic disc. The false positives are removed based on morphological operation and shape features. The result is evaluated using three-fold cross-validation on six public fundus image databases such as DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, DRIVE, AV-INSPIRE, CHASE DB1 and MESSIDOR. The attention based fully convolutional network is robust and effective for detection and segmentation of optic disc in the images affected by diabetic retinopathy and it outperforms existing techniques.

Keywords: Ocular diseases, retinal fundus image, optic disc detection and segmentation, fully convolutional network, overlap measure.

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4 Hazardous Waste Management of Transmission Line Tower Manufacturing

Authors: S.P.Gautam, P.S.Bundela, R.K. Jain, V. N. Tripathi

Abstract:

The manufacturing transmission line tower parts has being generated hazardous waste which is required proper disposal of waste for protection of land pollution. Manufacturing Process in the manufacturing of steel angle, plates, pipes, channels are passes through conventional, semi automatic and CNC machines for cutting, marking, punching, drilling, notching, bending operations. All fabricated material Coated with thin layer of Zinc in Galvanizing plant where molten zinc is used for coating. Prior to Galvanizing, chemical like 33% concentrated HCl Acid, ammonium chloride and d-oil being used for pretreatment of iron. The bath of water with sodium dichromate is used for cooling and protection of the galvanized steel. For the heating purpose the furnace oil burners are used. These above process the Zinc dross, Zinc ash, ETP sludge and waste pickled acid generated as hazardous waste. The RPG has made captive secured land fill site, since 1997 since then it was using for disposal of hazardous waste after completion of SLF (Secured land fill) site. The RPG has raised height from ground level then now it is being used for disposal of waste as he designed the SLF after in creasing height of from GL it is functional without leach ate or adverse impacts in the environment.

Keywords: Disposal, Drilling, Fabricated. Hazardous waste, Punching.

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3 Low Value Capacitance Measurement System with Adjustable Lead Capacitance Compensation

Authors: Gautam Sarkar, Anjan Rakshit, Amitava Chatterjee, Kesab Bhattacharya

Abstract:

The present paper describes the development of a low cost, highly accurate low capacitance measurement system that can be used over a range of 0 – 400 pF with a resolution of 1 pF. The range of capacitance may be easily altered by a simple resistance or capacitance variation of the measurement circuit. This capacitance measurement system uses quad two-input NAND Schmitt trigger circuit CD4093B with hysteresis for the measurement and this system is integrated with PIC 18F2550 microcontroller for data acquisition purpose. The microcontroller interacts with software developed in the PC end through USB architecture and an attractive graphical user interface (GUI) based system is developed in the PC end to provide the user with real time, online display of capacitance under measurement. The system uses a differential mode of capacitance measurement, with reference to a trimmer capacitance, that effectively compensates lead capacitances, a notorious error encountered in usual low capacitance measurements. The hysteresis provided in the Schmitt-trigger circuits enable reliable operation of the system by greatly minimizing the possibility of false triggering because of stray interferences, usually regarded as another source of significant error. The real life testing of the proposed system showed that our measurements could produce highly accurate capacitance measurements, when compared to cutting edge, high end digital capacitance meters.

Keywords: Capacitance measurement, NAND Schmitt trigger, microcontroller, GUI, lead compensation, hysteresis.

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2 Development and Performance Evaluation of a Gladiolus Planter in Field for Planting Corms

Authors: T. P. Singh, Vijay Gautam

Abstract:

Gladiolus is an important cash crop and is grown mainly for its elegant spikes. Traditionally the gladiolus corms are planted manually which is very tedious, time consuming and labor intensive operation. So far, there is no planter available for planting of gladiolus corms. With a view to mechanize the planting operation of this horticultural crop, a prototype of 4-row gladiolus planter was developed and its performance was evaluated in-situ condition. Cupchain type metering device was used to place each single gladiolus corm in furrow at required spacing while planting. Three levels of corm spacing viz 15, 20 and 25 cm and four levels of forward speed viz 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 km/h was taken as evaluation parameter for the planter. The performance indicators namely corm spacing in each row, coefficient of uniformity, missing index, multiple index, quality of feed index, number of corms per meter length, mechanical damage to the corms etc. were determined during the field test. The data was statistically analyzed using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) for testing the significance of the parameters. The result indicated that planter was able to drop the corms at required nominal spacing with minor variations. The highest deviation from the mean corm spacing was observed as 3.53 cm with maximum coefficient of variation as 13.88%. The highest missing and quality of feed indexes were observed as 6.33% and 97.45% respectively with no multiples. The performance of the planter was observed better at lower forward speed and wider corm spacing. The field capacity of the planter was found as 0.103 ha/h with an observed field efficiency of 76.57%.

Keywords: Coefficient of uniformity, corm spacing, gladiolus planter, mechanization.

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1 Wound Healing Effect of Ocimum sanctum Leaves Extract in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Manish Kumar Gautam, Raj Kumar Goel

Abstract:

Delayed wound healing in diabetes is primarily associated with hyperglycemia, over-expression of inflammatory marker, oxidative stress and delayed collagen synthesis. This unmanaged wound is producing high economic burden on the society. Thus research is required to develop new and effective treatment strategies to deal with this emerging issue. Our present study incorporates the evaluation of wound healing effects of 50% ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum (OSE) in streptozotocin (45mg/kg)-induced diabetic rats with concurrent wound ulcer. The animals showing diabetes (Blood glucose level >140 and <250 mg/dL) will be selected for wound healing study using standard dead space wound model. Wounds were created by implanting two polypropylene tubes (0.5 x 2.5 cm2 each), one on either side in the lumbar region on the dorsal surface of each rat. On the 10th postwounding day, the animals were sacrificed and granulation tissue formed on the implanted tubes was carefully dissected out and study the status of antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase, SOD and Glutathione, GSH) free radicals (Lipid peroxidation, LPO and nitric oxide, NO) acute inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase, MPO) connective tissue determinants, hydroxyproline, hexosamine and hexuronic acid, which play a major role in wound healing and diabetes. Besides the anti-diabetic parameters (estimation of serum blood glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol), the above parameters for wound healing were studied both in normal, untreated and OSE treated diabetic rats. The effects of extract on above parameters will be compared with known standard antioxidant (Vitamin E) and anti-diabetic (Glybenclamide) drugs. OSE 400 mg/kg substantiated by significantly decreased serum blood glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol. OSE also decrease granulation tissue free radicals (LPO, 58.1% and NO, 52.7%) and myeloperoxidase (MPO, 63.3%), and enhanced antioxidants (GSH, 116.4% and SOD, 201.1%)

Keywords: Wound healing, diabetes, Ocimum sanctum, Antioxidant, Free radical, Myeloperoxidase

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