Search results for: Reactive Red 120
255 Wetting Behavior of Reactive and Non–Reactive Wetting of Liquids on Metallic Substrates
Authors: Pradeep Bhagawath, K.N. Prabhu, Satyanarayan
Abstract:Wetting characteristics of reactive (Sn–0.7Cu solder) and non– reactive (castor oil) wetting of liquids on Cu and Ag plated Al substrates have been investigated. Solder spreading exhibited capillary, gravity and viscous regimes. Oils did not exhibit noticeable spreading regimes. Solder alloy showed better wettability on Ag coated Al substrate compared to Cu plating. In the case of castor oil, Cu coated Al substrate exhibited good wettability as compared to Ag coated Al substrates. The difference in wettability during reactive wetting of solder and non–reactive wetting of oils is attributed to the change in the surface energies of Al substrates brought about by the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs).
Keywords: Wettability, contact angle, solder, castor oil, IMCs.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2336
254 The Differences in Normative Beliefs among Schoolchildren with Reactive, Proactive, Reactive-Proactive Aggression, and without Aggression
Authors: Annis Lai Chu Fung
This study is to fill up a research gap on examining the differences in normative beliefs (namely acceptance of weaknesses, acceptance of provoked aggression, and acceptance of unprovoked aggression) among different subtypes of aggressors and non-aggressors (reactive aggressors, proactive aggressors, reactive-proactive aggressors, and non-aggressors). 2,236 students (1,372 males and 864 females), aged from 11 to 18, completed a self-reported questionnaire. Results revealed that (a) schoolchildren with reactive-proactive aggression have the highest acceptance of provoked aggression, the highest acceptance of unprovoked aggression, and the lowest acceptance of weakness; (b) schoolchildren with proactive aggression have higher acceptance of unprovoked aggression and lower acceptance of weakness than reactive aggressors; and (c) schoolchildren without aggression have the lowest acceptance of provoked aggression, the lowest acceptance of unprovoked aggression, and the highest acceptance of weakness.
Keywords: Normative belief, schoolchildren, reactive, proactive, aggression.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1589
253 Decolorization of Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red 198 using Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron
Authors: C. Chompuchan, T. Satapanajaru, P. Suntornchot, P. Pengthamkeerati
Residual dye contents in textile dyeing wastewater have complex aromatic structures that are resistant to degrade in biological wastewater treatment. The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) to decolorize Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Reactive Red 198 (RR198) in synthesized wastewater and to investigate the effects of the iron particle size, iron dosage and solution pHs on the destruction of RB5 and RR198. Synthesized NZVI was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The removal kinetic rates (kobs) of RB5 (0.0109 min-1) and RR198 (0.0111 min-1) by 0.5% NZVI were many times higher than those of microscale zerovalent iron (ZVI) (0.0007 min-1 and 0.0008 min-1, respectively). The iron dosage increment exponentially increased the removal efficiencies of both RB5 and RR198. Additionally, lowering pH from 9 to 5 increased the decolorization kinetic rates of both RB5 and RR198 by NZVI. The destruction of azo bond (N=N) in the chromophore of both reactive dyes led to decolorization of dye solutions.
Keywords: decolorization, nanoscale zerovalent iron, Reactive Black 5, Reactive Red 198.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2180
252 Power Flow Tracing Based Reactive Power Ancillary Service (AS) in Restructured Power Market
Authors: M. Susithra, R. Gnanadass
Ancillary services are support services which are essential for humanizing and enhancing the reliability and security of the electric power system. Reactive power ancillary service is one of the important ancillary services in a restructured electricity market which determines the cost of supplying ancillary services and finding of how this cost would change with respect to operating decisions. This paper presents a new formation that can be used to minimize the Independent System Operator (ISO)’s total payment for reactive power ancillary service. The modified power flow tracing algorithm estimates the availability of reserve reactive power for ancillary service. In order to find optimum reactive power dispatch, Biogeography based optimization method (BPO) is proposed. Market Reactive Clearing Price (MRCP) is then estimated and it encourages generator companies (GENCOs) to participate in an ancillary service. Finally, optimal weighting factor and real time utilization factor of reactive power give the minimum ISO’s total payment. The effectiveness of proposed design is verified using IEEE 30 bus system.
Keywords: Biogeography based optimization method, Power flow tracing method, Reactive generation capability curve and Reactive power ancillary service.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3121
251 Simulink Model of Reference Frame Theory Based Three Phase Shunt Active Filter
Authors: P. Nammalvar, P. Meganathan, A. Balamuguran
Abstract:Among various active filters, shunt active filter is a viable solution for reactive power and harmonics compensation. In this paper, the SRF plan is used to generate current reference for compensation and conventional PI controllers were used as the controller to compensate the reactive power. The design of the closed loop controllers is reserved simple by modeling them as first order systems. Computationally uncomplicated and efficient SVM system is used in the present work for better utilization of dc bus voltage. The rating of shunt active filter has been finalized based on the reactive power demand of the selected reactive load. The proposed control and SVM technique are validated by simulating in MATLAB software.
Keywords: Shunt Active Filter, Space vector pulse width modulation, Voltage Source Converter, Reactive Power, Synchronous Reference Frame, Point of common coupling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2475
250 Optimal Compensation of Reactive Power in the Restructured Distribution Network
Authors: Atefeh Pourshafie, Mohsen. Saniei, S. S. Mortazavi, A. Saeedian
Abstract:In this paper optimal capacitor placement problem has been formulated in a restructured distribution network. In this scenario the distribution network operator can consider reactive energy also as a service that can be sold to transmission system. Thus search for optimal location, size and number of capacitor banks with the objective of loss reduction, maximum income from selling reactive energy to transmission system and return on investment for capacitors, has been performed. Results is influenced with economic value of reactive energy, therefore problem has been solved for various amounts of it. The implemented optimization technique is genetic algorithm. For any value of reactive power economic value, when reverse of investment index increase and change from zero or negative values to positive values, the threshold value of selling reactive power has been obtained. This increasing price of economic parameter is reasonable until the network losses is less than loss before compensation.
Keywords: capacitor placement, deregulated electric market, distribution network optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2003
249 Energy Efficiency Index Applied to Reactive Systems
Abstract:This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency index that will be applied to reactive systems, which is based in the First and Second Law of Thermodynamics, by giving particular consideration to the concept of maximum entropy. Among the requirements of such energy efficiency index, the practical feasibility must be essential. To illustrate the performance of the proposed index, such an index was used as decisive factor of evaluation for the optimization process of an industrial reactor. The results allow the conclusion to be drawn that the energy efficiency index applied to the reactive system is consistent because it extracts the information expected of an efficient indicator, and that it is useful as an analytical tool besides being feasible from a practical standpoint. Furthermore, it has proved to be much simpler to use than tools based on traditional methodologies.
Keywords: Energy efficiency, maximum entropy, reactive systems.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 862
248 Simulation of the Reactive Rotational Molding Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Authors: A. Hamidi, S. Khelladi, L. Illoul, A. Tcharkhtchi
Abstract:Reactive rotational molding (RRM) is a process to manufacture hollow plastic parts with reactive material has several advantages compared to conventional roto molding of thermoplastic powders: process cycle time is shorter; raw material is less expensive because polymerization occurs during processing and high-performance polymers may be used such as thermosets, thermoplastics or blends. However, several phenomena occur during this process which makes the optimization of the process quite complex. In this study, we have used a mixture of isocyanate and polyol as a reactive system. The chemical transformation of this system to polyurethane has been studied by thermal analysis and rheology tests. Thanks to these results of the curing process and rheological measurements, the kinetic and rheokinetik of polyurethane was identified. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, a Lagrangian meshless method, was chosen to simulate reactive fluid flow in 2 and 3D configurations of the polyurethane during the process taking into account the chemical, and chemiorehological results obtained experimentally in this study.
Keywords: Reactive rotational molding, free surface flows, simulation, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, surface tension.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 919
247 Solution of Optimal Reactive Power Flow using Biogeography-Based Optimization
Authors: Aniruddha Bhattacharya, Pranab Kumar Chattopadhyay
Abstract:Optimal reactive power flow is an optimization problem with one or more objective of minimizing the active power losses for fixed generation schedule. The control variables are generator bus voltages, transformer tap settings and reactive power output of the compensating devices placed on different bus bars. Biogeography- Based Optimization (BBO) technique has been applied to solve different kinds of optimal reactive power flow problems subject to operational constraints like power balance constraint, line flow and bus voltages limits etc. BBO searches for the global optimum mainly through two steps: Migration and Mutation. In the present work, BBO has been applied to solve the optimal reactive power flow problems on IEEE 30-bus and standard IEEE 57-bus power systems for minimization of active power loss. The superiority of the proposed method has been demonstrated. Considering the quality of the solution obtained, the proposed method seems to be a promising one for solving these problems.
Keywords: Active Power Loss, Biogeography-Based Optimization, Migration, Mutation, Optimal Reactive Power Flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4166
246 Static Voltage Stability Margin Enhancement Using SVC and TCSC
Authors: Mohammed Amroune, Hadi Sebaa, Tarek Bouktir
Reactive power limit of power system is one of the major causes of voltage instability. The only way to save the system from voltage instability is to reduce the reactive power load or add additional reactive power to reaching the point of voltage collapse. In recent times, the application of FACTS devices is a very effective solution to prevent voltage instability due to their fast and very flexible control. In this paper, voltage stability assessment with SVC and TCSC devices is investigated and compared in the modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The fast voltage stability indicator (FVSI) is used to identify weakest bus and to assess the voltage stability of power system.
Keywords: SVC, TCSC, Voltage stability, Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI), Reactive power.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3838
245 Effect of Nitrogen Gaseous Plasma on Cotton Fabric Dyed with Reactive Yellow105
Authors: Mohammad Mirjalili, Hamid Akbarpour
In this work, a bleached well cotton sample was dyed with reactive yellow105 dye and subsequently, the dyed sample was exposed to the plasma condition containing Nitrogen gas at 1 and 5 minutes of plasma exposure time, respectively. The effect of plasma on surface morphology fabric was studied by Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM). CIELab, K/S, and %R of samples (treated and untreated samples) were measured by a reflective spectrophotometer, and consequently, the experiments show that the sample dyed with Reactive yellow 105 after being washed, with the increase in the operation time of plasma, its dye fastness decreases. In addition, the increase in plasma operation time at constant pressure would increase the destructing effect on the surface morphology of samples dyed with reactive yellow105.
Keywords: Cotton fabric, cold nitrogen plasma, reflective spectrophotometer, electronic scanning microscope (SEM), reactive yellow105 dye.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 751
244 Power System Voltage Control using LP and Artificial Neural Network
Authors: A. Sina, A. Aeenmehr, H. Mohamadian
Abstract:Optimization and control of reactive power distribution in the power systems leads to the better operation of the reactive power resources. Reactive power control reduces considerably the power losses and effective loads and improves the power factor of the power systems. Another important reason of the reactive power control is improving the voltage profile of the power system. In this paper, voltage and reactive power control using Neural Network techniques have been applied to the 33 shines- Tehran Electric Company. In this suggested ANN, the voltages of PQ shines have been considered as the input of the ANN. Also, the generators voltages, tap transformers and shunt compensators have been considered as the output of ANN. Results of this techniques have been compared with the Linear Programming. Minimization of the transmission line power losses has been considered as the objective function of the linear programming technique. The comparison of the results of the ANN technique with the LP shows that the ANN technique improves the precision and reduces the computation time. ANN technique also has a simple structure and this causes to use the operator experience.
Keywords: voltage control, linear programming, artificial neural network, power systemsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1633
243 Power Control in a Doubly Fed Induction Machine
Authors: A. Ourici
Abstract:This paper proposes a direct power control for doubly-fed induction machine for variable speed wind power generation. It provides decoupled regulation of the primary side active and reactive power and it is suitable for both electric energy generation and drive applications. In order to control the power flowing between the stator of the DFIG and the network, a decoupled control of active and reactive power is synthesized using PI controllers.The obtained simulation results show the feasibility and the effectiveness of the suggested method
Keywords: Doubly fed induction machine , decoupled power control , vector control , active and reactive power, PWM inverterProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2257
242 Photocatalytic and Sonophotocatalytic Degradation of Reactive Red 120 using Dye Sensitized TiO2 under Visible Light
Authors: S.K.Kavitha, P.N.Palanisamy
Abstract:The accelerated sonophotocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red (RR) 120 dye under visible light using dye sensitized TiO2 activated by ultrasound has been carried out. The effect of sonolysis, photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis under visible light has been examined to study the influence on the degradation rates by varying the initial substrate concentration, pH and catalyst loading to ascertain the synergistic effect on the degradation techniques. Ultrasonic activation contributes degradation through cavitation leading to the splitting of H2O2 produced by both photocatalysis and sonolysis. This results in the formation of oxidative species, such as singlet oxygen (1O2) and superoxide (O2 -●) radicals in the presence of oxygen. The increase in the amount of reactive radical species which induce faster oxidation of the substrate and degradation of intermediates and also the deaggregation of the photocatalyst are responsible for the synergy observed under sonication. A comparative study of photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis using TiO2, Hombikat UV 100 and ZnO was also carried out.
Keywords: Photocatalysis, Reactive Red 120, Sonophotocatalysis, Sonolysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3251
241 Reactive Neural Control for Phototaxis and Obstacle Avoidance Behavior of Walking Machines
Authors: Poramate Manoonpong, Frank Pasemann, Florentin Wörgötter
Abstract:This paper describes reactive neural control used to generate phototaxis and obstacle avoidance behavior of walking machines. It utilizes discrete-time neurodynamics and consists of two main neural modules: neural preprocessing and modular neural control. The neural preprocessing network acts as a sensory fusion unit. It filters sensory noise and shapes sensory data to drive the corresponding reactive behavior. On the other hand, modular neural control based on a central pattern generator is applied for locomotion of walking machines. It coordinates leg movements and can generate omnidirectional walking. As a result, through a sensorimotor loop this reactive neural controller enables the machines to explore a dynamic environment by avoiding obstacles, turn toward a light source, and then stop near to it.
Keywords: Recurrent neural networks, Walking robots, Modular neural control, Phototaxis, Obstacle avoidance behavior.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1610
240 Formalizing a Procedure for Generating Uncertain Resource Availability Assumptions Based On Real Time Logistic Data Capturing with Auto-ID Systems for Reactive Scheduling
Authors: Lars Laußat, Manfred Helmus, Kamil Szczesny, Markus König
As one result of the project “Reactive Construction Project Scheduling using Real Time Construction Logistic Data and Simulation”, a procedure for using data about uncertain resource availability assumptions in reactive scheduling processes has been developed. Prediction data about resource availability is generated in a formalized way using real-time monitoring data e.g. from auto-ID systems on the construction site and in the supply chains. The paper focusses on the formalization of the procedure for monitoring construction logistic processes, for the detection of disturbance and for generating of new and uncertain scheduling assumptions for the reactive resource constrained simulation procedure that is and will be further described in other papers.
Keywords: Auto-ID, Construction Logistic, Fuzzy, Monitoring, RFID, Scheduling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1646
239 Small Signal Stability Enhancement for Hybrid Power Systems by SVC
Authors: Ali Dehghani, Mojtaba Hakimzadeh, Amir Habibi, Navid Mehdizadeh Afroozi
In this paper an isolated wind-diesel hybrid power system has been considered for reactive power control study having an induction generator for wind power conversion and synchronous alternator with automatic voltage regulator (AVR) for diesel unit is presented. The dynamic voltage stability evaluation is dependent on small signal analysis considering a Static VAR Compensator (SVC) and IEEE type -I excitation system. It's shown that the variable reactive power source like SVC is crucial to meet the varying demand of reactive power by induction generator and load and to acquire an excellent voltage regulation of the system with minimum fluctuations. Integral square error (ISE) criterion can be used to evaluate the optimum setting of gain parameters. Finally the dynamic responses of the power systems considered with optimum gain setting will also be presented.
Keywords: SVC, Small Signal Stability, Reactive Power, Control, Hybrid System.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2341
238 Application of Neuro-Fuzzy Dynamic Programming to Improve the Reactive Power and Voltage Profile of a Distribution Substation
Authors: M. Tarafdar Haque, S. Najafi
Abstract:Improving the reactive power and voltage profile of a distribution substation is investigated in this paper. The purpose is to properly determination of the shunt capacitors on/off status and suitable tap changer (TC) position of a substation transformer. In addition, the limitation of secondary bus voltage, the maximum allowable number of switching operation in a day for on load tap changer and on/off status of capacitors are taken into account. To achieve these goals, an artificial neural network (ANN) is designed to provide preliminary scheduling. Input of ANN is active and reactive powers of transformer and its primary and secondary bus voltages. The output of ANN is capacitors on/off status and TC position. The preliminary schedule is further refined by fuzzy dynamic programming in order to reach the final schedule. The operation of proposed method in Q/V improving is compared with the results obtained by operator operation in a distribution substation.
Keywords: Neuro-fuzzy, Dynamic programming, Reactive power, Voltage profile.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1510
237 ORPP with MAIEP Based Technique for Loadability Enhancement
Authors: Norziana Aminudin, Titik Khawa Abdul Rahman, Ismail Musirin
Abstract:One of the factors to maintain system survivability is the adequate reactive power support to the system. Lack of reactive power support may cause undesirable voltage decay leading to total system instability. Thus, appropriate reactive power support scheme should be arranged in order to maintain system stability. The strength of a system capacity is normally denoted as system loadability. This paper presents the enhancement of system loadability through optimal reactive power planning technique using a newly developed optimization technique, termed as Multiagent Immune Evolutionary Programming (MAIEP). The concept of MAIEP is developed based on the combination of Multiagent System (MAS), Artificial Immune System (AIS) and Evolutionary Programming (EP). In realizing the effectiveness of the proposed technique, validation is conducted on the IEEE-26-Bus Reliability Test System. The results obtained from pre-optimization and post-optimization process were compared which eventually revealed the merit of MAIEP.
Keywords: Load margin, MAIEP, Maximum loading point, ORPP.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1374
236 Investigating the Impact of Wind Speed on Active and Reactive Power Penetration to the Distribution Network
Authors: Sidhartha Panda, N.P.Padhy
Wind power is among the most actively developing distributed generation (DG) technology. Majority of the wind power based DG technologies employ wind turbine induction generators (WTIG) instead of synchronous generators, for the technical advantages like: reduced size, increased robustness, lower cost, and increased electromechanical damping. However, dynamic changes of wind speed make the amount of active/reactive power injected/drawn to a WTIG embedded distribution network highly variable. This paper analyzes the effect of wind speed changes on the active and reactive power penetration to the wind energy embedded distribution network. Four types of wind speed changes namely; constant, linear change, gust change and random change of wind speed are considered in the analysis. The study is carried out by three-phase, non-linear, dynamic simulation of distribution system component models. Results obtained from the investigation are presented and discussed.
Keywords: Wind turbine induction generator, distribution network, active and reactive power, wind speed.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2323
235 Influence of Power Flow Controller on Energy Transaction Charges in Restructured Power System
Authors: Manisha Dubey, Gaurav Gupta, Anoop Arya
The demand for power supply increases day by day in developing countries like India henceforth demand of reactive power support in the form of ancillary services provider also has been increased. The multi-line and multi-type Flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) controllers are playing a vital role to regulate power flow through the transmission line. Unified power flow controller and interline power flow controller can be utilized to control reactive power flow through the transmission line. In a restructured power system, the demand of such controller is being popular due to their inherent capability. The transmission pricing by using reactive power cost allocation through modified matrix methodology has been proposed. The FACTS technologies have quite costly assembly, so it is very useful to apportion the expenses throughout the restructured electricity industry. Therefore, in this work, after embedding the FACTS devices into load flow, the impact on the costs allocated to users in fraction to the transmission framework utilization has been analyzed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the total cost recovery is enhanced towards the Reactive Power flow through the different transmission line for 5 bus test system. The fair pricing policy towards reactive power can be achieved by the proposed method incorporating FACTS controller towards cost recovery of the transmission network.
Keywords: Inter line power flow controller, Transmission Pricing, Unified power flow controller, cost allocation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 510
234 Removal of a Reactive Dye by Adsorption Utilizing Waste Aluminium Hydroxide Sludge as an Adsorbent
Authors: R. Songur, E. Bayraktar, U. Mehmetoglu
Abstract:Removal of a reactive dye (Reactive blue 4) by adsorption utilizing waste aluminium hydroxide sludge as an adsorbent was investigated. The removal of the dye was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). In the RSM experiments; initial dye concentration, adsorbent concentration and contact time were critical parameters. RSM experiments were performed at the range of initial dye concentration 31.82-368.18 mg/L, adsorbent concentration 3.18-36.82 g/L, contact time 15.82- 56.18 h. Optimum initial dye concentration, adsorbent concentration and contact time were obtained as 108.83 mg/L, 29.36 g/L and 33.57 h respectively. At these conditions, maximum removal of the dye was obtained as 95%. The experiments were performed at the optimum conditions to verify these results and the same results were obtained.
Keywords: Adsorption, Reactive blue 4, Response surface methodology (RSM), Waste aluminium hydroxide sludgeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1843
233 Simulation of Reactive Distillation: Comparison of Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Stage Models
Authors: Asfaw Gezae Daful
In the present study, two distinctly different approaches are followed for modeling of reactive distillation column, the equilibrium stage model and the nonequilibrium stage model. These models are simulated with a computer code developed in the present study using MATLAB programming. In the equilibrium stage models, the vapor and liquid phases are assumed to be in equilibrium and allowance is made for finite reaction rates, where as in the nonequilibrium stage models simultaneous mass transfer and reaction rates are considered. These simulated model results are validated from the experimental data reported in the literature. The simulated results of equilibrium and nonequilibrium models are compared for concentration, temperature and reaction rate profiles in a reactive distillation column for Methyl Tert Butyle Ether (MTBE) production. Both the models show similar trend for the concentration, temperature and reaction rate profiles but the nonequilibrium model predictions are higher and closer to the experimental values reported in the literature.
Keywords: Reactive Distillation, Equilibrium model, Nonequilibrium model, Methyl Tert-Butyl EtherProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4086
232 Voltage Stability Enhancement Using Cat Swarm Optimization Algorithm
Authors: P. Suryakumari, P. Kantarao
Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem in electrical power system is considered as a static, non-linear, multi-objective or a single objective optimization problem. This paper presents an algorithm for solving the voltage stability objective reactive power dispatch problem in a power system .The proposed approach employs cat swarm optimization algorithm for optimal settings of RPD control variables. Generator terminal voltages, reactive power generation of the capacitor banks and tap changing transformer setting are taken as the optimization variables. CSO algorithm is tested on standard IEEE 30 bus system and the results are compared with other methods to prove the effectiveness of the new algorithm. As a result, the proposed method is the best for solving optimal reactive power dispatch problem.
Keywords: RPD problem, voltage stability enhancement, CSO algorithm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2310
231 Effectiveness of Natural Zeolite in Mitigating Alkali Silica Reaction Expansions
Authors: Esma Gizem Daskiran, Mehmet Mustafa Daskiran
Abstract:This paper investigates the effectiveness of two natural zeolites in reducing expansion of concrete due to alkali-silica reaction. These natural zeolites have different reactive silica content. Three aggregates; two natural sands and one crushed stone aggregate were used while preparing mortar bars in accordance with accelerated mortar bar test method, ASTM C1260. Performances of natural zeolites are compared by examining the expansions due to alkali silica reaction. Natural zeolites added to the mixtures at 10% and 20% replacement levels by weight of cement. Natural zeolite with high reactive silica content had better performance on reducing expansions due to ASR. In this research, using high reactive zeolite at 20% replacement levels was effective in mitigating expansions.
Keywords: Alkali silica reaction, natural zeolite, durability, expansion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2024
230 Clustering based Voltage Control Areas for Localized Reactive Power Management in Deregulated Power System
Authors: Saran Satsangi, Ashish Saini, Amit Saraswat
Abstract:In this paper, a new K-means clustering based approach for identification of voltage control areas is developed. Voltage control areas are important for efficient reactive power management in power systems operating under deregulated environment. Although, voltage control areas are formed using conventional hierarchical clustering based method, but the present paper investigate the capability of K-means clustering for the purpose of forming voltage control areas. The proposed method is tested and compared for IEEE 14 bus and IEEE 30 bus systems. The results show that this K-means based method is competing with conventional hierarchical approach
Keywords: Voltage control areas, reactive power management, K-means clustering algorithmProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2224
229 Adsorption of Reactive Dye Using Entrapped nZVI
Authors: P. Gomathi Priya, M. E. Thenmozhi
Iron nanoparticles were used to cleanup effluents. This paper involves synthesis of iron nanoparticles chemically by sodium borohydride reduction of ammonium ferrous sulfate solution (FAS). Iron oxide nanoparticles have lesser efficiency of adsorption than Zero Valent Iron nanoparticles (nZVI). Glucosamine acts as a stabilizing agent and chelating agent to prevent Iron nanoparticles from oxidation. nZVI particles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thus, the synthesized nZVI was subjected to entrapment in biopolymer, viz. barium (Ba)-alginate beads. The beads were characterized using SEM. Batch dye degradation studies were conducted using Reactive black Water soluble Nontoxic Natural substances (WNN) dye which is one of the most hazardous dyes used in textile industries. Effect of contact time, effect of pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, isotherm and kinetic studies were carried out.
Keywords: Ammonium ferrous sulfate solution, barium (Ba)- alginate beads, reactive black WNN dye, zero valent iron nanoparticles.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 641
228 The Transient Reactive Power Regulation Capability of SVC for Large Scale WECS Connected to Distribution Networks
Authors: Y. Ates, A. R. Boynuegri, M. Uzunoglu, A. Karakas
Abstract:The recent interest in alternative and renewable energy systems results in increased installed capacity ratio of such systems in total energy production of the world. Specifically, Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) draw significant attention among possible alternative energy options, recently. On the contrary of the positive points of penetrating WECS in all over the world in terms of environment protection, energy independence of the countries, etc., there are significant problems to be solved for the grid connection of large scale WECS. The reactive power regulation, voltage variation suppression, etc. can be presented as major issues to be considered in this regard. Thus, this paper evaluates the application of a Static VAr Compensator (SVC) unit for the reactive power regulation and operation continuity of WECS during a fault condition. The system is modeled employing the IEEE 13 node test system. Thus, it is possible to evaluate the system performance with an overall grid simulation model close to real grid systems. The overall simulation model is developed in MATLAB/Simulink/SimPowerSystems® environments and the obtained results effectively match the target of the provided study.
Keywords: IEEE 13 bus distribution system, reactive power regulation, static VAr compensator, wind energy conversion system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1833
227 Optimal Distributed Generator Sizing and Placement by Analytical Method and PSO Algorithm Considering Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch
Authors: Kyaw Myo Lin, Pyone Lai Swe, Khine Zin Oo
In this paper, an approach combining analytical method for the distributed generator (DG) sizing and meta-heuristic search for the optimal location of DG has been presented. The optimal size of DG on each bus is estimated by the loss sensitivity factor method while the optimal sites are determined by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based optimal reactive power dispatch for minimizing active power loss. To confirm the proposed approach, it has been tested on IEEE-30 bus test system. The adjustments of operating constraints and voltage profile improvements have also been observed. The obtained results show that the allocation of DGs results in a significant loss reduction with good voltage profiles and the combined approach is competent in keeping the system voltages within the acceptable limits.
Keywords: Analytical approach, distributed generations, optimal size, optimal location, optimal reactive power dispatch, particle swarm optimization algorithm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1013
226 Power Flow Control with UPFC in Power Transmission System
Authors: Samina Elyas Mubeen, R. K. Nema, Gayatri Agnihotri
Abstract:In this paper the performance of unified power flow controller is investigated in controlling the flow of po wer over the transmission line. Voltage sources model is utilized to study the behaviour of the UPFC in regulating the active, reactive power and voltage profile. This model is incorporated in Newton Raphson algorithm for load flow studies. Simultaneous method is employed in which equations of UPFC and the power balance equations of network are combined in to one set of non-linear algebraic equations. It is solved according to the Newton raphson algorithm. Case studies are carried on standard 5 bus network. Simulation is done in Matlab. The result of network with and without using UPFC are compared in terms of active and reactive power flows in the line and active and reactive power flows at the bus to analyze the performance of UPFC.
Keywords: Newton-Raphson algorithm, Load flow, Unified power flow controller, Voltage source model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4168