Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1832

Search results for: ensemble learning

1832 An Experimental Study of a Self-Supervised Classifier Ensemble

Authors: Neamat El Gayar

Abstract:

Learning using labeled and unlabelled data has received considerable amount of attention in the machine learning community due its potential in reducing the need for expensive labeled data. In this work we present a new method for combining labeled and unlabeled data based on classifier ensembles. The model we propose assumes each classifier in the ensemble observes the input using different set of features. Classifiers are initially trained using some labeled samples. The trained classifiers learn further through labeling the unknown patterns using a teaching signals that is generated using the decision of the classifier ensemble, i.e. the classifiers self-supervise each other. Experiments on a set of object images are presented. Our experiments investigate different classifier models, different fusing techniques, different training sizes and different input features. Experimental results reveal that the proposed self-supervised ensemble learning approach reduces classification error over the single classifier and the traditional ensemble classifier approachs.

Keywords: Multiple Classifier Systems, classifier ensembles, learning using labeled and unlabelled data, K-nearest neighbor classifier, Bayes classifier.

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1831 Combining Bagging and Additive Regression

Authors: Sotiris B. Kotsiantis

Abstract:

Bagging and boosting are among the most popular re-sampling ensemble methods that generate and combine a diversity of regression models using the same learning algorithm as base-learner. Boosting algorithms are considered stronger than bagging on noise-free data. However, there are strong empirical indications that bagging is much more robust than boosting in noisy settings. For this reason, in this work we built an ensemble using an averaging methodology of bagging and boosting ensembles with 10 sub-learners in each one. We performed a comparison with simple bagging and boosting ensembles with 25 sub-learners on standard benchmark datasets and the proposed ensemble gave better accuracy.

Keywords: Regressors, statistical learning.

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1830 Ensemble Learning with Decision Tree for Remote Sensing Classification

Authors: Mahesh Pal

Abstract:

In recent years, a number of works proposing the combination of multiple classifiers to produce a single classification have been reported in remote sensing literature. The resulting classifier, referred to as an ensemble classifier, is generally found to be more accurate than any of the individual classifiers making up the ensemble. As accuracy is the primary concern, much of the research in the field of land cover classification is focused on improving classification accuracy. This study compares the performance of four ensemble approaches (boosting, bagging, DECORATE and random subspace) with a univariate decision tree as base classifier. Two training datasets, one without ant noise and other with 20 percent noise was used to judge the performance of different ensemble approaches. Results with noise free data set suggest an improvement of about 4% in classification accuracy with all ensemble approaches in comparison to the results provided by univariate decision tree classifier. Highest classification accuracy of 87.43% was achieved by boosted decision tree. A comparison of results with noisy data set suggests that bagging, DECORATE and random subspace approaches works well with this data whereas the performance of boosted decision tree degrades and a classification accuracy of 79.7% is achieved which is even lower than that is achieved (i.e. 80.02%) by using unboosted decision tree classifier.

Keywords: Ensemble learning, decision tree, remote sensingclassification.

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1829 On the Learning of Causal Relationships between Banks in Saudi Equities Market Using Ensemble Feature Selection Methods

Authors: Adel Aloraini

Abstract:

Financial forecasting using machine learning techniques has received great efforts in the last decide . In this ongoing work, we show how machine learning of graphical models will be able to infer a visualized causal interactions between different banks in the Saudi equities market. One important discovery from such learned causal graphs is how companies influence each other and to what extend. In this work, a set of graphical models named Gaussian graphical models with developed ensemble penalized feature selection methods that combine ; filtering method, wrapper method and a regularizer will be shown. A comparison between these different developed ensemble combinations will also be shown. The best ensemble method will be used to infer the causal relationships between banks in Saudi equities market.

Keywords: Causal interactions , banks, feature selection, regularizere,

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1828 Evaluation of Ensemble Classifiers for Intrusion Detection

Authors: M. Govindarajan

Abstract:

One of the major developments in machine learning in the past decade is the ensemble method, which finds highly accurate classifier by combining many moderately accurate component classifiers. In this research work, new ensemble classification methods are proposed with homogeneous ensemble classifier using bagging and heterogeneous ensemble classifier using arcing and their performances are analyzed in terms of accuracy. A Classifier ensemble is designed using Radial Basis Function (RBF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) as base classifiers. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by the means of standard datasets of intrusion detection. The main originality of the proposed approach is based on three main parts: preprocessing phase, classification phase, and combining phase. A wide range of comparative experiments is conducted for standard datasets of intrusion detection. The performance of the proposed homogeneous and heterogeneous ensemble classifiers are compared to the performance of other standard homogeneous and heterogeneous ensemble methods. The standard homogeneous ensemble methods include Error correcting output codes, Dagging and heterogeneous ensemble methods include majority voting, stacking. The proposed ensemble methods provide significant improvement of accuracy compared to individual classifiers and the proposed bagged RBF and SVM performs significantly better than ECOC and Dagging and the proposed hybrid RBF-SVM performs significantly better than voting and stacking. Also heterogeneous models exhibit better results than homogeneous models for standard datasets of intrusion detection. 

Keywords: Data mining, ensemble, radial basis function, support vector machine, accuracy.

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1827 Application of Machine Learning Methods to Online Test Error Detection in Semiconductor Test

Authors: Matthias Kirmse, Uwe Petersohn, Elief Paffrath

Abstract:

As in today's semiconductor industries test costs can make up to 50 percent of the total production costs, an efficient test error detection becomes more and more important. In this paper, we present a new machine learning approach to test error detection that should provide a faster recognition of test system faults as well as an improved test error recall. The key idea is to learn a classifier ensemble, detecting typical test error patterns in wafer test results immediately after finishing these tests. Since test error detection has not yet been discussed in the machine learning community, we define central problem-relevant terms and provide an analysis of important domain properties. Finally, we present comparative studies reflecting the failure detection performance of three individual classifiers and three ensemble methods based upon them. As base classifiers we chose a decision tree learner, a support vector machine and a Bayesian network, while the compared ensemble methods were simple and weighted majority vote as well as stacking. For the evaluation, we used cross validation and a specially designed practical simulation. By implementing our approach in a semiconductor test department for the observation of two products, we proofed its practical applicability.

Keywords: Ensemble methods, fault detection, machine learning, semiconductor test.

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1826 A Review and Comparative Analysis on Cluster Ensemble Methods

Authors: S. Sarumathi, P. Ranjetha, C. Saraswathy, M. Vaishnavi, S. Geetha

Abstract:

Clustering is an unsupervised learning technique for aggregating data objects into meaningful classes so that intra cluster similarity is maximized and inter cluster similarity is minimized in data mining. However, no single clustering algorithm proves to be the most effective in producing the best result. As a result, a new challenging technique known as the cluster ensemble approach has blossomed in order to determine the solution to this problem. For the cluster analysis issue, this new technique is a successful approach. The cluster ensemble's main goal is to combine similar clustering solutions in a way that achieves the precision while also improving the quality of individual data clustering. Because of the massive and rapid creation of new approaches in the field of data mining, the ongoing interest in inventing novel algorithms necessitates a thorough examination of current techniques and future innovation. This paper presents a comparative analysis of various cluster ensemble approaches, including their methodologies, formal working process, and standard accuracy and error rates. As a result, the society of clustering practitioners will benefit from this exploratory and clear research, which will aid in determining the most appropriate solution to the problem at hand.

Keywords: Clustering, cluster ensemble methods, consensus function, data mining, unsupervised learning.

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1825 Analysis of Diverse Cluster Ensemble Techniques

Authors: S. Sarumathi, N. Shanthi, P. Ranjetha

Abstract:

Data mining is the procedure of determining interesting patterns from the huge amount of data. With the intention of accessing the data faster the most supporting processes needed is clustering. Clustering is the process of identifying similarity between data according to the individuality present in the data and grouping associated data objects into clusters. Cluster ensemble is the technique to combine various runs of different clustering algorithms to obtain a general partition of the original dataset, aiming for consolidation of outcomes from a collection of individual clustering outcomes. The performances of clustering ensembles are mainly affecting by two principal factors such as diversity and quality. This paper presents the overview about the different cluster ensemble algorithm along with their methods used in cluster ensemble to improve the diversity and quality in the several cluster ensemble related papers and shows the comparative analysis of different cluster ensemble also summarize various cluster ensemble methods. Henceforth this clear analysis will be very useful for the world of clustering experts and also helps in deciding the most appropriate one to determine the problem in hand.

Keywords: Cluster Ensemble, Consensus Function, CSPA, Diversity, HGPA, MCLA.

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1824 Rank-Based Chain-Mode Ensemble for Binary Classification

Authors: Chongya Song, Kang Yen, Alexander Pons, Jin Liu

Abstract:

In the field of machine learning, the ensemble has been employed as a common methodology to improve the performance upon multiple base classifiers. However, the true predictions are often canceled out by the false ones during consensus due to a phenomenon called “curse of correlation” which is represented as the strong interferences among the predictions produced by the base classifiers. In addition, the existing practices are still not able to effectively mitigate the problem of imbalanced classification. Based on the analysis on our experiment results, we conclude that the two problems are caused by some inherent deficiencies in the approach of consensus. Therefore, we create an enhanced ensemble algorithm which adopts a designed rank-based chain-mode consensus to overcome the two problems. In order to evaluate the proposed ensemble algorithm, we employ a well-known benchmark data set NSL-KDD (the improved version of dataset KDDCup99 produced by University of New Brunswick) to make comparisons between the proposed and 8 common ensemble algorithms. Particularly, each compared ensemble classifier uses the same 22 base classifiers, so that the differences in terms of the improvements toward the accuracy and reliability upon the base classifiers can be truly revealed. As a result, the proposed rank-based chain-mode consensus is proved to be a more effective ensemble solution than the traditional consensus approach, which outperforms the 8 ensemble algorithms by 20% on almost all compared metrices which include accuracy, precision, recall, F1-score and area under receiver operating characteristic curve.

Keywords: Consensus, curse of correlation, imbalanced classification, rank-based chain-mode ensemble.

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1823 A Review: Comparative Analysis of Different Categorical Data Clustering Ensemble Methods

Authors: S. Sarumathi, N. Shanthi, M. Sharmila

Abstract:

Over the past epoch a rampant amount of work has been done in the data clustering research under the unsupervised learning technique in Data mining. Furthermore several algorithms and methods have been proposed focusing on clustering different data types, representation of cluster models, and accuracy rates of the clusters. However no single clustering algorithm proves to be the most efficient in providing best results. Accordingly in order to find the solution to this issue a new technique, called Cluster ensemble method was bloomed. This cluster ensemble is a good alternative approach for facing the cluster analysis problem. The main hope of the cluster ensemble is to merge different clustering solutions in such a way to achieve accuracy and to improve the quality of individual data clustering. Due to the substantial and unremitting development of new methods in the sphere of data mining and also the incessant interest in inventing new algorithms, makes obligatory to scrutinize a critical analysis of the existing techniques and the future novelty. This paper exposes the comparative study of different cluster ensemble methods along with their features, systematic working process and the average accuracy and error rates of each ensemble methods. Consequently this speculative and comprehensive analysis will be very useful for the community of clustering practitioners and also helps in deciding the most suitable one to rectify the problem in hand.

Keywords: Clustering, Cluster Ensemble methods, Co-association matrix, Consensus function, Median partition.

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1822 Combining Bagging and Boosting

Authors: S. B. Kotsiantis, P. E. Pintelas

Abstract:

Bagging and boosting are among the most popular resampling ensemble methods that generate and combine a diversity of classifiers using the same learning algorithm for the base-classifiers. Boosting algorithms are considered stronger than bagging on noisefree data. However, there are strong empirical indications that bagging is much more robust than boosting in noisy settings. For this reason, in this work we built an ensemble using a voting methodology of bagging and boosting ensembles with 10 subclassifiers in each one. We performed a comparison with simple bagging and boosting ensembles with 25 sub-classifiers, as well as other well known combining methods, on standard benchmark datasets and the proposed technique was the most accurate.

Keywords: data mining, machine learning, pattern recognition.

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1821 The Application of an Ensemble of Boosted Elman Networks to Time Series Prediction: A Benchmark Study

Authors: Chee Peng Lim, Wei Yee Goh

Abstract:

In this paper, the application of multiple Elman neural networks to time series data regression problems is studied. An ensemble of Elman networks is formed by boosting to enhance the performance of the individual networks. A modified version of the AdaBoost algorithm is employed to integrate the predictions from multiple networks. Two benchmark time series data sets, i.e., the Sunspot and Box-Jenkins gas furnace problems, are used to assess the effectiveness of the proposed system. The simulation results reveal that an ensemble of boosted Elman networks can achieve a higher degree of generalization as well as performance than that of the individual networks. The results are compared with those from other learning systems, and implications of the performance are discussed.

Keywords: AdaBoost, Elman network, neural network ensemble, time series regression.

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1820 Meta Random Forests

Authors: Praveen Boinee, Alessandro De Angelis, Gian Luca Foresti

Abstract:

Leo Breimans Random Forests (RF) is a recent development in tree based classifiers and quickly proven to be one of the most important algorithms in the machine learning literature. It has shown robust and improved results of classifications on standard data sets. Ensemble learning algorithms such as AdaBoost and Bagging have been in active research and shown improvements in classification results for several benchmarking data sets with mainly decision trees as their base classifiers. In this paper we experiment to apply these Meta learning techniques to the random forests. We experiment the working of the ensembles of random forests on the standard data sets available in UCI data sets. We compare the original random forest algorithm with their ensemble counterparts and discuss the results.

Keywords: Random Forests [RF], ensembles, UCI.

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1819 Clinical Decision Support for Disease Classification based on the Tests Association

Authors: Sung Ho Ha, Seong Hyeon Joo, Eun Kyung Kwon

Abstract:

Until recently, researchers have developed various tools and methodologies for effective clinical decision-making. Among those decisions, chest pain diseases have been one of important diagnostic issues especially in an emergency department. To improve the ability of physicians in diagnosis, many researchers have developed diagnosis intelligence by using machine learning and data mining. However, most of the conventional methodologies have been generally based on a single classifier for disease classification and prediction, which shows moderate performance. This study utilizes an ensemble strategy to combine multiple different classifiers to help physicians diagnose chest pain diseases more accurately than ever. Specifically the ensemble strategy is applied by using the integration of decision trees, neural networks, and support vector machines. The ensemble models are applied to real-world emergency data. This study shows that the performance of the ensemble models is superior to each of single classifiers.

Keywords: Diagnosis intelligence, ensemble approach, data mining, emergency department

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1818 A Comprehensive Review on Different Mixed Data Clustering Ensemble Methods

Authors: S. Sarumathi, N. Shanthi, S. Vidhya, M. Sharmila

Abstract:

An extensive amount of work has been done in data clustering research under the unsupervised learning technique in Data Mining during the past two decades. Moreover, several approaches and methods have been emerged focusing on clustering diverse data types, features of cluster models and similarity rates of clusters. However, none of the single clustering algorithm exemplifies its best nature in extracting efficient clusters. Consequently, in order to rectify this issue, a new challenging technique called Cluster Ensemble method was bloomed. This new approach tends to be the alternative method for the cluster analysis problem. The main objective of the Cluster Ensemble is to aggregate the diverse clustering solutions in such a way to attain accuracy and also to improve the eminence the individual clustering algorithms. Due to the massive and rapid development of new methods in the globe of data mining, it is highly mandatory to scrutinize a vital analysis of existing techniques and the future novelty. This paper shows the comparative analysis of different cluster ensemble methods along with their methodologies and salient features. Henceforth this unambiguous analysis will be very useful for the society of clustering experts and also helps in deciding the most appropriate one to resolve the problem in hand.

Keywords: Clustering, Cluster Ensemble Methods, Coassociation matrix, Consensus Function, Median Partition.

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1817 Design of an Ensemble Learning Behavior Anomaly Detection Framework

Authors: Abdoulaye Diop, Nahid Emad, Thierry Winter, Mohamed Hilia

Abstract:

Data assets protection is a crucial issue in the cybersecurity field. Companies use logical access control tools to vault their information assets and protect them against external threats, but they lack solutions to counter insider threats. Nowadays, insider threats are the most significant concern of security analysts. They are mainly individuals with legitimate access to companies information systems, which use their rights with malicious intents. In several fields, behavior anomaly detection is the method used by cyber specialists to counter the threats of user malicious activities effectively. In this paper, we present the step toward the construction of a user and entity behavior analysis framework by proposing a behavior anomaly detection model. This model combines machine learning classification techniques and graph-based methods, relying on linear algebra and parallel computing techniques. We show the utility of an ensemble learning approach in this context. We present some detection methods tests results on an representative access control dataset. The use of some explored classifiers gives results up to 99% of accuracy.

Keywords: Cybersecurity, data protection, access control, insider threat, user behavior analysis, ensemble learning, high performance computing.

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1816 Activity Recognition by Smartphone Accelerometer Data Using Ensemble Learning Methods

Authors: Eu Tteum Ha, Kwang Ryel Ryu

Abstract:

As smartphones are equipped with various sensors, there have been many studies focused on using these sensors to create valuable applications. Human activity recognition is one such application motivated by various welfare applications, such as the support for the elderly, measurement of calorie consumption, lifestyle and exercise patterns analyses, and so on. One of the challenges one faces when using smartphone sensors for activity recognition is that the number of sensors should be minimized to save battery power. In this paper, we show that a fairly accurate classifier can be built that can distinguish ten different activities by using only a single sensor data, i.e., the smartphone accelerometer data. The approach that we adopt to deal with this twelve-class problem uses various methods. The features used for classifying these activities include not only the magnitude of acceleration vector at each time point, but also the maximum, the minimum, and the standard deviation of vector magnitude within a time window. The experiments compared the performance of four kinds of basic multi-class classifiers and the performance of four kinds of ensemble learning methods based on three kinds of basic multi-class classifiers. The results show that while the method with the highest accuracy is ECOC based on Random forest.

Keywords: Ensemble learning, activity recognition, smartphone accelerometer.

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1815 Ensembling Classifiers – An Application toImage Data Classification from Cherenkov Telescope Experiment

Authors: Praveen Boinee, Alessandro De Angelis, Gian Luca Foresti

Abstract:

Ensemble learning algorithms such as AdaBoost and Bagging have been in active research and shown improvements in classification results for several benchmarking data sets with mainly decision trees as their base classifiers. In this paper we experiment to apply these Meta learning techniques with classifiers such as random forests, neural networks and support vector machines. The data sets are from MAGIC, a Cherenkov telescope experiment. The task is to classify gamma signals from overwhelmingly hadron and muon signals representing a rare class classification problem. We compare the individual classifiers with their ensemble counterparts and discuss the results. WEKA a wonderful tool for machine learning has been used for making the experiments.

Keywords: Ensembles, WEKA, Neural networks [NN], SupportVector Machines [SVM], Random Forests [RF].

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1814 Forecasting Fraudulent Financial Statements using Data Mining

Authors: S. Kotsiantis, E. Koumanakos, D. Tzelepis, V. Tampakas

Abstract:

This paper explores the effectiveness of machine learning techniques in detecting firms that issue fraudulent financial statements (FFS) and deals with the identification of factors associated to FFS. To this end, a number of experiments have been conducted using representative learning algorithms, which were trained using a data set of 164 fraud and non-fraud Greek firms in the recent period 2001-2002. The decision of which particular method to choose is a complicated problem. A good alternative to choosing only one method is to create a hybrid forecasting system incorporating a number of possible solution methods as components (an ensemble of classifiers). For this purpose, we have implemented a hybrid decision support system that combines the representative algorithms using a stacking variant methodology and achieves better performance than any examined simple and ensemble method. To sum up, this study indicates that the investigation of financial information can be used in the identification of FFS and underline the importance of financial ratios.

Keywords: Machine learning, stacking, classifier.

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1813 Judges System for Classifiers Specialization

Authors: Abdel Rodríguez, Isis Bonet, Ricardo Grau, María M. García

Abstract:

In this paper we designed and implemented a new ensemble of classifiers based on a sequence of classifiers which were specialized in regions of the training dataset where errors of its trained homologous are concentrated. In order to separate this regions, and to determine the aptitude of each classifier to properly respond to a new case, it was used another set of classifiers built hierarchically. We explored a selection based variant to combine the base classifiers. We validated this model with different base classifiers using 37 training datasets. It was carried out a statistical comparison of these models with the well known Bagging and Boosting, obtaining significantly superior results with the hierarchical ensemble using Multilayer Perceptron as base classifier. Therefore, we demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed ensemble, as well as its applicability to general problems.

Keywords: classifiers, delegation, ensemble

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1812 Neural Network Ensemble-based Solar Power Generation Short-Term Forecasting

Authors: A. Chaouachi, R.M. Kamel, R. Ichikawa, H. Hayashi, K. Nagasaka

Abstract:

This paper presents the applicability of artificial neural networks for 24 hour ahead solar power generation forecasting of a 20 kW photovoltaic system, the developed forecasting is suitable for a reliable Microgrid energy management. In total four neural networks were proposed, namely: multi-layred perceptron, radial basis function, recurrent and a neural network ensemble consisting in ensemble of bagged networks. Forecasting reliability of the proposed neural networks was carried out in terms forecasting error performance basing on statistical and graphical methods. The experimental results showed that all the proposed networks achieved an acceptable forecasting accuracy. In term of comparison the neural network ensemble gives the highest precision forecasting comparing to the conventional networks. In fact, each network of the ensemble over-fits to some extent and leads to a diversity which enhances the noise tolerance and the forecasting generalization performance comparing to the conventional networks.

Keywords: Neural network ensemble, Solar power generation, 24 hour forecasting, Comparative study

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1811 Impovement of a Label Extraction Method for a Risk Search System

Authors: Shigeaki Sakurai, Ryohei Orihara

Abstract:

This paper proposes an improvement method of classification efficiency in a classification model. The model is used in a risk search system and extracts specific labels from articles posted at bulletin board sites. The system can analyze the important discussions composed of the articles. The improvement method introduces ensemble learning methods that use multiple classification models. Also, it introduces expressions related to the specific labels into generation of word vectors. The paper applies the improvement method to articles collected from three bulletin board sites selected by users and verifies the effectiveness of the improvement method.

Keywords: Text mining, Risk search system, Corporate reputation, Bulletin board site, Ensemble learning

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1810 An ensemble of Weighted Support Vector Machines for Ordinal Regression

Authors: Willem Waegeman, Luc Boullart

Abstract:

Instead of traditional (nominal) classification we investigate the subject of ordinal classification or ranking. An enhanced method based on an ensemble of Support Vector Machines (SVM-s) is proposed. Each binary classifier is trained with specific weights for each object in the training data set. Experiments on benchmark datasets and synthetic data indicate that the performance of our approach is comparable to state of the art kernel methods for ordinal regression. The ensemble method, which is straightforward to implement, provides a very good sensitivity-specificity trade-off for the highest and lowest rank.

Keywords: Ordinal regression, support vector machines, ensemblelearning.

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1809 Developing of Thai Classical Music Ensemble in Rattanakosin Period

Authors: Pansak Vandee

Abstract:

The research titled “Developing of Thai Classical Music Ensemble in Rattanakosin Period" aimed 1) to study the history of Thai Classical Music Ensemble in Rattanakosin Period and 2) to analyze changing in each period of Rattanakosin Era. This is the historical and documentary research. The data was collected by in-depth interview those musicians, and academic music experts and field study. The focus group discussion was conducted to analyze and conclude the findings. The research found that the history of Thai Classical Music Ensemble in Rattanakosin Period derived from the Ayutthaya period. Thai classical music ensemble consisted of “Wong Pipat", “Wong Mahori", “Wong Kreang Sai". “Wong Kubmai", “Wong Krongkak", “Brass Band", and “Kan Band" which were used to ceremony, ritual, drama, performs and entertainment. Changed of the Thai music in the early Rattanakosin Period were passed from the Ayutthaya Period and the influence of the western civilization. New Band formed in Thai Music were “Orchestra" and “Contemporary Band". The role of Thai music was changed from the ceremonial rituals to entertainment. Development of the Thai music during the reign of King Rama 1 to King Rama 7, was improved from the court. But after the revolution, the musical patronage of the court was maintained by the Government. Thai Classical Music Ensemble were performed to be standard pattern.

Keywords: Development, Rattanakosin Period, Thai Classical Music Ensemble.

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1808 Bayesian Online Learning of Corresponding Points of Objects with Sequential Monte Carlo

Authors: Miika Toivanen, Jouko Lampinen

Abstract:

This paper presents an online method that learns the corresponding points of an object from un-annotated grayscale images containing instances of the object. In the first image being processed, an ensemble of node points is automatically selected which is matched in the subsequent images. A Bayesian posterior distribution for the locations of the nodes in the images is formed. The likelihood is formed from Gabor responses and the prior assumes the mean shape of the node ensemble to be similar in a translation and scale free space. An association model is applied for separating the object nodes and background nodes. The posterior distribution is sampled with Sequential Monte Carlo method. The matched object nodes are inferred to be the corresponding points of the object instances. The results show that our system matches the object nodes as accurately as other methods that train the model with annotated training images.

Keywords: Bayesian modeling, Gabor filters, Online learning, Sequential Monte Carlo.

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1807 Lipschitz Classifiers Ensembles: Usage for Classification of Target Events in C-OTDR Monitoring Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev

Abstract:

This paper introduces an original method for guaranteed estimation of the accuracy for an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers. The solution was obtained as a finite closed set of alternative hypotheses, which contains an object of classification with probability of not less than the specified value. Thus, the classification is represented by a set of hypothetical classes. In this case, the smaller the cardinality of the discrete set of hypothetical classes is, the higher is the classification accuracy. Experiments have shown that if cardinality of the classifiers ensemble is increased then the cardinality of this set of hypothetical classes is reduced. The problem of the guaranteed estimation of the accuracy for an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers is relevant in multichannel classification of target events in C-OTDR monitoring systems. Results of suggested approach practical usage to accuracy control in C-OTDR monitoring systems are present.

Keywords: Lipschitz classifiers, confidence set, C-OTDR monitoring, classifiers accuracy, classifiers ensemble.

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1806 Prediction of Research Topics Using Ensemble of Best Predictors from Similar Dataset

Authors: Indra Budi, Rizal Fathoni Aji, Agus Widodo

Abstract:

Prediction of future research topics by using time series analysis either statistical or machine learning has been conducted previously by several researchers. Several methods have been proposed to combine the forecasting results into single forecast. These methods use fixed combination of individual forecast to get the final forecast result. In this paper, quite different approach is employed to select the forecasting methods, in which every point to forecast is calculated by using the best methods used by similar validation dataset. The dataset used in the experiment is time series derived from research report in Garuda, which is an online sites belongs to the Ministry of Education in Indonesia, over the past 20 years. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed method may perform better compared to the fix combination of predictors. In addition, based on the prediction result, we can forecast emerging research topics for the next few years.

Keywords: Combination, emerging topics, ensemble, forecasting, machine learning, prediction, research topics, similarity measure, time series.

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1805 Breast Cancer Survivability Prediction via Classifier Ensemble

Authors: Mohamed Al-Badrashiny, Abdelghani Bellaachia

Abstract:

This paper presents a classifier ensemble approach for predicting the survivability of the breast cancer patients using the latest database version of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute. The system consists of two main components; features selection and classifier ensemble components. The features selection component divides the features in SEER database into four groups. After that it tries to find the most important features among the four groups that maximizes the weighted average F-score of a certain classification algorithm. The ensemble component uses three different classifiers, each of which models different set of features from SEER through the features selection module. On top of them, another classifier is used to give the final decision based on the output decisions and confidence scores from each of the underlying classifiers. Different classification algorithms have been examined; the best setup found is by using the decision tree, Bayesian network, and Na¨ıve Bayes algorithms for the underlying classifiers and Na¨ıve Bayes for the classifier ensemble step. The system outperforms all published systems to date when evaluated against the exact same data of SEER (period of 1973-2002). It gives 87.39% weighted average F-score compared to 85.82% and 81.34% of the other published systems. By increasing the data size to cover the whole database (period of 1973-2014), the overall weighted average F-score jumps to 92.4% on the held out unseen test set.

Keywords: Classifier ensemble, breast cancer survivability, data mining, SEER.

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1804 A Dataset of Program Educational Objectives Mapped to ABET Outcomes: Data Cleansing, Exploratory Data Analysis and Modeling

Authors: Addin Osman, Anwar Ali Yahya, Mohammed Basit Kamal

Abstract:

Datasets or collections are becoming important assets by themselves and now they can be accepted as a primary intellectual output of a research. The quality and usage of the datasets depend mainly on the context under which they have been collected, processed, analyzed, validated, and interpreted. This paper aims to present a collection of program educational objectives mapped to student’s outcomes collected from self-study reports prepared by 32 engineering programs accredited by ABET. The manual mapping (classification) of this data is a notoriously tedious, time consuming process. In addition, it requires experts in the area, which are mostly not available. It has been shown the operational settings under which the collection has been produced. The collection has been cleansed, preprocessed, some features have been selected and preliminary exploratory data analysis has been performed so as to illustrate the properties and usefulness of the collection. At the end, the collection has been benchmarked using nine of the most widely used supervised multiclass classification techniques (Binary Relevance, Label Powerset, Classifier Chains, Pruned Sets, Random k-label sets, Ensemble of Classifier Chains, Ensemble of Pruned Sets, Multi-Label k-Nearest Neighbors and Back-Propagation Multi-Label Learning). The techniques have been compared to each other using five well-known measurements (Accuracy, Hamming Loss, Micro-F, Macro-F, and Macro-F). The Ensemble of Classifier Chains and Ensemble of Pruned Sets have achieved encouraging performance compared to other experimented multi-label classification methods. The Classifier Chains method has shown the worst performance. To recap, the benchmark has achieved promising results by utilizing preliminary exploratory data analysis performed on the collection, proposing new trends for research and providing a baseline for future studies.

Keywords: Benchmark collection, program educational objectives, student outcomes, ABET, Accreditation, machine learning, supervised multiclass classification, text mining.

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1803 Comparative Evaluation of Accuracy of Selected Machine Learning Classification Techniques for Diagnosis of Cancer: A Data Mining Approach

Authors: Rajvir Kaur, Jeewani Anupama Ginige

Abstract:

With recent trends in Big Data and advancements in Information and Communication Technologies, the healthcare industry is at the stage of its transition from clinician oriented to technology oriented. Many people around the world die of cancer because the diagnosis of disease was not done at an early stage. Nowadays, the computational methods in the form of Machine Learning (ML) are used to develop automated decision support systems that can diagnose cancer with high confidence in a timely manner. This paper aims to carry out the comparative evaluation of a selected set of ML classifiers on two existing datasets: breast cancer and cervical cancer. The ML classifiers compared in this study are Decision Tree (DT), Support Vector Machine (SVM), k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), Logistic Regression, Ensemble (Bagged Tree) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The evaluation is carried out based on standard evaluation metrics Precision (P), Recall (R), F1-score and Accuracy. The experimental results based on the evaluation metrics show that ANN showed the highest-level accuracy (99.4%) when tested with breast cancer dataset. On the other hand, when these ML classifiers are tested with the cervical cancer dataset, Ensemble (Bagged Tree) technique gave better accuracy (93.1%) in comparison to other classifiers.

Keywords: Artificial neural networks, breast cancer, cancer dataset, classifiers, cervical cancer, F-score, logistic regression, machine learning, precision, recall, support vector machine.

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