Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 316

Search results for: Bayes classifier.

316 Comparing SVM and Naïve Bayes Classifier for Automatic Microaneurysm Detections

Authors: A. Sopharak, B. Uyyanonvara, S. Barman

Abstract:

Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by the development of retinal microaneurysms. The damage can be prevented if disease is treated in its early stages. In this paper, we are comparing Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Naïve Bayes (NB) classifiers for automatic microaneurysm detection in images acquired through non-dilated pupils. The Nearest Neighbor classifier is used as a baseline for comparison. Detected microaneurysms are validated with expert ophthalmologists’ hand-drawn ground-truths. The sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy of each method are also compared.

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, microaneurysm, Naïve Bayes classifier, SVM classifier.

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315 An Experimental Study of a Self-Supervised Classifier Ensemble

Authors: Neamat El Gayar

Abstract:

Learning using labeled and unlabelled data has received considerable amount of attention in the machine learning community due its potential in reducing the need for expensive labeled data. In this work we present a new method for combining labeled and unlabeled data based on classifier ensembles. The model we propose assumes each classifier in the ensemble observes the input using different set of features. Classifiers are initially trained using some labeled samples. The trained classifiers learn further through labeling the unknown patterns using a teaching signals that is generated using the decision of the classifier ensemble, i.e. the classifiers self-supervise each other. Experiments on a set of object images are presented. Our experiments investigate different classifier models, different fusing techniques, different training sizes and different input features. Experimental results reveal that the proposed self-supervised ensemble learning approach reduces classification error over the single classifier and the traditional ensemble classifier approachs.

Keywords: Multiple Classifier Systems, classifier ensembles, learning using labeled and unlabelled data, K-nearest neighbor classifier, Bayes classifier.

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314 DWT Based Image Steganalysis

Authors: Indradip Banerjee, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

‘Steganalysis’ is one of the challenging and attractive interests for the researchers with the development of information hiding techniques. It is the procedure to detect the hidden information from the stego created by known steganographic algorithm. In this paper, a novel feature based image steganalysis technique is proposed. Various statistical moments have been used along with some similarity metric. The proposed steganalysis technique has been designed based on transformation in four wavelet domains, which include Haar, Daubechies, Symlets and Biorthogonal. Each domain is being subjected to various classifiers, namely K-nearest-neighbor, K* Classifier, Locally weighted learning, Naive Bayes classifier, Neural networks, Decision trees and Support vector machines. The experiments are performed on a large set of pictures which are available freely in image database. The system also predicts the different message length definitions.

Keywords: Steganalysis, Moments, Wavelet Domain, KNN, K*, LWL, Naive Bayes Classifier, Neural networks, Decision trees, SVM.

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313 Breast Cancer Survivability Prediction via Classifier Ensemble

Authors: Mohamed Al-Badrashiny, Abdelghani Bellaachia

Abstract:

This paper presents a classifier ensemble approach for predicting the survivability of the breast cancer patients using the latest database version of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute. The system consists of two main components; features selection and classifier ensemble components. The features selection component divides the features in SEER database into four groups. After that it tries to find the most important features among the four groups that maximizes the weighted average F-score of a certain classification algorithm. The ensemble component uses three different classifiers, each of which models different set of features from SEER through the features selection module. On top of them, another classifier is used to give the final decision based on the output decisions and confidence scores from each of the underlying classifiers. Different classification algorithms have been examined; the best setup found is by using the decision tree, Bayesian network, and Na¨ıve Bayes algorithms for the underlying classifiers and Na¨ıve Bayes for the classifier ensemble step. The system outperforms all published systems to date when evaluated against the exact same data of SEER (period of 1973-2002). It gives 87.39% weighted average F-score compared to 85.82% and 81.34% of the other published systems. By increasing the data size to cover the whole database (period of 1973-2014), the overall weighted average F-score jumps to 92.4% on the held out unseen test set.

Keywords: Classifier ensemble, breast cancer survivability, data mining, SEER.

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312 Bayes Net Classifiers for Prediction of Renal Graft Status and Survival Period

Authors: Jiakai Li, Gursel Serpen, Steven Selman, Matt Franchetti, Mike Riesen, Cynthia Schneider

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a Bayesian belief network classifier for prediction of graft status and survival period in renal transplantation using the patient profile information prior to the transplantation. The objective was to explore feasibility of developing a decision making tool for identifying the most suitable recipient among the candidate pool members. The dataset was compiled from the University of Toledo Medical Center Hospital patients as reported to the United Network Organ Sharing, and had 1228 patient records for the period covering 1987 through 2009. The Bayes net classifiers were developed using the Weka machine learning software workbench. Two separate classifiers were induced from the data set, one to predict the status of the graft as either failed or living, and a second classifier to predict the graft survival period. The classifier for graft status prediction performed very well with a prediction accuracy of 97.8% and true positive values of 0.967 and 0.988 for the living and failed classes, respectively. The second classifier to predict the graft survival period yielded a prediction accuracy of 68.2% and a true positive rate of 0.85 for the class representing those instances with kidneys failing during the first year following transplantation. Simulation results indicated that it is feasible to develop a successful Bayesian belief network classifier for prediction of graft status, but not the graft survival period, using the information in UNOS database.

Keywords: Bayesian network classifier, renal transplantation, graft survival period, United Network for Organ Sharing

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311 Modified Naïve Bayes Based Prediction Modeling for Crop Yield Prediction

Authors: Kefaya Qaddoum

Abstract:

Most of greenhouse growers desire a determined amount of yields in order to accurately meet market requirements. The purpose of this paper is to model a simple but often satisfactory supervised classification method. The original naive Bayes have a serious weakness, which is producing redundant predictors. In this paper, utilized regularization technique was used to obtain a computationally efficient classifier based on naive Bayes. The suggested construction, utilized L1-penalty, is capable of clearing redundant predictors, where a modification of the LARS algorithm is devised to solve this problem, making this method applicable to a wide range of data. In the experimental section, a study conducted to examine the effect of redundant and irrelevant predictors, and test the method on WSG data set for tomato yields, where there are many more predictors than data, and the urge need to predict weekly yield is the goal of this approach. Finally, the modified approach is compared with several naive Bayes variants and other classification algorithms (SVM and kNN), and is shown to be fairly good.

Keywords: Tomato yields prediction, naive Bayes, redundancy

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310 Performance Comparison of ADTree and Naive Bayes Algorithms for Spam Filtering

Authors: Thanh Nguyen, Andrei Doncescu, Pierre Siegel

Abstract:

Classification is an important data mining technique and could be used as data filtering in artificial intelligence. The broad application of classification for all kind of data leads to be used in nearly every field of our modern life. Classification helps us to put together different items according to the feature items decided as interesting and useful. In this paper, we compare two classification methods Naïve Bayes and ADTree use to detect spam e-mail. This choice is motivated by the fact that Naive Bayes algorithm is based on probability calculus while ADTree algorithm is based on decision tree. The parameter settings of the above classifiers use the maximization of true positive rate and minimization of false positive rate. The experiment results present classification accuracy and cost analysis in view of optimal classifier choice for Spam Detection. It is point out the number of attributes to obtain a tradeoff between number of them and the classification accuracy.

Keywords: Classification, data mining, spam filtering, naive Bayes, decision tree.

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309 Predicting Application Layer DDoS Attacks Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: S. Umarani, D. Sharmila

Abstract:

A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is a major threat to cyber security. It originates from the network layer or the application layer of compromised/attacker systems which are connected to the network. The impact of this attack ranges from the simple inconvenience to use a particular service to causing major failures at the targeted server. When there is heavy traffic flow to a target server, it is necessary to classify the legitimate access and attacks. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to detect DDoS attacks from the traces of traffic flow. An access matrix is created from the traces. As the access matrix is multi dimensional, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the attributes used for detection. Two classifiers Naive Bayes and K-Nearest neighborhood are used to classify the traffic as normal or abnormal. The performance of the classifier with PCA selected attributes and actual attributes of access matrix is compared by the detection rate and False Positive Rate (FPR).

Keywords: Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack, Application layer DDoS, DDoS Detection, K- Nearest neighborhood classifier, Naive Bayes Classifier, Principle Component Analysis.

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308 SVM Based Model as an Optimal Classifier for the Classification of Sonar Signals

Authors: Suresh S. Salankar, Balasaheb M. Patre

Abstract:

Research into the problem of classification of sonar signals has been taken up as a challenging task for the neural networks. This paper investigates the design of an optimal classifier using a Multi layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP NN) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). Results obtained using sonar data sets suggest that SVM classifier perform well in comparison with well-known MLP NN classifier. An average classification accuracy of 91.974% is achieved with SVM classifier and 90.3609% with MLP NN classifier, on the test instances. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve for the proposed SVM classifier on test data set is found as 0.981183, which is very close to unity and this clearly confirms the excellent quality of the proposed classifier. The SVM classifier employed in this paper is implemented using kernel Adatron algorithm is seen to be robust and relatively insensitive to the parameter initialization in comparison to MLP NN.

Keywords: Classification, MLP NN, backpropagation algorithm, SVM, Receiver Operating Characteristics.

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307 Improving Classification in Bayesian Networks using Structural Learning

Authors: Hong Choon Ong

Abstract:

Naïve Bayes classifiers are simple probabilistic classifiers. Classification extracts patterns by using data file with a set of labeled training examples and is currently one of the most significant areas in data mining. However, Naïve Bayes assumes the independence among the features. Structural learning among the features thus helps in the classification problem. In this study, the use of structural learning in Bayesian Network is proposed to be applied where there are relationships between the features when using the Naïve Bayes. The improvement in the classification using structural learning is shown if there exist relationship between the features or when they are not independent.

Keywords: Bayesian Network, Classification, Naïve Bayes, Structural Learning.

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306 Statistical Measures and Optimization Algorithms for Gene Selection in Lung and Ovarian Tumor

Authors: C. Gunavathi, K. Premalatha

Abstract:

Microarray technology is universally used in the study of disease diagnosis using gene expression levels. The main shortcoming of gene expression data is that it includes thousands of genes and a small number of samples. Abundant methods and techniques have been proposed for tumor classification using microarray gene expression data. Feature or gene selection methods can be used to mine the genes that directly involve in the classification and to eliminate irrelevant genes. In this paper statistical measures like T-Statistics, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and F-Statistics are used to rank the genes. The ranked genes are used for further classification. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm and Shuffled Frog Leaping (SFL) algorithm are used to find the significant genes from the top-m ranked genes. The Naïve Bayes Classifier (NBC) is used to classify the samples based on the significant genes. The proposed work is applied on Lung and Ovarian datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves 100% accuracy in all the three datasets and the results are compared with previous works.

Keywords: Microarray, T-Statistics, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, FStatistics, Particle Swarm Optimization, Shuffled Frog Leaping, Naïve Bayes Classifier.

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305 On Best Estimation for Parameter Weibull Distribution

Authors: Hadeel Salim Alkutubi

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to introduce estimators to the parameters and survival function for Weibull distribution using three different methods, Maximum Likelihood estimation, Standard Bayes estimation and Modified Bayes estimation. We will then compared the three methods using simulation study to find the best one base on MPE and MSE.

Keywords: Maximum Likelihood estimation , Bayes estimation, Jeffery prior information, Simulation study

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304 Inferences on Compound Rayleigh Parameters with Progressively Type-II Censored Samples

Authors: Abdullah Y. Al-Hossain

Abstract:

This paper considers inference under progressive type II censoring with a compound Rayleigh failure time distribution. The maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayes methods are used for estimating the unknown parameters as well as some lifetime parameters, namely reliability and hazard functions. We obtained Bayes estimators using the conjugate priors for two shape and scale parameters. When the two parameters are unknown, the closed-form expressions of the Bayes estimators cannot be obtained. We use Lindley.s approximation to compute the Bayes estimates. Another Bayes estimator has been obtained based on continuous-discrete joint prior for the unknown parameters. An example with the real data is discussed to illustrate the proposed method. Finally, we made comparisons between these estimators and the maximum likelihood estimators using a Monte Carlo simulation study.

Keywords: Progressive type II censoring, compound Rayleigh failure time distribution, maximum likelihood estimation, Bayes estimation, Lindley's approximation method, Monte Carlo simulation.

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303 An Estimating Parameter of the Mean in Normal Distribution by Maximum Likelihood, Bayes, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods

Authors: Autcha Araveeporn

Abstract:

This paper is to compare the parameter estimation of the mean in normal distribution by Maximum Likelihood (ML), Bayes, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. The ML estimator is estimated by the average of data, the Bayes method is considered from the prior distribution to estimate Bayes estimator, and MCMC estimator is approximated by Gibbs sampling from posterior distribution. These methods are also to estimate a parameter then the hypothesis testing is used to check a robustness of the estimators. Data are simulated from normal distribution with the true parameter of mean 2, and variance 4, 9, and 16 when the sample sizes is set as 10, 20, 30, and 50. From the results, it can be seen that the estimation of MLE, and MCMC are perceivably different from the true parameter when the sample size is 10 and 20 with variance 16. Furthermore, the Bayes estimator is estimated from the prior distribution when mean is 1, and variance is 12 which showed the significant difference in mean with variance 9 at the sample size 10 and 20.

Keywords: Bayes method, Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, Maximum Likelihood method, normal distribution.

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302 Utilizing Innovative Techniques to Improve Email Security

Authors: Amany M. Alshawi, Khaled Alduhaiman

Abstract:

This paper proposes a technique to protect against email bombing. The technique employs a statistical approach, Naïve Bayes (NB), and Neural Networks to show that it is possible to differentiate between good and bad traffic to protect against email bombing attacks. Neural networks and Naïve Bayes can be trained by utilizing many email messages that include both input and output data for legitimate and non-legitimate emails. The input to the model includes the contents of the body of the messages, the subject, and the headers. This information will be used to determine if the email is normal or an attack email. Preliminary tests suggest that Naïve Bayes can be trained to produce an accurate response to confirm which email represents an attack.

Keywords: Email bombing, Legitimate email, Naïve Bayes, Neural networks, Non-legitimate email.

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301 Speaker Recognition Using LIRA Neural Networks

Authors: Nestor A. Garcia Fragoso, Tetyana Baydyk, Ernst Kussul

Abstract:

This article contains information from our investigation in the field of voice recognition. For this purpose, we created a voice database that contains different phrases in two languages, English and Spanish, for men and women. As a classifier, the LIRA (Limited Receptive Area) grayscale neural classifier was selected. The LIRA grayscale neural classifier was developed for image recognition tasks and demonstrated good results. Therefore, we decided to develop a recognition system using this classifier for voice recognition. From a specific set of speakers, we can recognize the speaker’s voice. For this purpose, the system uses spectrograms of the voice signals as input to the system, extracts the characteristics and identifies the speaker. The results are described and analyzed in this article. The classifier can be used for speaker identification in security system or smart buildings for different types of intelligent devices.

Keywords: Extreme learning, LIRA neural classifier, speaker identification, voice recognition.

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300 Relational Representation in XCSF

Authors: Mohammad Ali Tabarzad, Caro Lucas, Ali Hamzeh

Abstract:

Generalization is one of the most challenging issues of Learning Classifier Systems. This feature depends on the representation method which the system used. Considering the proposed representation schemes for Learning Classifier System, it can be concluded that many of them are designed to describe the shape of the region which the environmental states belong and the other relations of the environmental state with that region was ignored. In this paper, we propose a new representation scheme which is designed to show various relationships between the environmental state and the region that is specified with a particular classifier.

Keywords: Classifier Systems, Reinforcement Learning, Relational Representation, XCSF.

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299 Elimination Noise by Adaptive Wavelet Threshold

Authors: Iman Elyasi, Sadegh Zarmehi

Abstract:

Due to some reasons, observed images are degraded which are mainly caused by noise. Recently image denoising using the wavelet transform has been attracting much attention. Waveletbased approach provides a particularly useful method for image denoising when the preservation of edges in the scene is of importance because the local adaptivity is based explicitly on the values of the wavelet detail coefficients. In this paper, we propose several methods of noise removal from degraded images with Gaussian noise by using adaptive wavelet threshold (Bayes Shrink, Modified Bayes Shrink and Normal Shrink). The proposed thresholds are simple and adaptive to each subband because the parameters required for estimating the threshold depend on subband data. Experimental results show that the proposed thresholds remove noise significantly and preserve the edges in the scene.

Keywords: Image denoising, Bayes Shrink, Modified Bayes Shrink, Normal Shrink.

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298 Analysis of a Population of Diabetic Patients Databases with Classifiers

Authors: Murat Koklu, Yavuz Unal

Abstract:

Data mining can be called as a technique to extract information from data. It is the process of obtaining hidden information and then turning it into qualified knowledge by statistical and artificial intelligence technique. One of its application areas is medical area to form decision support systems for diagnosis just by inventing meaningful information from given medical data. In this study a decision support system for diagnosis of illness that make use of data mining and three different artificial intelligence classifier algorithms namely Multilayer Perceptron, Naive Bayes Classifier and J.48. Pima Indian dataset of UCI Machine Learning Repository was used. This dataset includes urinary and blood test results of 768 patients. These test results consist of 8 different feature vectors. Obtained classifying results were compared with the previous studies. The suggestions for future studies were presented.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Classifiers, Data Mining, Diabetic Patients.

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297 A New Approach for Flexible Document Categorization

Authors: Jebari Chaker, Ounelli Habib

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a new approach for flexible document categorization according to the document type or genre instead of topic. Our approach implements two homogenous classifiers: contextual classifier and logical classifier. The contextual classifier is based on the document URL, whereas, the logical classifier use the logical structure of the document to perform the categorization. The final categorization is obtained by combining contextual and logical categorizations. In our approach, each document is assigned to all predefined categories with different membership degrees. Our experiments demonstrate that our approach is best than other genre categorization approaches.

Keywords: Categorization, combination, flexible, logicalstructure, genre, category, URL.

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296 Feature-Driven Classification of Musical Styles

Authors: A. Buzzanca, G. Castellano, A.M. Fanelli

Abstract:

In this paper we address the problem of musical style classification, which has a number of applications like indexing in musical databases or automatic composition systems. Starting from MIDI files of real-world improvisations, we extract the melody track and cut it into overlapping segments of equal length. From these fragments, some numerical features are extracted as descriptors of style samples. We show that a standard Bayesian classifier can be conveniently employed to build an effective musical style classifier, once this set of features has been extracted from musical data. Preliminary experimental results show the effectiveness of the developed classifier that represents the first component of a musical audio retrieval system

Keywords: Musical style, Bayesian classifier.

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295 CBIR Using Multi-Resolution Transform for Brain Tumour Detection and Stages Identification

Authors: H. Benjamin Fredrick David, R. Balasubramanian, A. Anbarasa Pandian

Abstract:

Image retrieval is the most interesting technique which is being used today in our digital world. CBIR, commonly expanded as Content Based Image Retrieval is an image processing technique which identifies the relevant images and retrieves them based on the patterns that are extracted from the digital images. In this paper, two research works have been presented using CBIR. The first work provides an automated and interactive approach to the analysis of CBIR techniques. CBIR works on the principle of supervised machine learning which involves feature selection followed by training and testing phase applied on a classifier in order to perform prediction. By using feature extraction, the image transforms such as Contourlet, Ridgelet and Shearlet could be utilized to retrieve the texture features from the images. The features extracted are used to train and build a classifier using the classification algorithms such as Naïve Bayes, K-Nearest Neighbour and Multi-class Support Vector Machine. Further the testing phase involves prediction which predicts the new input image using the trained classifier and label them from one of the four classes namely 1- Normal brain, 2- Benign tumour, 3- Malignant tumour and 4- Severe tumour. The second research work includes developing a tool which is used for tumour stage identification using the best feature extraction and classifier identified from the first work. Finally, the tool will be used to predict tumour stage and provide suggestions based on the stage of tumour identified by the system. This paper presents these two approaches which is a contribution to the medical field for giving better retrieval performance and for tumour stages identification.

Keywords: Brain tumour detection, content based image retrieval, classification of tumours, image retrieval.

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294 A New Method of Combined Classifier Design Based on Fuzzy Neural Network

Authors: Kexin Jia, Youxin Lu

Abstract:

To make the modulation classification system more suitable for signals in a wide range of signal to noise rate (SNR), a novel method of designing combined classifier based on fuzzy neural network (FNN) is presented in this paper. The method employs fuzzy neural network classifiers and interclass distance (ICD) to improve recognition reliability. Experimental results show that the proposed combined classifier has high recognition rate with large variation range of SNR (success rates are over 99.9% when SNR is not lower than 5dB).

Keywords: Modulation classification, combined classifier, fuzzy neural network, interclass distance.

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293 The Performance of Predictive Classification Using Empirical Bayes

Authors: N. Deetae, S. Sukparungsee, Y. Areepong, K. Jampachaisri

Abstract:

This research is aimed to compare the percentages of correct classification of Empirical Bayes method (EB) to Classical method when data are constructed as near normal, short-tailed and long-tailed symmetric, short-tailed and long-tailed asymmetric. The study is performed using conjugate prior, normal distribution with known mean and unknown variance. The estimated hyper-parameters obtained from EB method are replaced in the posterior predictive probability and used to predict new observations. Data are generated, consisting of training set and test set with the sample sizes 100, 200 and 500 for the binary classification. The results showed that EB method exhibited an improved performance over Classical method in all situations under study.

Keywords: Classification, Empirical Bayes, Posterior predictive probability.

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292 Using Swarm Intelligence for Improving Accuracy of Fuzzy Classifiers

Authors: Hassan M. Elragal

Abstract:

This paper discusses a method for improving accuracy of fuzzy-rule-based classifiers using particle swarm optimization (PSO). Two different fuzzy classifiers are considered and optimized. The first classifier is based on Mamdani fuzzy inference system (M_PSO fuzzy classifier). The second classifier is based on Takagi- Sugeno fuzzy inference system (TS_PSO fuzzy classifier). The parameters of the proposed fuzzy classifiers including premise (antecedent) parameters, consequent parameters and structure of fuzzy rules are optimized using PSO. Experimental results show that higher classification accuracy can be obtained with a lower number of fuzzy rules by using the proposed PSO fuzzy classifiers. The performances of M_PSO and TS_PSO fuzzy classifiers are compared to other fuzzy based classifiers

Keywords: Fuzzy classifier, Optimization of fuzzy systemparameters, Particle swarm optimization, Pattern classification.

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291 Computer-aided Lenke Classification of Scoliotic Spines

Authors: Neila Mezghani, Philippe Phan, Hubert Labelle, Carl Eric Aubin, Jacques de Guise

Abstract:

The identification and classification of the spine deformity play an important role when considering surgical planning for adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis. The subject of this article is the Lenke classification of scoliotic spines using Cobb angle measurements. The purpose is two-fold: (1) design a rulebased diagram to assist clinicians in the classification process and (2) investigate a computer classifier which improves the classification time and accuracy. The rule-based diagram efficiency was evaluated in a series of scoliotic classifications by 10 clinicians. The computer classifier was tested on a radiographic measurement database of 603 patients. Classification accuracy was 93% using the rule-based diagram and 99% for the computer classifier. Both the computer classifier and the rule based diagram can efficiently assist clinicians in their Lenke classification of spine scoliosis.

Keywords: Scoliosis, Lenke model, decision-rules, computer aided classifier.

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290 Hand Written Digit Recognition by Multiple Classifier Fusion based on Decision Templates Approach

Authors: Reza Ebrahimpour, Samaneh Hamedi

Abstract:

Classifier fusion may generate more accurate classification than each of the basic classifiers. Fusion is often based on fixed combination rules like the product, average etc. This paper presents decision templates as classifier fusion method for the recognition of the handwritten English and Farsi numerals (1-9). The process involves extracting a feature vector on well-known image databases. The extracted feature vector is fed to multiple classifier fusion. A set of experiments were conducted to compare decision templates (DTs) with some combination rules. Results from decision templates conclude 97.99% and 97.28% for Farsi and English handwritten digits.

Keywords: Decision templates, multi-layer perceptron, characteristics Loci, principle component analysis (PCA).

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289 An Iterative Algorithm for KLDA Classifier

Authors: D.N. Zheng, J.X. Wang, Y.N. Zhao, Z.H. Yang

Abstract:

The Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) can be generalized into a nonlinear form - kernel LDA (KLDA) expediently by using the kernel functions. But KLDA is often referred to a general eigenvalue problem in singular case. To avoid this complication, this paper proposes an iterative algorithm for the two-class KLDA. The proposed KLDA is used as a nonlinear discriminant classifier, and the experiments show that it has a comparable performance with SVM.

Keywords: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), kernel LDA (KLDA), conjugate gradient algorithm, nonlinear discriminant classifier.

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288 Adaptive Naïve Bayesian Anti-Spam Engine

Authors: Wojciech P. Gajewski

Abstract:

The problem of spam has been seriously troubling the Internet community during the last few years and currently reached an alarming scale. Observations made at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research located in Geneva, Switzerland) show that spam mails can constitute up to 75% of daily SMTP traffic. A naïve Bayesian classifier based on a Bag Of Words representation of an email is widely used to stop this unwanted flood as it combines good performance with simplicity of the training and classification processes. However, facing the constantly changing patterns of spam, it is necessary to assure online adaptability of the classifier. This work proposes combining such a classifier with another NBC (naïve Bayesian classifier) based on pairs of adjacent words. Only the latter will be retrained with examples of spam reported by users. Tests are performed on considerable sets of mails both from public spam archives and CERN mailboxes. They suggest that this architecture can increase spam recall without affecting the classifier precision as it happens when only the NBC based on single words is retrained.

Keywords: Text classification, naïve Bayesian classification, spam, email.

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287 Integration of Support Vector Machine and Bayesian Neural Network for Data Mining and Classification

Authors: Essam Al-Daoud

Abstract:

Several combinations of the preprocessing algorithms, feature selection techniques and classifiers can be applied to the data classification tasks. This study introduces a new accurate classifier, the proposed classifier consist from four components: Signal-to- Noise as a feature selection technique, support vector machine, Bayesian neural network and AdaBoost as an ensemble algorithm. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed classifier, seven well known classifiers are applied to four datasets. The experiments show that using the suggested classifier enhances the classification rates for all datasets.

Keywords: AdaBoost, Bayesian neural network, Signal-to-Noise, support vector machine, MCMC.

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