Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: Andrey V. Timofeev

33 The Guaranteed Detection of the Seismoacoustic Emission Source in the C-OTDR Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev

Abstract:

A method is proposed for stable detection of seismoacoustic sources in C-OTDR systems that guarantee given upper bounds for probabilities of type I and type II errors. Properties of the proposed method are rigorously proved. The results of practical applications of the proposed method in a real C-OTDRsystem are presented.

Keywords: Guaranteed detection, C-OTDR systems, change point, interval estimation.

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32 Monitoring the Railways by Means of C-OTDR Technology

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev

Abstract:

This paper presents development results of the method of seismoacoustic activity monitoring based on usage vibrosensitive properties of optical fibers. Analysis of Rayleigh backscattering radiation parameters changes, which take place due to microscopic seismoacoustic impacts on the optical fiber, allows to determine seismoacoustic emission sources positions and to identify their types. Results of using this approach are successful for complex monitoring of railways.

Keywords: C-OTDR systems, monitoring of railways, Rayleigh backscattering.

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31 The Optimization of Decision Rules in Multimodal Decision-Level Fusion Scheme

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev, Dmitry V. Egorov

Abstract:

This paper introduces an original method of parametric optimization of the structure for multimodal decisionlevel fusion scheme which combines the results of the partial solution of the classification task obtained from assembly of the mono-modal classifiers. As a result, a multimodal fusion classifier which has the minimum value of the total error rate has been obtained.

Keywords: Сlassification accuracy, fusion solution, total error rate.

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30 Adaptive Nonparametric Approach for Guaranteed Real-Time Detection of Targeted Signals in Multichannel Monitoring Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev

Abstract:

An adaptive nonparametric method is proposed for stable real-time detection of seismoacoustic sources in multichannel C-OTDR systems with a significant number of channels. This method guarantees given upper boundaries for probabilities of Type I and Type II errors. Properties of the proposed method are rigorously proved. The results of practical applications of the proposed method in a real C-OTDR-system are presented in this report.

Keywords: Adaptive detection, change point, interval estimation, guaranteed detection, multichannel monitoring systems.

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29 Multi-Channel Information Fusion in C-OTDR Monitoring Systems: Various Approaches to Classify of Targeted Events

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev

Abstract:

The paper presents new results concerning selection of optimal information fusion formula for ensembles of C-OTDR channels. The goal of information fusion is to create an integral classificator designed for effective classification of seismoacoustic target events. The LPBoost (LP-β and LP-B variants), the Multiple Kernel Learning, and Weighing of Inversely as Lipschitz Constants (WILC) approaches were compared. The WILC is a brand new approach to optimal fusion of Lipschitz Classifiers Ensembles. Results of practical usage are presented.

Keywords: Lipschitz Classifier, Classifiers Ensembles, LPBoost, C-OTDR systems, ν-OTDR systems.

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28 The Rail Traffic Management with Usage of C-OTDR Monitoring Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev, Dmitry V. Egorov, Viktor M. Denisov

Abstract:

This paper presents development results of usage of C-OTDR monitoring systems for rail traffic management. The COTDR method is based on vibrosensitive properties of optical fibers. Analysis of Rayleigh backscattering radiation parameters changes which take place due to microscopic seismoacoustic impacts on the optical fiber allows to determine seismoacoustic emission source positions and to identify their types. This approach proved successful for rail traffic management (moving block system, weigh- in-motion system etc.).

Keywords: C-OTDR systems, moving block-sections, rail traffic management, Rayleigh backscattering, weigh-in-motion.

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27 Robust Adaptation to Background Noise in Multichannel C-OTDR Monitoring Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev, Viktor M. Denisov

Abstract:

A robust sequential nonparametric method is proposed for adaptation to background noise parameters for real-time. The distribution of background noise was modelled like to Huber contamination mixture. The method is designed to operate as an adaptation-unit, which is included inside a detection subsystem of an integrated multichannel monitoring system. The proposed method guarantees the given size of a nonasymptotic confidence set for noise parameters. Properties of the suggested method are rigorously proved. The proposed algorithm has been successfully tested in real conditions of a functioning C-OTDR monitoring system, which was designed to monitor railways.

Keywords: Guaranteed estimation, multichannel monitoring systems, non-asymptotic confidence set, contamination mixture.

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26 Lipschitz Classifiers Ensembles: Usage for Classification of Target Events in C-OTDR Monitoring Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev

Abstract:

This paper introduces an original method for guaranteed estimation of the accuracy for an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers. The solution was obtained as a finite closed set of alternative hypotheses, which contains an object of classification with probability of not less than the specified value. Thus, the classification is represented by a set of hypothetical classes. In this case, the smaller the cardinality of the discrete set of hypothetical classes is, the higher is the classification accuracy. Experiments have shown that if cardinality of the classifiers ensemble is increased then the cardinality of this set of hypothetical classes is reduced. The problem of the guaranteed estimation of the accuracy for an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers is relevant in multichannel classification of target events in C-OTDR monitoring systems. Results of suggested approach practical usage to accuracy control in C-OTDR monitoring systems are present.

Keywords: Lipschitz classifiers, confidence set, C-OTDR monitoring, classifiers accuracy, classifiers ensemble.

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25 Surveillance of Super-Extended Objects: Bimodal Approach

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev, Dmitry Egorov

Abstract:

This paper describes an effective solution to the task of a remote monitoring of super-extended objects (oil and gas pipeline, railways, national frontier). The suggested solution is based on the principle of simultaneously monitoring of seismoacoustic and optical/infrared physical fields. The principle of simultaneous monitoring of those fields is not new but in contrast to the known solutions the suggested approach allows to control super-extended objects with very limited operational costs. So-called C-OTDR (Coherent Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) systems are used to monitor the seismoacoustic field. Far-CCTV systems are used to monitor the optical/infrared field. A simultaneous data processing provided by both systems allows effectively detecting and classifying target activities, which appear in the monitored objects vicinity. The results of practical usage had shown high effectiveness of the suggested approach.

Keywords: Bimodal processing, C-OTDR monitoring system, LPboost, SVM.

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24 The Sequential Estimation of the Seismoacoustic Source Energy in C-OTDR Monitoring Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev, Dmitry V. Egorov

Abstract:

The practical efficient approach is suggested for estimation of the seismoacoustic sources energy in C-OTDR monitoring systems. This approach is represents the sequential plan for confidence estimation both the seismoacoustic sources energy, as well the absorption coefficient of the soil. The sequential plan delivers the non-asymptotic guaranteed accuracy of obtained estimates in the form of non-asymptotic confidence regions with prescribed sizes. These confidence regions are valid for a finite sample size when the distributions of the observations are unknown. Thus, suggested estimates are non-asymptotic and nonparametric, and also these estimates guarantee the prescribed estimation accuracy in form of prior prescribed size of confidence regions, and prescribed confidence coefficient value.

Keywords: C-OTDR-system, guaranteed estimates, nonparametric estimation, sequential confidence estimation, multichannel monitoring systems.

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23 Instant Location Detection of Objects Moving at High-Speedin C-OTDR Monitoring Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev

Abstract:

The practical efficient approach is suggested to estimate the high-speed objects instant bounds in C-OTDR monitoring systems. In case of super-dynamic objects (trains, cars) is difficult to obtain the adequate estimate of the instantaneous object localization because of estimation lag. In other words, reliable estimation coordinates of monitored object requires taking some time for data observation collection by means of C-OTDR system, and only if the required sample volume will be collected the final decision could be issued. But it is contrary to requirements of many real applications. For example, in rail traffic management systems we need to get data of the dynamic objects localization in real time. The way to solve this problem is to use the set of statistical independent parameters of C-OTDR signals for obtaining the most reliable solution in real time. The parameters of this type we can call as «signaling parameters» (SP). There are several the SP’s which carry information about dynamic objects instant localization for each of COTDR channels. The problem is that some of these parameters are very sensitive to dynamics of seismoacoustic emission sources, but are non-stable. On the other hand, in case the SP is very stable it becomes insensitive as rule. This report contains describing of the method for SP’s co-processing which is designed to get the most effective dynamic objects localization estimates in the C-OTDR monitoring system framework.

Keywords: C-OTDR-system, co-processing of signaling parameters, high-speed objects localization, multichannel monitoring systems.

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22 Topochemical Synthesis of Epitaxial Silicon Carbide on Silicon

Authors: Andrey V. Osipov, Sergey A. Kukushkin, Andrey V. Luk’yanov

Abstract:

A method is developed for the solid-phase synthesis of epitaxial layers when the substrate itself is involved into a topochemical reaction and the reaction product grows in the interior of substrate layer. It opens up new possibilities for the relaxation of the elastic energy due to the attraction of point defects formed during the topochemical reaction in anisotropic media. The presented method of silicon carbide (SiC) formation employs a topochemical reaction between the single-crystalline silicon (Si) substrate and gaseous carbon monoxide (CO). The corresponding theory of interaction of point dilatation centers in anisotropic crystals is developed. It is eliminated that the most advantageous location of the point defects is the direction (111) in crystals with cubic symmetry. The single-crystal SiC films with the thickness up to 200 nm have been grown on Si (111) substrates owing to the topochemical reaction with CO. Grown high-quality single-crystal SiC films do not contain misfit dislocations despite the huge lattice mismatch value of ~20%. Also the possibility of growing of thick wide-gap semiconductor films on these templates SiC/Si(111) and, accordingly, its integration into Si electronics, is demonstrated. Finally, the ab initio theory of SiC formation due to the topochemical reaction has been developed.

Keywords: Epitaxy, silicon carbide, topochemical reaction, wide-bandgap semiconductors.

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21 Absolute Cross Sections of Multi-Photon Ionization of Xenon by the Comparison with Process of its Electron-Impact Ionization

Authors: A. A. Mityureva, A. A. Pastor, P. Yu. Serdobintsev, N. A. Timofeev

Abstract:

Comparison of electron- and photon-impact processes as a method for determination of photo-ionization cross sections is described, discussed and shown to have many attractive features.

Keywords: Transition probability, cross section, photo-ionization, electron-ionization, multi-photon process.

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20 Characteristic Function in Estimation of Probability Distribution Moments

Authors: Vladimir S. Timofeev

Abstract:

In this article the problem of distributional moments estimation is considered. The new approach of moments estimation based on usage of the characteristic function is proposed. By statistical simulation technique author shows that new approach has some robust properties. For calculation of the derivatives of characteristic function there is used numerical differentiation. Obtained results confirmed that author’s idea has a certain working efficiency and it can be recommended for any statistical applications.

Keywords: Characteristic function, distributional moments, robustness, outlier, statistical estimation problem, statistical simulation.

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19 Investigation of Mesoporous Silicon Carbonization Process

Authors: N. I. Kargin, G. K. Safaraliev, A. S. Gusev, A. O. Sultanov, N. V. Siglovaya, S. M. Ryndya, A. A. Timofeev

Abstract:

In this paper, an experimental and theoretical study of the processes of mesoporous silicon carbonization during the formation of buffer layers for the subsequent epitaxy of 3C-SiC films and related wide-band-gap semiconductors is performed. Experimental samples were obtained by the method of chemical vapor deposition and investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Analytic expressions were obtained for the effective diffusion factor and carbon atoms diffusion length in a porous system. The proposed model takes into account the processes of Knudsen diffusion, coagulation and overgrowing of pores during the formation of a silicon carbide layer.

Keywords: Silicon carbide, porous silicon, carbonization, electrochemical etching, diffusion.

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18 Nonlinear Power Measurement Algorithm of the Input Mix Components of the Noise Signal and Pulse Interference

Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Valery P. Samarin, Viktor F. Klyuev, Andrey V. Klyuev

Abstract:

A power measurement algorithm of the input mix components of the noise signal and pulse interference is considered. The algorithm efficiency analysis has been carried out for different interference-to-signal ratio. Algorithm performance features have been explored by numerical experiment results.

Keywords: Noise signal, pulse interference, signal power, spectrum width, detection.

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17 Flexible Technologies of Granulated Complex Fertilizers

Authors: Andrey M. Norov, Denis A. Pagaleshkin, Pavel S. Fedotov, Viacheslav M. Kolpakov, Konstantin G. Gorbovskiy

Abstract:

The article focuses on the latest research and developments (R&D) aimed at the development of plants for production of complex phosphorus-containing fertilizers which are in line with the principles of the best available techniques (BAT). The advantages of the implemented technical solutions are given. The paper describes developed options of flexible technologies for schemes with DGD (drum granulator dryer) and for schemes with AG-DD (ammoniator-granulator and dryer drum).

Keywords: Ammoniator-granulator and dryer drum, drum granulator dryer, phosphorus-containing fertilizer technology, PK-, NPK-, PKS- and NPKS-fertilizers, wet phosphoric acid.

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16 The Preservation of Cultural Heritage: Continuity and Memory

Authors: Andrey R. Khazbulatov, Moldir Nurpeiis

Abstract:

Contemporary science and technologies largely widen the gap between the spiritual and rational of the society. Industrial and technological breakthroughs might radically affect most processes in the society, thus losing the cultural heritage. The thinkers recognized the dangers of the decadence in the first place. In the present article the ways of preserving cultural heritage have been investigated. Memory has always been a necessary condition for selfidentification, - continuity is based on this. The authors have supported the hypothesis that continuity and ethnic memory are the very mechanisms that preserve cultural heritage. Such problemformulating will facilitate another, new look at the material, spiritual and arts spheres of the cultural heritage of numerous ethnic groups. The fundamental works by major European and Kazakh scientists have been taken as a basis for the research done.

Keywords: Continuity, cultural heritage, ethnic memory

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15 Hydrodynamic Processes in Bubbly Liquid Flow in Tubes and Nozzles

Authors: Raisa Kh. Bolotnova, Marat N. Galimzianov, Andrey S. Topolnikov, Valeria A. Buzina, Uliana O. Agisheva

Abstract:

The hydrodynamic processes in bubbly liquid flowing in tubes and nozzles are studied theoretically and numerically. The principal regularities of non-stationary processes of boiling liquid outflow are established under conditions of experiments when the depressurization of a tube with high pressure inside occurs. The steady-state solution of bubbly liquid flow in the nozzle of round cross section with high pressure and temperature conditions inside bubbles is studied accounting for phase transition and chemical reactions.

Keywords: bubbly liquid, cavitation, chemical reactions, phase transition.

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14 Electromagnetic Flow Meter Efficiency

Authors: Andrey D. Andreev, Ilona I. Iatcheva, Dimitar N. Karastoyanov, Rumena D. Stancheva

Abstract:

A study of electromagnetic flow meter is presented in the paper. Comparison has been made between the analytical and the numerical results by the use of FEM numerical analysis (Quick Field 5.6) for determining polarization voltage through the circle cross section of the polarization transducer. Exciting and geometrical parameters increasing its effectiveness has been examined. The aim is to obtain maximal output signal. The investigations include different variants of the magnetic flux density distribution around the tube: homogeneous field of magnitude Bm, linear distribution with maximal value Bm and trapezium distribution conserving the same exciting magnetic energy as the homogeneous field.

Keywords: Effectiveness, electromagnetic flow meter, finite element method, polarization voltage.

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13 Characterization of Liver Leukocyte Infiltrates and Features of Cytokine Profile under Viral Hepatitis-Induced Immunosuppression

Authors: Olga V. Lebedinskaya, Irina N. Kabanovskaya, Anna S. Lasareva, Nelly K. Akhmatova, Anatoliy P. Godovalov, Andrey V. Horinko, Mikhail V. Kiselevsky

Abstract:

The nature, prevalence, cellular composition of leukocyte infiltrates and immunohistochemical characteristics of their constituent cells in the liver of patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and C were investigated. It was found that the area of distribution and cellular composition of infiltrates depended on the virus type and process activity. The expediency of immunohistochemical study using leukocyte infiltrates from liver biopsies of patients with viral hepatitis aimed at clarifying diagnosis, making prognosis, and choice of optimal treatment with elements of immune correction is emphasized.

Keywords: Viral hepatitis, leukocyte infiltration, immunohistochemical characteristics, immunosupression.

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12 Theoretical Analysis of Self-Starting Busemann Intake Family

Authors: N. Moradian, E. Timofeev, R. Tahir

Abstract:

In this work, startability of the Busemann intake family with weak/strong conical shock, as most efficient intakes, via overboard mass spillage method is theoretically analyzed. Masterix and Candifix codes are used to numerically simulate few models of this type of intake and verify the theoretical results. Portions of the intake corresponding to various flow capture angles are considered to have mass spillage in the starting process of this intake. This approach allows for overboard mass spillage via a V-shaped slot with the tip of V coinciding with the focal point of the Busemann flow. The theoretical results, achieved using two different theories, of self-started Busemann takes with weak/strong conical shock show that significant improve in intake startability using overboard spillage technique. The starting phenomena of Busemann intakes with weak conical shock and seven different capture angles are numerically simulated at freestream Mach number of 3 to find the minimum area ratios of self-started intakes. The numerical results confirm the theoretical ones achieved by authors.

Keywords: Busemann intake, conical shock, overboard spillage, startability.

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11 Amplification of Compression Waves in Clean and Bubbly Liquid

Authors: Robert I. Nigmatulin, Raisa Kh. Bolotnova, Nailya K. Vakhitova, Andrey S. Topolnikov, Svetlana I. Konovalova, Nikolai A. Makhota

Abstract:

The theoretical investigation is carried out to describe the effect of increase of pressure waves amplitude in clean and bubbly liquid. The goal of the work is to capture the regime of multiple magnification of acoustic and shock waves in the liquid, which enables to get appropriate conditions to enlarge collapses of micro-bubbles. The influence of boundary conditions and frequency of the governing acoustic field is studied for the case of the cylindrical acoustic resonator. It has been observed the formation of standing waves with large amplitude at resonant frequencies. The interaction of the compression wave with gas and vapor bubbles is investigated for the convergent channel. It is shown theoretically that the chemical reactions, which occur inside gas bubbles, provide additional impulse to the wave, that affect strongly on the collapses of the vapor bubbles

Keywords: acoustics, cavitation, detonation, shock waves

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10 An Architectural Model of Multi-Agent Systems for Student Evaluation in Collaborative Game Software

Authors: Monica Hoedltke Pietruchinski, Andrey Ricardo Pimentel

Abstract:

The teaching of computer programming for beginners has been generally considered as a difficult and challenging task. Several methodologies and research tools have been developed, however, the difficulty of teaching still remains. Our work integrates the state of the art in teaching programming with game software and further provides metrics for the evaluation of student performance in a collaborative activity of playing games. This paper aims to present a multi-agent system architecture to be incorporated to the educational collaborative game software for teaching programming that monitors, evaluates and encourages collaboration by the participants. A literature review has been made on the concepts of Collaborative Learning, Multi-agents systems, collaborative games and techniques to teach programming using these concepts simultaneously.

Keywords: Architecture of multi-agent systems, collaborative evaluation, collaboration assessment, gamifying educational software.

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9 Nonlinear Effects in Bubbly Liquid with Shock Waves

Authors: Raisa Kh. Bolotnova, Marat N. Galimzianov, Andrey S. Topolnikov, Uliana O. Agisheva, Valeria A. Buzina

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of theoretical and numerical modeling of propagation of shock waves in bubbly liquids related to nonlinear effects (realistic equation of state, chemical reactions, two-dimensional effects). On the basis on the Rankine- Hugoniot equations the problem of determination of parameters of passing and reflected shock waves in gas-liquid medium for isothermal, adiabatic and shock compression of the gas component is solved by using the wide-range equation of state of water in the analitic form. The phenomenon of shock wave intensification is investigated in the channel of variable cross section for the propagation of a shock wave in the liquid filled with bubbles containing chemically active gases. The results of modeling of the wave impulse impact on the solid wall covered with bubble layer are presented.

Keywords: bubbly liquid, cavitation, equation of state, shock wave

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8 Application of Femtosecond Laser pulses for Nanometer Accuracy Profiling of Quartz and Diamond Substrates and for Multi-Layered Targets and Thin-Film Conductors Processing

Authors: Dmitry S. Sitnikov, Andrey V. Ovchinnikov

Abstract:

Research results and optimal parameters investigation of laser cut and profiling of diamond and quartz substrates by femtosecond laser pulses are presented. Profiles 10 μm in width, ~25 μm in depth and several millimeters long were made. Investigation of boundaries quality has been carried out with the use of AFM «Vecco». Possibility of technological formation of profiles and micro-holes in diamond and quartz substrates with nanometer-scale boundaries is shown. Experimental results of multilayer dielectric cover treatment are also presented. Possibility of precise upper layer (thickness of 70–140 nm) removal is demonstrated. Processes of thin metal film (60 nm and 350 nm thick) treatment are considered. Isolation tracks (conductance ~ 10-11 S) 1.6–2.5 μm in width in conductive metal layers are formed.

Keywords: Femtosecond laser ablation, microhole and nanoprofileformation, micromachining

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7 Learning Object Interface Adapted to the Learner's Learning Style

Authors: Zenaide Carvalho da Silva, Leandro Rodrigues Ferreira, Andrey Ricardo Pimentel

Abstract:

Learning styles (LS) refer to the ways and forms that the student prefers to learn in the teaching and learning process. Each student has their own way of receiving and processing information throughout the learning process. Therefore, knowing their LS is important to better understand their individual learning preferences, and also, understand why the use of some teaching methods and techniques give better results with some students, while others it does not. We believe that knowledge of these styles enables the possibility of making propositions for teaching; thus, reorganizing teaching methods and techniques in order to allow learning that is adapted to the individual needs of the student. Adapting learning would be possible through the creation of online educational resources adapted to the style of the student. In this context, this article presents the structure of a learning object interface adaptation based on the LS. The structure created should enable the creation of the adapted learning object according to the student's LS and contributes to the increase of student’s motivation in the use of a learning object as an educational resource.

Keywords: Adaptation, interface, learning object, learning style.

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6 Fluctuations of Transfer Factor of the Mixer Based on Schottky Diode

Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Arkady V. Yakimov, Mikhail I. Ryzhkin, Andrey V. Klyuev

Abstract:

Fluctuations of Schottky diode parameters in a structure of the mixer are investigated. These fluctuations are manifested in two ways. At the first, they lead to fluctuations in the transfer factor that is lead to the amplitude fluctuations in the signal of intermediate frequency. On the basis of the measurement data of 1/f noise of the diode at forward current, the estimation of a spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer is executed. Current dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer and dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer on the amplitude of the heterodyne signal are investigated. At the second, fluctuations in parameters of the diode lead to occurrence of 1/f noise in the output signal of the mixer. This noise limits the sensitivity of the mixer to the value of received signal.

Keywords: Current-voltage characteristic, fluctuations, mixer, Schottky diode, 1/f noise.

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5 Learning Objects Content Presentation Adaptation Model Considering Students' Learning Styles

Authors: Zenaide Carvalho da Silva, Andrey Ricardo Pimentel, Leandro Rodrigues Ferreira

Abstract:

Learning styles (LSs) correspond to the individual preferences of a person regarding the modes and forms in which he/she prefers to learn throughout the teaching/learning process. The content presentation of learning objects (LOs) using knowledge about the students’ LSs offers them digital educational resources tailored to their individual learning preferences. In this context, the most relevant characteristics of the LSs along with the most appropriate forms of LOs' content presentation were mapped and associated. Such was performed in order to define the composition of an adaptive model of LO's content presentation considering the LSs, which was called Adaptation of Content Presentation of Learning Objects Considering Learning Styles (ACPLOLS). LO prototypes were created with interfaces that were adapted to students' LSs. These prototypes were based on a model created for validation of the approaches that were used, which were established through experiments with the students. The results of subjective measures of students' emotional responses demonstrated that the ACPLOLS has reached the desired results in relation to the adequacy of the LOs interface, in accordance with the Felder-Silverman LSs Model.

Keywords: Adaptation, interface, learning styles, learning objects, students.

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4 Thermal Characterization of Smart and Large-Scale Building Envelope System in a Subtropical Climate

Authors: Andrey A. Chernousov, Ben Y. B. Chan

Abstract:

The thermal behavior of a large-scale, phase change material (PCM) enhanced building envelope system was studied in regard to the need for pre-fabricated construction in subtropical regions. The proposed large-scale envelope consists of a reinforced aluminum skin, insulation core, phase change material and reinforced gypsum board. The PCM impact on an energy efficiency of an enveloped room was resolved by validation of the EnergyPlus numerical scheme and optimization of a smart material location in the core. The PCM location was optimized by a minimization method of a cooling energy demand. It has been shown that there is good agreement between the test and simulation results. The optimal location of the PCM layer in Hong Kong summer conditions has been then recomputed for core thicknesses of 40, 60 and 80 mm. A non-dimensional value of the optimal PCM location was obtained to be same for all the studied cases and the considered external and internal conditions.

Keywords: Thermal performance, phase change material, energy efficiency, PCM optimization.

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