Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2977

Search results for: enhanced thermal capacity

2977 Lime-Pozzolan Plasters with Enhanced Thermal Capacity

Authors: Z. Pavlík, A. Trník, M. Pavlíková, M. Keppert, R. Černý

Abstract:

A new type of lightweight plaster with the thermal capacity enhanced by PCM (Phase Change Material) addition is analyzed. The basic physical characteristics, namely the bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity, and pore size distribution are measured at first. For description of mechanical properties, compressive strength measurements are done. The thermal properties are characterized by transient impulse techniques as well as by DSC analysis that enables determination of the specific heat capacity as a function of temperature. The resistivity against the liquid water ingress is described by water absorption coefficient measurement. The experimental results indicate a good capability of the designed plaster to moderate effectively the interior climate of buildings.

Keywords: Lime-pozzolan plaster, PCM addition, enhanced thermal capacity, DSC analysis.

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2976 Comparison of Finite-Element and IEC Methods for Cable Thermal Analysis under Various Operating Environments

Authors: M. S. Baazzim, M. S. Al-Saud, M. A. El-Kady

Abstract:

In this paper, steady-state ampacity (current carrying capacity) evaluation of underground power cable system by using analytical and numerical methods for different conditions (depth of cable, spacing between phases, soil thermal resistivity, ambient temperature, wind speed), for two system voltage level were used 132 and 380 kV. The analytical method or traditional method that was used is based on the thermal analysis method developed by Neher-McGrath and further enhanced by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and published in standard IEC 60287. The numerical method that was used is finite element method and it was recourse commercial software based on finite element method. 

Keywords: Cable ampacity, Finite element method, underground cable, thermal rating.

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2975 Using the Transient Plane Source Method for Measuring Thermal Parameters of Electroceramics

Authors: Peter Krupa, Svetozár Malinarič

Abstract:

Transient plane source method has been used to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of a compact isostatic electroceramics at room temperature. The samples were fired at temperatures from 100 up to 1320 degrees Celsius in steps of 50. Bulk density and specific heat capacity were also measured with their corresponding standard uncertainties. The results were compared with further thermal analysis (dilatometry and thermogravimetry). Structural processes during firing were discussed.

Keywords: TPS method, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal analysis, electroceramics, firing.

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2974 Detecting the Capacity Reserve in an Overhead Line

Authors: S. Berjozkina, A. Sauhats, V. Bargels, E. Vanzovichs

Abstract:

There are various solutions for improving existing overhead line systems with the general purpose of increasing their limited capacity. The capacity reserve of the existing overhead lines is an important problem that must be considered from different aspects. The paper contains a comparative analysis of the mechanical and thermal limitations of an existing overhead line based on certain calculation conditions characterizing the examined variants. The methodology of the proposed estimation of the permissible conductor temperature and maximum load current is described in detail. The transmission line model consists of specific information of an existing overhead line of the Latvian power network. The main purpose of the simulation tasks is to find an additional capacity reserve by using accurate mathematical models. The results of the obtained data are presented.

Keywords: capacity of an overhead line, mechanical conditions, permissible conductor temperature, thermal conditions.

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2973 Thermal Properties of the Ground in Cyprus and Their Correlations and Effect on the Efficiency of Ground Heat Exchangers

Authors: G. A. Florides, E. Theofanous, I. Iosif-Stylianou, P. Christodoulides, S. Kalogirou, V. Messarites, Z. Zomeni, E. Tsiolakis, P. D. Pouloupatis, G. P. Panayiotou

Abstract:

Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) exploit effectively the heat capacity of the ground, with the use of Ground Heat Exchangers (GHE). Depending on the mode of operation of the GCHPs, GHEs dissipate or absorb heat from the ground. For sizing the GHE the thermal properties of the ground need to be known. This paper gives information about the density, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity of various lithologies encountered in Cyprus with various relations between these properties being examined through comparison and modeling. The results show that the most important correlation is the one encountered between thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity with both properties showing similar response to the inlet and outlet flow temperature of vertical and horizontal heat exchangers.

Keywords: Ground heat exchangers, ground thermal conductivity, ground thermal diffusivity, ground thermal properties.

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2972 Control of Thermal Flow in Machine Tools Using Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Reimund Neugebauer, Welf-Guntram Drossel, Andre Bucht, Christoph Ohsenbrügge

Abstract:

In this paper the authors propose and verify an approach to control heat flow in machine tool components. Thermal deformations are a main aspect that affects the accuracy of machining. Due to goals of energy efficiency, thermal basic loads should be reduced. This leads to inhomogeneous and time variant temperature profiles. To counteract these negative consequences, material with high melting enthalpy is used as a method for thermal stabilization. The increased thermal capacity slows down the transient thermal behavior. To account for the delayed thermal equilibrium, a control mechanism for thermal flow is introduced. By varying a gap in a heat flow path the thermal resistance of an assembly can be controlled. This mechanism is evaluated in two experimental setups. First to validate the ability to control the thermal resistance and second to prove the possibility of a self-sufficient option based on the selfsensing abilities of thermal shape memory alloys.

Keywords: energy-efficiency, heat transfer path, MT thermal stability, thermal shape memory alloy

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2971 Ionanofluids as Novel Fluids for Advanced Heat Transfer Applications

Authors: S. M. Sohel Murshed, C. A. Nieto de Castro, M. J. V. Lourenço, J. França, A. P. C. Ribeiro, S. I. C.Vieira, C. S. Queirós

Abstract:

Ionanofluids are a new and innovative class of heat transfer fluids which exhibit fascinating thermophysical properties compared to their base ionic liquids. This paper deals with the findings of thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of ionanofluids as a function of a temperature and concentration of nanotubes. Simulation results using ionanofluids as coolants in heat exchanger are also used to access their feasibility and performance in heat transfer devices. Results on thermal conductivity and heat capacity of ionanofluids as well as the estimation of heat transfer areas for ionanofluids and ionic liquids in a model shell and tube heat exchanger reveal that ionanofluids possess superior thermal conductivity and heat capacity and require considerably less heat transfer areas as compared to those of their base ionic liquids. This novel class of fluids shows great potential for advanced heat transfer applications.

Keywords: Heat transfer, Ionanofluids, Ionic liquids, Nanotubes, Thermal conductivity.

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2970 A Numerical Study on Thermal Dissociation of H2S

Authors: M. Moghiman, S. M. Javadi, A. R. Moghiman, S. Baghdar Hosseini

Abstract:

The main issue in sweetening natural gas is H2S dissociation. The present study is concerned with simulating thermal dissociation of H2S in industrial natural gas carbon black furnace. The comparison of calculated results against experimental measurements shows good agreement. The results show that sulfur derived from H2S thermal dissociation peaked at φ=0.95. H2S thermal dissociation is enhanced in equivalence ratio upper than 1 and H2S oxidization is increased in equivalence ratio lower than 1. H2 concentration of H2S thermal dissociation is increased with increase of equivalence ratio up to 1. Also, H2S concentration decreased in outlet as equivalence ratio increases. H2S thermal dissociation to hydrogen and Sulfur reduces its toxic characteristics and make economical benefits.

Keywords: Equivalence ratio, H2S, natural gas furnace, thermaldissociation.

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2969 Simulation Study on the Indoor Thermal Comfort with Insulation on Interior Structural Components of Super High-Rise Residences

Authors: Y. Wang, H. Fukuda, A. Ozaki, H. Sato

Abstract:

In this study, we discussed the effects on the thermal comfort of super high-rise residences that how effected by the high thermal capacity structural components. We considered different building orientations, structures, and insulation methods. We used the dynamic simulation software THERB (simulation of the thermal environment of residential buildings). It can estimate the temperature, humidity, sensible temperature, and heating/cooling load for multiple buildings. In the past studies, we examined the impact of air-conditioning loads (hereinafter referred to as AC loads) on the interior structural parts and the AC-usage patterns of super-high-rise residences. Super-high-rise residences have more structural components such as pillars and beams than do ordinary apartment buildings. The skeleton is generally made of concrete and steel, which have high thermal-storage capacities. The thermal-storage capacity of super-high-rise residences is considered to have a larger impact on the AC load and thermal comfort than that of ordinary residences. We show that the AC load of super-high-rise units would be reduced by installing insulation on the surfaces of interior walls that are not usually insulated in Japan.

Keywords: High-rise Residences, AC Load, Thermal Comfort, Thermal Storage, Insulation Patterns

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2968 Thermal Analysis of Tibetan Vernacular Building - Case of Lhasa

Authors: Lingjiang Huang, Fangfang Liu

Abstract:

Vernacular building is considered as sustainable in energy consumption and environment and its thermal performance is more and more concerned by researchers. This paper investigates the thermal property of the vernacular building in Lhasa by theoretical analysis on the aspects of building form, envelope and materials etc. The values of thermal resistance and thermal capacity of the envelope are calculated and compared with the current China building code and modern building case. And it is concluded that Lhasa vernacular building meets the current China building code of thermal standards and have better performance in some aspects, which is achieved by various passive means with close response to local climate conditions.

Keywords: Climate, Vernacular Building, Thermal Property, Passive Means

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2967 Enhanced Method of Conceptual Sizing of Aircraft Electro-Thermal De-icing System

Authors: Ahmed Shinkafi, Craig Lawson

Abstract:

There is a great advancement towards the All-Electric Aircraft (AEA) technology. The AEA concept assumes that all aircraft systems will be integrated into one electrical power source in the future. The principle of the electro-thermal system is to transfer the energy required for anti/de-icing to the protected areas in electrical form. However, powering a large aircraft anti-icing system electrically could be quite excessive in cost and system weight. Hence, maximising the anti/de-icing efficiency of the electro-thermal system in order to minimise its power demand has become crucial to electro-thermal de-icing system sizing. In this work, an enhanced methodology has been developed for conceptual sizing of aircraft electro-thermal de-icing System. The work factored those critical terms overlooked in previous studies which were critical to de-icing energy consumption. A case study of a typical large aircraft wing de-icing was used to test and validate the model. The model was used to optimise the system performance by a trade-off between the de-icing peak power and system energy consumption. The optimum melting surface temperatures and energy flux predicted enabled the reduction in the power required for de-icing. The weight penalty associated with electro-thermal anti-icing/de-icing method could be eliminated using this method without under estimating the de-icing power requirement.

Keywords: Aircraft de-icing system, electro-thermal, in-flight icing.

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2966 The Effect of Unburned Carbon on Coal Fly Ash toward its Adsorption Capacity for Methyl Violet

Authors: Widi Astuti, Agus Prasetya, Endang Tri Wahyuni, I Made Bendiyasa

Abstract:

Coal fly ash (CFA) generated by coal-based thermal power plants is mainly composed of quartz, mullite, and unburned carbon. In this study, the effect of unburned carbon on CFA toward its adsorption capacity was investigated. CFA with various carbon content was obtained by refluxing it with sulfuric acid having various concentration at various temperature and reflux time, by heating at 400-800°C, and by sieving into 100-mesh in particle size. To evaluate the effect of unburned carbon on CFA toward its adsorption capacity, adsorption of methyl violet solution with treated CFA was carried out. The research shows that unburned carbon leads to adsorption capacity decrease. The highest adsorption capacity of treated CFA was found 5.73 x 10-4mol.g-1.

Keywords: CFA, carbon, methyl violet, adsorption capacity.

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2965 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Effect of the Solid Gas Interface Nanolayer on Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Copper-CO2 Nanofluid

Authors: Zeeshan Ahmed, Ajinkya Sarode, Pratik Basarkar, Atul Bhargav, Debjyoti Banerjee

Abstract:

The use of CO2 in oil recovery and in CO2 capture and storage is gaining traction in recent years. These applications involve heat transfer between CO2 and the base fluid, and hence, there arises a need to improve the thermal conductivity of CO2 to increase the process efficiency and reduce cost. One way to improve the thermal conductivity is through nanoparticle addition in the base fluid. The nanofluid model in this study consisted of copper (Cu) nanoparticles in varying concentrations with CO2 as a base fluid. No experimental data are available on thermal conductivity of CO2 based nanofluid. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are an increasingly adopted tool to perform preliminary assessments of nanoparticle (NP) fluid interactions. In this study, the effect of the formation of a nanolayer (or molecular layering) at the gas-solid interface on thermal conductivity is investigated using equilibrium MD simulations by varying NP diameter and keeping the volume fraction (1.413%) of nanofluid constant to check the diameter effect of NP on the nanolayer and thermal conductivity. A dense semi-solid fluid layer was seen to be formed at the NP-gas interface, and the thickness increases with increase in particle diameter, which also moves with the NP Brownian motion. Density distribution has been done to see the effect of nanolayer, and its thickness around the NP. These findings are extremely beneficial, especially to industries employed in oil recovery as increased thermal conductivity of CO2 will lead to enhanced oil recovery and thermal energy storage.

Keywords: Copper-CO2 nanofluid, molecular interfacial layer, thermal conductivity, molecular dynamic simulation.

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2964 Infrared Lamp Array Simulation Technology Used during Satellite Thermal Testing

Authors: Wang Jing, Liu Shouwen, Pei Yifei

Abstract:

A satellite is being integrated and tested by BISEE (Beijing Institute of Spacecraft Environment Engineering). This paper describes the infrared lamp array simulation technology used for satellite thermal balance and thermal vacuum test. These tests were performed in KM6 space environmental simulator in Beijing, China. New software and hardware developed by BISEE, along with enhanced heat flux uniformity, provided for well accomplished thermal balance and thermal vacuum tests. The flux uniformity of lamp array was satisfied with test requirement. Monitored background radiometer offered reliable heat flux measurements with remarkable repeatability. Simulation software supplied accurate thermal flux distribution predictions.

Keywords: Satellite, Thermal test, Infrared lamp array, Heatflux

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2963 Thermal Analysis of the Fuse with Unequal Fuse Links Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Adrian T.Pleşca

Abstract:

In this paper a three dimensional thermal model of high breaking capacity fuse with unequal fuse links is proposed for both steady-state or transient conditions. The influence of ambient temperature and electric current on the temperature distribution inside the fuse, has been investigated. A thermal analysis of the unbalanced distribution of the electric current through the fuse elements and their influence on fuse link temperature rise, has been performed. To validate the three dimensional thermal model, some experimental tests have been done. There is a good correlation between experimental and simulation results.

Keywords: Electric fuse, fuse links, temperature distribution, thermal analysis.

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2962 Research of the Load Bearing Capacity of Inserts Embedded in CFRP under Different Loading Conditions

Authors: F. Pottmeyer, M. Weispfenning, K. A. Weidenmann

Abstract:

Continuous carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) exhibit a high application potential for lightweight structures due to their outstanding specific mechanical properties. Embedded metal elements, so-called inserts, can be used to join structural CFRP parts. Drilling of the components to be joined can be avoided using inserts. In consequence, no bearing stress is anticipated. This is a distinctive benefit of embedded inserts, since continuous CFRP have low shear and bearing strength. This paper aims at the investigation of the load bearing capacity after preinduced damages from impact tests and thermal-cycling. In addition, characterization of mechanical properties during dynamic high speed pull-out testing under different loading velocities was conducted. It has been shown that the load bearing capacity increases up to 100% for very high velocities (15 m/s) in comparison with quasi-static loading conditions (1.5 mm/min). Residual strength measurements identified the influence of thermal loading and preinduced mechanical damage. For both, the residual strength was evaluated afterwards by quasi-static pull-out tests. Taking into account the DIN EN 6038 a high decrease of force occurs at impact energy of 16 J with significant damage of the laminate. Lower impact energies of 6 J, 9 J, and 12 J do not decrease the measured residual strength, although the laminate is visibly damaged - distinguished by cracks on the rear side. To evaluate the influence of thermal loading, the specimens were placed in a climate chamber and were exposed to various numbers of temperature cycles. One cycle took 1.5 hours from -40 °C to +80 °C. It could be shown that already 10 temperature cycles decrease the load bearing capacity up to 20%. Further reduction of the residual strength with increasing number of thermal cycles was not observed. Thus, it implies that the maximum damage of the composite is already induced after 10 temperature cycles.

Keywords: Composite, joining, inserts, dynamic loading, thermal loading, residual strength, impact.

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2961 Towards CO2 Adsorption Enhancement via Polyethyleneimine Impregnation

Authors: Supasinee Pipatsantipong, Pramoch Rangsunvigit, Santi Kulprathipanja

Abstract:

To reduce the carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere, adsorption is believed to be one of the most attractive methods for post-combustion treatment of flue gas. In this work, activated carbon (AC) was modified by polyethylenimine (PEI) via impregnation in order to enhance CO2 adsorption capacity. The adsorbents were produced at 0.04, 0.16, 0.22, 0.25, and 0.28 wt% PEI/AC. The adsorption was carried out at a temperature range from 30 °C to 75 °C and five different gas pressures up to 1 atm. TG-DTA, FT-IR, UV-visible spectrometer, and BET were used to characterize the adsorbents. Effects of PEI loading on the AC for the CO2 adsorption were investigated. Effectiveness of the adsorbents on the CO2 adsorption including CO2 adsorption capacity and adsorption temperature was also investigated. Adsorption capacities of CO2 were enhanced with the increase in the amount of PEI from 0.04 to 0.22 wt% PEI before the capacities decreased onwards from0.25 wt% PEI at 30 °C. The 0.22 wt% PEI/AC showed higher adsorption capacity than the AC for adsorption at 50 °C to 75 °C.

Keywords: Activated Carbon, Adsorption, CO2, Polyethyleneimine

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2960 Nonlinear Thermal Expansion Model for SiC/Al

Authors: T.R. Sahroni, S. Sulaiman, I. Romli, M.R. Salleh, H.A. Ariff

Abstract:

The thermal expansion behaviour of silicon carbide (SCS-2) fibre reinforced 6061 aluminium matrix composite subjected to the influenced thermal mechanical cycling (TMC) process were investigated. The thermal stress has important effect on the longitudinal thermal expansion coefficient of the composites. The present paper used experimental data of the thermal expansion behaviour of a SiC/Al composite for temperatures up to 370°C, in which their data was used for carrying out modelling of theoretical predictions.

Keywords: Nonlinear, thermal, fibre reinforced, metal matrixcomposites

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2959 Thermomechanical Coupled Analysis of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Square Tube: A Finite Element Study

Authors: M. Ali, K. Alam, E. Ohioma

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical investigation on the behavior of fiber reinforced polymer composite tubes (FRP) under thermomechanical coupled loading using finite element software ABAQUS and a special add-on subroutine, CZone. Three cases were explored; pure mechanical loading, pure thermal loading, and coupled thermomechanical loading. The failure index (Tsai-Wu) under all three loading cases was assessed for all plies in the tube walls. The simulation results under pure mechanical loading showed that composite tube failed at a tensile load of 3.1 kN. However, with the superposition of thermal load on mechanical load on the composite tube, the failure index of the previously failed plies in tube walls reduced significantly causing the tube to fail at 6 kN. This showed 93% improvement in the load carrying capacity of the composite tube in present study. The increase in load carrying capacity was attributed to the stress effects of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) on the laminate as well as the inter-lamina stresses induced due to the composite stack layup.

Keywords: Thermal, mechanical, composites, square tubes.

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2958 A Theoretical Analysis of Air Cooling System Using Thermal Ejector under Variable Generator Pressure

Authors: Mohamed Ouzzane, Mahmoud Bady

Abstract:

Due to energy and environment context, research is looking for the use of clean and energy efficient system in cooling industry. In this regard, the ejector represents one of the promising solutions. The thermal ejector is a passive component used for thermal compression in refrigeration and cooling systems, usually activated by heat either waste or solar. The present study introduces a theoretical analysis of the cooling system which uses a gas ejector thermal compression. A theoretical model is developed and applied for the design and simulation of the ejector, as well as the whole cooling system. Besides the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum, the gas dynamic equations, state equations, isentropic relations as well as some appropriate assumptions are applied to simulate the flow and mixing in the ejector. This model coupled with the equations of the other components (condenser, evaporator, pump, and generator) is used to analyze profiles of pressure and velocity (Mach number), as well as evaluation of the cycle cooling capacity. A FORTRAN program is developed to carry out the investigation. Properties of refrigerant R134a are calculated using real gas equations. Among many parameters, it is thought that the generator pressure is the cornerstone in the cycle, and hence considered as the key parameter in this investigation. Results show that the generator pressure has a great effect on the ejector and on the whole cooling system. At high generator pressures, strong shock waves inside the ejector are created, which lead to significant condenser pressure at the ejector exit. Additionally, at higher generator pressures, the designed system can deliver cooling capacity for high condensing pressure (hot season).

Keywords: Air cooling system, refrigeration, thermal ejector, thermal compression.

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2957 Experimental Study of Adsorption Properties of Acid and Thermal Treated Bentonite from Tehran (Iran)

Authors: H. R. Moghadamzadeh, M. Naimi, H. Rahimzadeh, M. Ardjmand, V. M. Nansa, A. M. Ghanadi

Abstract:

The Iranian bentonite was first characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and BET. The bentonite was then treated thermally between 150°C-250°C at 15min, 45min and 90min and also was activated chemically with different concentration of sulphuric acid (3N, 5N and 10N). Although the results of thermal activated-bentonite didn-t show any considerable changes in specific surface area and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), but the results of chemical treated bentonite demonstrated that such properties have been improved by acid activation process.

Keywords: Acid activation, Bentonite, CEC, Thermal activation.

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2956 A Design of Supply Chain Management System with Flexible Planning Capability

Authors: Chia-Hui Huang, Han-Ying Kao

Abstract:

In production planning (PP) periods with excess capacity and growing demand, the manufacturers have two options to use the excess capacity. First, it could do more changeovers and thus reduce lot sizes, inventories, and inventory costs. Second, it could produce in excess of demand in the period and build additional inventory that can be used to satisfy future demand increments, thus delaying the purchase of the next machine that is required to meet the growth in demand. In this study we propose an enhanced supply chain planning model with flexible planning capability. In addition, a 3D supply chain planning system is illustrated.

Keywords: Supply chain, capacity expansion, inventory management, planning system.

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2955 Enhanced Thermal, Mechanical and Morphological Properties of CNT/HDPE Nanocomposite Using MMT as Secondary Filler

Authors: M. E. Ali Mohsin, Agus Arsad, Othman Y. Alothman

Abstract:

This study explains the influence of secondary filler on the dispersion of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposites (CNT/HDPE). In order to understand the mixed-fillers system, Montmorillonite (MMT) was added to CNT/HDPE nanocomposites. It was followed by investigating their effect on the thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of the aforesaid nanocomposite. Incorporation of 3 wt% each of MMT into CNT/HDPE nanocomposite resulted to the increased values for the tensile and flexural strength, as compared to the pure HDPE matrix. The thermal analysis result showed improved thermal stability of the formulated nanocomposites. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that larger aggregates of CNTs were disappeared upon addition of these two components leading to the enhancement of thermo-mechanical properties for such composites.

Keywords: Secondary filler, Montmorillonite, Carbon nanotube, nanocomposite.

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2954 Enhanced Dimensional Stability of Rigid PVC Foams Using Glass Fibers

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Murtatha M. Jamel, Parisa Khoshnoud, Subhashini Gunashekar

Abstract:

Two types of glass fibers having different lengths (1/16" and 1/32") were added into rigid PVC foams to enhance the dimensional stability of extruded rigid Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) foam at different concentrations (0-20 phr) using a single screw profile extruder. PVC foam-glass fiber composites (PVC-GF) were characterized for their dimensional stability, structural, thermal, and mechanical properties. Experimental results show that the dimensional stability, heat resistance, and storage modulus were enhanced without compromising the tensile and flexural strengths of the composites. Overall, foam composites which were prepared with longer glass fibers exhibit better mechanical and thermal properties than those prepared with shorter glass fibers due to higher interlocking between the fibers and the foam cells, which result in better load distribution in the matrix.

Keywords: Polyvinyl Chloride, PVC Foam, PVC Composites, Glass Fiber Composites.

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2953 Capacity Enhancement in Wireless Networks using Directional Antennas

Authors: Sedat Atmaca, Celal Ceken, Ismail Erturk

Abstract:

One of the biggest drawbacks of the wireless environment is the limited bandwidth. However, the users sharing this limited bandwidth have been increasing considerably. SDMA technique which entails using directional antennas allows to increase the capacity of a wireless network by separating users in the medium. In this paper, it has been presented how the capacity can be enhanced while the mean delay is reduced by using directional antennas in wireless networks employing TDMA/FDD MAC. Computer modeling and simulation of the wireless system studied are realized using OPNET Modeler. Preliminary simulation results are presented and the performance of the model using directional antennas is evaluated and compared consistently with the one using omnidirectional antennas.

Keywords: Directional Antenna, TDMA, SDMA,

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2952 The Adsorption of Lead from Aqueous Solutions Using Coal Fly Ash : Effect of Crystallinity

Authors: Widi Astuti, Agus Prasetya, Endang Tri Wahyuni, I Made Bendiyasa

Abstract:

Coal fly ash (CFA) generated by coal-based thermal power plants is mainly composed of some oxides having high crystallinity, like quartz and mullite. In this study, the effect of CFA crystallinity toward lead adsorption capacity was investigated. To get solid with various crystallinity, the solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of 1-7 M was used to treat CFA at various temperature and reflux time. Furthermore, to evaluate the effect of NaOH-treated CFA with respect to adsorption capacity, the treated CFA were examine as adsorbent for removing lead in the solution. The result shows that using NaOH to treat CFA causes crystallinity of quartz and mullite decrease. At higher NaOH concentration (>3M), in addition the damage of quartz and mullite crystallinity is followed by crystal formation called hydroxysodalite. The lower crystalllinity, the higher adsorption capacity.

Keywords: Coal fly ash, crystallinity, lead, adsorption capacity

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2951 Power Generation Scheduling of Thermal Units Considering Gas Pipelines Constraints

Authors: Sara Mohtashami, Habib Rajabi Mashhadi

Abstract:

With the growth of electricity generation from gas energy gas pipeline reliability can substantially impact the electric generation. A physical disruption to pipeline or to a compressor station can interrupt the flow of gas or reduce the pressure and lead to loss of multiple gas-fired electric generators, which could dramatically reduce the supplied power and threaten the power system security. Gas pressure drops during peak loading time on pipeline system, is a common problem in network with no enough transportation capacity which limits gas transportation and causes many problem for thermal domain power systems in supplying their demand. For a feasible generation scheduling planning in networks with no sufficient gas transportation capacity, it is required to consider gas pipeline constraints in solving the optimization problem and evaluate the impacts of gas consumption in power plants on gas pipelines operating condition. This paper studies about operating of gas fired power plants in critical conditions when the demand of gas and electricity peak together. An integrated model of gas and electric model is used to consider the gas pipeline constraints in the economic dispatch problem of gas-fueled thermal generator units.

Keywords:

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2950 Constructal Enhancement of Fins Design Integrated to Phase Change Materials

Authors: Varun Joshi, Manish K. Rathod

Abstract:

The latent heat thermal energy storage system is a thrust area of research due to exuberant thermal energy storage potential. The thermal performance of PCM is significantly augmented by installation of the high thermal conductivity fins. The objective of the present study is to obtain optimum size and location of the fins to enhance diffusion heat transfer without altering overall melting time. Hence, the constructal theory is employed to eliminate, resize, and re-position the fins. A numerical code based on conjugate heat transfer coupled enthalpy porosity approached is developed to solve Navier-Stoke and energy equation.The numerical results show that the constructal fin design has enhanced the thermal performance along with the increase in the overall volume of PCM when compared to conventional. The overall volume of PCM is found to be increased by half of total of volume of fins. The elimination and repositioning the fins at high temperature gradient from low temperature gradient is found to be vital.

Keywords: Constructal theory, enthalpy porosity approach, phase change materials, fins.

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2949 Design of Thermal Control Subsystem for TUSAT Telecommunication Satellite

Authors: N. Sozbir, M. Bulut, M.F.Oktem, A.Kahriman, A. Chaix

Abstract:

TUSAT is a prospective Turkish Communication Satellite designed for providing mainly data communication and broadcasting services through Ku-Band and C-Band channels. Thermal control is a vital issue in satellite design process. Therefore, all satellite subsystems and equipments should be maintained in the desired temperature range from launch to end of maneuvering life. The main function of the thermal control is to keep the equipments and the satellite structures in a given temperature range for various phases and operating modes of spacecraft during its lifetime. This paper describes the thermal control design which uses passive and active thermal control concepts. The active thermal control is based on heaters regulated by software via thermistors. Alternatively passive thermal control composes of heat pipes, multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets, radiators, paints and surface finishes maintaining temperature level of the overall carrier components within an acceptable value. Thermal control design is supported by thermal analysis using thermal mathematical models (TMM).

Keywords: Spacecraft thermal control, design of thermal control.

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2948 Transient Free Laminar Convection in the Vicinity of a Thermal Conductive Vertical Plate

Authors: Anna Bykalyuk, Frédéric Kuznik, Kévyn Johannes

Abstract:

In this paper the influence of a vertical plate’s thermal capacity is numerically investigated in order to evaluate the evolution of the thermal boundary layer structure, as well as the convective heat transfer coefficient and the velocity and temperature profiles. Whereas the heat flux of the heated vertical plate is evaluated under time depending boundary conditions. The main important feature of this problem is the unsteadiness of the physical phenomena. A 2D CFD model is developed with the Ansys Fluent 14.0 environment and is validated using unsteady data obtained for plasterboard studied under a dynamic temperature evolution. All the phenomena produced in the vicinity of the thermal conductive vertical plate (plasterboard) are analyzed and discussed. This work is the first stage of a holistic research on transient free convection that aims, in the future, to study the natural convection in the vicinity of a vertical plate containing Phase Change Materials (PCM).

Keywords: CFD modeling, natural convection, thermal conductive plate, time-depending boundary conditions.

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