Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8586

Search results for: top-down construction method

8586 Sewer Culvert Installation Method to Accommodate Underground Construction in an Urban Area with Narrow Streets (The Development of Shield Switching Type Micro-Tunneling Method and the Introduction of Construction Examples)

Authors: Osamu Igawa, Hiroshi Kouchiwa, Yuji Ito

Abstract:

In recent years, a reconstruction project for sewer  pipelines has been progressing in Japan with the aim of renewing old  sewer culverts. However, it is difficult to secure a sufficient base area  for shafts in an urban area because many streets are narrow with a  complex layout. As a result, construction in such urban areas is  generally very demanding.  In urban areas, there is a strong requirement for a safe, reliable and  economical construction method that does not disturb the public’s  daily life and urban activities. With this in mind, we developed a new  construction method called the “shield switching type micro-tunneling  method,” which integrates the micro-tunneling method and shield  method.  In this method, pipeline is constructed first for sections that are  gently curved or straight using the economical micro-tunneling  method, and then the method is switched to the shield method for  sections with a sharp curve or a series of curves without establishing  an intermediate shaft.  This paper provides the information, features and construction  examples of this newly developed method.

 

Keywords: Micro-tunneling method, Secondary lining applied RC segment, Sharp curve, Shield method, Switching type.

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8585 The Challenges for Engineers to Change the Construction Method in Brazil

Authors: Yuri B. Cesarino, Vinícius R. Domingues, Darym J. F. Campos

Abstract:

Developing countries have some restrains towards the adoption of new technologies and construction methods. Some nations, such as Brazil, still use conventional construction methodologies, knowing its lesser cost-effectiveness. This research has been conducted to demonstrate how industrialized construction methods should be implemented in Brazil, especially in times of need. Using the common sense among different authors with different perspectives, it is clear that the second method is more suitable for construction development because of its great advantages. However, it is unlikely for this process to be adopted in the country as a result of several social-economic restraints. Nonetheless, Brazilian engineers have a major challenge ahead of them, and it will take more than creativity to solve such an issue.

Keywords: Brazilian engineers, construction methods, industrialized construction, infrastructure.

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8584 Optimum Design of Launching Nose during Incremental Launching Construction of Same-Span Continuous Bridge

Authors: Weifeng Wang, Hengbin Zheng, Xianwei Zeng

Abstract:

The launching nose plays an important role in the incremental launching construction. The parameters of the launching nose essentially affect the internal forces of the girder during the construction. The appropriate parameters can decrease the internal forces in the girder and save the material and reduce the cost. The simplified structural model, which is made with displacement method according to the characteristic of incremental launching construction and the variation rule of the internal forces, calculates and analyzes the effect of the length, the rigidity and weight of launch nose on the internal forces of girder during the incremental launching construction. The method, which can calculate the launching nose parameters for the optimum incremental launching construction, is achieved. This method is simple, reliable and easy for practical use.

Keywords: incremental launching, launching nose, optimumanalysis, displacement method

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8583 The Establishment of Cause-System of Poor Construction Site Safety and Priority Analysis from Different Perspectives

Authors: Shirong Li, Xueping Xiang

Abstract:

Construction site safety in China has aroused comprehensive concern all over the world. It is imperative to investigate the main causes of poor construction site safety. This paper divides all the causes into four aspects, namely the factors of workers, object, environment and management and sets up the accident causes element system based on Delphi Method. This is followed by the application of structural equation modeling to examine the importance of each aspect of causes from the standpoints of different roles related to the construction respectively. The results indicate that all the four aspects of factors are in need of improvement, and different roles have different ideas considering the priority of those factors. The paper has instructive significance for the practitioners to take measures to improve construction site safety in China accordingly.

Keywords: construction site safety, Delphi Method, structuralequation modeling, different perspective.

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8582 Construction Technology of Modified Vacuum Pre-Loading Method for Slurry Dredged Soil

Authors: Ali H. Mahfouz, Gao Ming-Jun, Mohamad Sharif

Abstract:

Slurry dredged soil at coastal area has a high water content, poor permeability, and low surface intensity. Hence, it is infeasible to use vacuum preloading method to treat this type of soil foundation. For the special case of super soft ground, a floating bridge is first constructed on muddy soil and used as a service road and platform for implementing the modified vacuum preloading method. The modified technique of vacuum preloading and its construction process for the super soft soil foundation improvement is then studied. Application of modified vacuum preloading method shows that the technology and its construction process are highly suitable for improving the super soft soil foundation in coastal areas.

Keywords: Super soft foundation, dredger fill, vacuum preloading, foundation treatment, construction technology.

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8581 Stress Variation of Underground Building Structure during Top-Down Construction

Authors: Soo-yeon Seo, Seol-ki Kim, Su-jin Jung

Abstract:

In the construction of a building, it is necessary to minimize construction period and secure enough work space for stacking of materials during the construction especially in city area. In this manner, various top-down construction methods have been developed and widely used in Korea. This paper investigates the stress variation of underground structure of a building constructed by using SPS (Strut as Permanent System) known as a top-down method in Korea through an analytical approach. Various types of earth pressure distribution related to ground condition were considered in the structural analysis of an example structure at each step of the excavation. From the analysis, the most high member force acting on beams was found when the ground type was medium sandy soil and a stress concentration was found in corner area.

Keywords: Construction of building, top-down construction method, earth pressure distribution, member force, stress concentration.

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8580 Uptake of Off-site Construction: Benefit and Future Application

Authors: Faisal Alazzaz, Andrew Whyte

Abstract:

Off-site construction methods have played an important role in the construction sector in the past few decades. It is increasingly becoming a major alternative technique and strategic direction compared to traditional in-situ method. It produces a significant amount of value for the construction industry and the economy more generally. To date, an impressive number of studies have been lunched on the perceived perception of off-site construction. However, it seems that a quantifying benefit on the offsite construction area is lacking. Therefore, this paper examines the recent research literature on the benefits of off- site construction and provides future direction. In the beginning, this paper provides a brief history and current value of the off-site construction followed by a detailed discussion on the benefit of off-site construction. These benefits include but not limited to time saving, quality improvement, relieving skills shortages, cost reduction and productivity improvement. Toward this end, off-site construction should learn from other productive industry similar to services or manufacturing industry by applying operational management tools and techniques with extensive focus on employee empowerment will shed the light on future uptake of Off-site construction. This study is of value in providing scholars have a clear picture of perceived benefit of off-site construction research and give an opportunities for future uptake of off-site method.

Keywords: Building projects, Employer empowerment, Off-site construction benefits, Productivity.

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8579 A New Fuzzy Decision Support Method for Analysis of Economic Factors of Turkey's Construction Industry

Authors: R. Tur, A. Yardımcı

Abstract:

Imperfect knowledge cannot be avoided all the time. Imperfections may have several forms; uncertainties, imprecision and incompleteness. When we look to classification of methods for the management of imperfect knowledge we see fuzzy set-based techniques. The choice of a method to process data is linked to the choice of knowledge representation, which can be numerical, symbolic, logical or semantic and it depends on the nature of the problem to be solved for example decision support, which will be mentioned in our study. Fuzzy Logic is used for its ability to manage imprecise knowledge, but it can take advantage of the ability of neural networks to learn coefficients or functions. Such an association of methods is typical of so-called soft computing. In this study a new method was used for the management of imprecision for collected knowledge which related to economic analysis of construction industry in Turkey. Because of sudden changes occurring in economic factors decrease competition strength of construction companies. The better evaluation of these changes in economical factors in view of construction industry will made positive influence on company-s decisions which are dealing construction.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, decision support systems, construction industry.

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8578 Quantitative Analysis of Construction Waste in the City of Novi Sad, Serbia

Authors: Nikola Karanovic, Aleksandar Djuric

Abstract:

This paper introduces a method of calculating the quantities of construction materials and construction waste on site in city of Novi Sad. In buildings is about 40% of the total weight of materials that are in circulation in the world economic space. The best solution for this waste is to be stored at source, at the point of generation. There are several treatment options for this type of waste, reduction at source, reuse, recycling. Beside its negative effects on the environment, construction waste can be and resource. Novi Sad is divided in 16 single family resident zones and 10 multi family resident zones. For every zone of the city, quantities of used construction materials and construction waste were obtained. Rational use of natural resources is an essential factor in applying the principles of development with savings.

Keywords: Construction materials, Construction waste, Novi Sad, Recycling

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8577 A Novel Methodology for Synthesis of Fault Trees from MATLAB-Simulink Model

Authors: F. Tajarrod, G. Latif-Shabgahi

Abstract:

Fault tree analysis is a well-known method for reliability and safety assessment of engineering systems. In the last 3 decades, a number of methods have been introduced, in the literature, for automatic construction of fault trees. The main difference between these methods is the starting model from which the tree is constructed. This paper presents a new methodology for the construction of static and dynamic fault trees from a system Simulink model. The method is introduced and explained in detail, and its correctness and completeness is experimentally validated by using an example, taken from literature. Advantages of the method are also mentioned.

Keywords: Fault tree, Simulink, Standby Sparing and Redundancy

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8576 Construction 4.0: The Future of the Construction Industry in South Africa

Authors: Temidayo. O. Osunsanmi, Clinton Aigbavboa, Ayodeji Oke

Abstract:

The construction industry is a renowned latecomer to the efficiency offered by the adoption of information technology. Whereas, the banking, manufacturing, retailing industries have keyed into the future by using digitization and information technology as a new approach for ensuring competitive gain and efficiency. The construction industry has yet to fully realize similar benefits because the adoption of ICT is still at the infancy stage with a major concentration on the use of software. Thus, this study evaluates the awareness and readiness of construction professionals towards embracing a full digitalization of the construction industry using construction 4.0. The term ‘construction 4.0’ was coined from the industry 4.0 concept which is regarded as the fourth industrial revolution that originated from Germany. A questionnaire was utilized for sourcing data distributed to practicing construction professionals through a convenience sampling method. Using SPSS v24, the hypotheses posed were tested with the Mann Whitney test. The result revealed that there are no differences between the consulting and contracting organizations on the readiness for adopting construction 4.0 concepts in the construction industry. Using factor analysis, the study discovers that adopting construction 4.0 will improve the performance of the construction industry regarding cost and time savings and also create sustainable buildings. In conclusion, the study determined that construction professionals have a low awareness towards construction 4.0 concepts. The study recommends an increase in awareness of construction 4.0 concepts through seminars, workshops and training, while construction professionals should take hold of the benefits of adopting construction 4.0 concepts. The study contributes to the roadmap for the implementation of construction industry 4.0 concepts in the South African construction industry.

Keywords: Building information technology, Construction 4.0, Industry 4.0, Smart Site.

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8575 IFC-Based Construction Engineering Domain Otology Development

Authors: Jin Si, Yanzhong Wang

Abstract:

The essence of the 21st century is knowledge economy. Knowledge has become the key resource of economic growth and social development. Construction industry is no exception. Because of the characteristic of complexity, project manager can't depend only on information management. The only way to improve the level of construction project management is to set up a kind of effective knowledge accumulation mechanism. This paper first introduced the IFC standard and the concept of ontology. Then put forward the construction method of the architectural engineering domain ontology based on IFC. And finally build up the concepts, properties and the relationship between the concepts of the ontology. The deficiency of this paper is also pointed out.

Keywords: Construction Engineering, IFC, Ontology

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8574 Selection Initial modes for Belief K-modes Method

Authors: Sarra Ben Hariz, Zied Elouedi, Khaled Mellouli

Abstract:

The belief K-modes method (BKM) approach is a new clustering technique handling uncertainty in the attribute values of objects in both the cluster construction task and the classification one. Like the standard version of this method, the BKM results depend on the chosen initial modes. So, one selection method of initial modes is developed, in this paper, aiming at improving the performances of the BKM approach. Experiments with several sets of real data show that by considered the developed selection initial modes method, the clustering algorithm produces more accurate results.

Keywords: Clustering, Uncertainty, Belief function theory, Belief K-modes Method, Initial modes selection.

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8573 A Comparative Study on the Impact of Global Warming of Applying Low Carbon Factor Concrete Products

Authors: Su-Hyun Cho, Chang-U Chae

Abstract:

Environmental impact assessment techniques have been developed as a result of the worldwide efforts to reduce the environmental impact of global warming. By using the quantification method in the construction industry, it is now possible to manage the greenhouse gas is to systematically evaluate the impact on the environment over the entire construction process. In particular, the proportion of greenhouse gas emissions at the production stage of construction material occupied is high, and efforts are needed in particular in the construction field. In this research, intended for concrete products for the construction materials, by using the LCA method, we compared the results of environmental impact assessment and carbon emissions of developing products that have been applied low-carbon technologies compared to existing products. As a results, by introducing a raw material of industrial waste, showed carbon reduction. Through a comparison of the carbon emission reduction effect of low carbon technologies, it is intended to provide academic data for the evaluation of greenhouse gases in the construction sector and the development of low carbon technologies of the future.

Keywords: CO2 Emissions, CO2 Reduction, Ready-mixed Concrete, Environmental Impact Assessment.

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8572 Selection of a Tower Crane Using Augmented Reality in Smart Devices

Authors: Myunghoun Jang, Yongkyu Yi

Abstract:

Appropriate selection of lifting equipments for a high-rise building construction project is one of the important factors to the project’s success. Proper position of a tower crane on a construction site is so important to be determined by an expert or an experienced construction manager who draws working range of a tower crane and moves it over a 2D (dimensional) site layout plan. But it is not usual to use 3D CAD, BIM or virtual reality for temporary facility planning or selection of a tower crane. This study proposes a method to use augmented reality to select proper position of tower cranes. An augmented reality prototype is implemented on a smart device to verify the practicability of the proposed method.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Construction Planning, Site Layout, Temporary Facility Management, Tower Crane

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8571 Village Construction under China-s Rapid Urbanization: The Role and Strategy of Planning in the Rural Areas

Authors: Chen Zhang, Jiwu Wang

Abstract:

With China's urbanization continuing to accelerate, a amount of rural people flood into China's cities in recent years, and the issue of agriculture, rural areas and farmers is getting more and more serious. In 2005, the Chinese government put forward a plan for “the construction of new rural village", in order to coordinate the development of both urban and rural areas. The planning method of rural region differs sharply from that of urban areas, as same as village social structure and habits of farmer-s life, so the studies which can consider the special needs of village construction in China are absolutely essential. This paper expresses explore current situation and problems existing in the construction of China-s new rural village, such as bigger gap between urban and rural areas, excessive new construction projects, extinct traditional village style and so on. It tries to analyze the deep reason of the present situation of the village from law system, industrial structure, financial sources and planning method. Then it also provides a guide for developing policies and procedures promoting the development of china-s rural areas.

Keywords: Rural areas, village construction, physical planning, law system, financial sources, Public participation, China.

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8570 Classification of Construction Projects

Authors: M. Safa, A. Sabet, S. MacGillivray, M. Davidson, K. Kaczmarczyk, C. T. Haas, G. E. Gibson, D. Rayside

Abstract:

In order to address construction project requirements and specifications, scholars and practitioners need to establish taxonomy according to a scheme that best fits their need. While existing characterization methods are continuously being improved, new ones are devised to cover project properties which have not been previously addressed. One such method, the Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI), has received limited consideration strictly as a classification scheme. Developed by the Construction Industry Institute (CII) in 1996, the PDRI has been refined over the last two decades as a method for evaluating a project's scope definition completeness during front-end planning (FEP). The main contribution of this study is a review of practical project classification methods, and a discussion of how PDRI can be used to classify projects based on their readiness in the FEP phase. The proposed model has been applied to 59 construction projects in Ontario, and the results are discussed.

Keywords: Project classification, project definition rating index (PDRI), project goals alignment, risk.

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8569 Motivation among the Managers in Construction Companies

Authors: A.Marisa, Nor'Aini Yusof

Abstract:

Managers as the key employees have a very important role in maintaining the workforce performance which is critical to the construction companies- success in the future. If motivated employees start with motivated managers probably it would seem plausible if the de-motivated ones start with de-motivated managers. This study aims to analyze the importance of motivated managers to their successes and construction companies- successes. In this study, a quantitative method was used and the study area was in Medan, North Sumatera. Questionnaire survey was distributed directly to construction companies in Medan which are listed in the Construction Services Development Board. A total of 60 managers responded and the completed questionnaires were analyzed using the descriptive analysis. The results indicated that the respondents acknowledge the importance of motivation among themselves to the projects and construction companies- success, implying that it is vital to maintain the motivation and good performance of the workforce.

Keywords: construction companies, managers, motivation

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8568 Environmental Decision Making Model for Assessing On-Site Performances of Building Subcontractors

Authors: Buket Metin

Abstract:

Buildings cause a variety of loads on the environment due to activities performed at each stage of the building life cycle. Construction is the first stage that affects both the natural and built environments at different steps of the process, which can be defined as transportation of materials within the construction site, formation and preparation of materials on-site and the application of materials to realize the building subsystems. All of these steps require the use of technology, which varies based on the facilities that contractors and subcontractors have. Hence, environmental consequences of the construction process should be tackled by focusing on construction technology options used in every step of the process. This paper presents an environmental decision-making model for assessing on-site performances of subcontractors based on the construction technology options which they can supply. First, construction technologies, which constitute information, tools and methods, are classified. Then, environmental performance criteria are set forth related to resource consumption, ecosystem quality, and human health issues. Finally, the model is developed based on the relationships between the construction technology components and the environmental performance criteria. The Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) method is used for weighting the environmental performance criteria according to environmental priorities of decision-maker(s), while the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method is used for ranking on-site environmental performances of subcontractors using quantitative data related to the construction technology components. Thus, the model aims to provide an insight to decision-maker(s) about the environmental consequences of the construction process and to provide an opportunity to improve the overall environmental performance of construction sites.

Keywords: Construction process, construction technology, decision making, environmental performance, subcontractors.

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8567 Planning Method Study on the Ecological Restrained Construction Area from the Perspective of Governance: A Case from Yangzijin, Yangzhou, China

Authors: Rushi Tan, Yilun Xu, Xiaohui Wang

Abstract:

The restrained construction zoning, an important part in the urban master plan, is a necessary planning tool to control the city sprawl, to guarantee the reservation implementation of the various types of protective elements, and to realize the storage of the essential urban spatial resources. Simultaneously, owing to the diverse constitutes of restrained construction area and the various stakeholders involved in, its planning requires an overall consideration of all elements from the perspective of coordination+, balance and practicability to deal with the problems and conflicts in this process. Taking Yangzijin Ecological Restrained Construction Area in Yangzhou as an example, this study analyzes all the potential actors, agencies and stakeholders in this restrained construction area, as well as the relevant conflicts between each other. Besides, this study tries to build up a planning procedure based on the framework of governance theory, and proposes a possible planning method that combines "rigidity" and "flexibility" to protect the ecological limitation boundary, to take every interest into account, and to promote economic development in a harmonious society.

Keywords: Restrained construction area, governance, stakeholder, flexible stratagem, China.

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8566 Causality between the Construction Industry and the GDP in the United Arab Emirates

Authors: Hasan S. Mahmoud, Salwa M. Beheiry, Vian Ahmed

Abstract:

In light of the repercussions of the 2008 global economic crisis, the response of the United Arab Emirates economy and growth, and the vast construction activities that are undergoing, there is a need to investigate the relationship between construction activities and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This study aims to investigate the causality relationship between the construction industry in the United Arab Emirates and the GDP of the country in the last decade. For that, this study will investigate the relationship between the growth of the GDP and the growth of construction activities and their value addition to the economy. To ascertain this relationship, Granger Causality method is used to identify the causality between the time-dependent series.

Keywords: Construction value addition, Granger causality, Growth of GDP, UAE.

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8565 Developing a New Vibration Analysis Calculative Method for Esfahan Subway Train and Railways Design, Manufacturing, and Construction

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

The simulated mass and spring method evaluation for subway or railways construction and installation systems have a wide application in rail industries. This kind of design should be optimizing all related parameters to reduce the amount of vibration in cities, homelands, historical zones and other critical locations. Finite element method could help us a lot to analysis such applications with an excellent accuracy but always developing some simple, fast and user friendly evaluation method required in subway industrial applications. In addition, process parameter optimization extremely required in railway industries to achieve some optimal design of railways with maximum safety, reliability and performance. Furthermore, it is important to reduce vibrations and further related maintenance costs as well as possible. In this paper a simple but useful simulated mass and spring evaluation system developed for Esfahan subway construction. Besides, some of related recent patent and innovations in rail world industries like Suspension mass tuned vibration reducer, short sleeper vibration attenuation fastener and Airtight track vibration-noise reducing fastener discussed in details.

Keywords: Subway construction engineering, natural frequency, operation frequency, vibration analysis, polyurethane layer.

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8564 Labor Productivity in the Construction Industry -Factors Influencing the Spanish Construction Labor Productivity-

Authors: G. Robles, A. Stifi, José L. Ponz-Tienda, S. Gentes

Abstract:

This research paper aims to identify, analyze and rank factors affecting labor productivity in Spain with respect to their relative importance. Using a selected set of 35 factors, a structured questionnaire survey was utilized as the method to collect data from companies. Target population is comprised by a random representative sample of practitioners related with the Spanish construction industry. Findings reveal the top five ranked factors are as follows: (1) shortage or late supply of materials; (2) clarity of the drawings and project documents; (3) clear and daily task assignment; (4) tools or equipment shortages; (5) level of skill and experience of laborers. Additionally, this research also pretends to provide simple and comprehensive recommendations so that they could be implemented by construction managers for an effective management of construction labor forces.

Keywords: Construction management, Factors, Improvement, Labor productivity, Lean construction.

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8563 A Study on the Importance of Motivation among the Managers in Construction Companies in Medan

Authors: A.Marisa, Nor'Aini Yusof

Abstract:

Managers as the key employees have a very important role in maintaining the workforce performance which is critical to the construction companies- success in the future. If motivated employees start with motivated managers probably it would seem plausible if the de-motivated ones start with de-motivated managers. This study aims to analyze the importance of motivated managers to their successes and construction companies- successes. In this study, a quantitative method was used and the study area was in Medan, North Sumatera. Questionnaire survey was distributed directly to construction companies in Medan which are listed in the Construction Services Development Board. A total of 60 managers responded and the completed questionnaires were analyzed using the descriptive analysis. The results indicated that the respondents acknowledge the importance of motivation among themselves to the projects and construction companies- success, implying that it is vital o maintain the motivation and good performance of the workforce.

Keywords: construction companies, managers, motivation

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8562 Efficiency of Post-Tensioning Method for Seismic Retrofitting of Pre-Cast Cylindrical Concrete Reservoirs

Authors: M.E.Karbaschi, R.Goudarzizadeh, N.Hedayat

Abstract:

Cylindrical concrete reservoirs are appropriate choice for storing liquids as water, oil and etc. By using of the pre-cast concrete reservoirs instead of the in-situ constructed reservoirs, the speed and precision of the construction would considerably increase. In this construction method, wall and roof panels would make in factory with high quality materials and precise controlling. Then, pre-cast wall and roof panels would carry out to the construction site for assembling. This method has a few faults such as: the existing weeks in connection of wall panels together and wall panels to foundation. Therefore, these have to be resisted under applied loads such as seismic load. One of the innovative methods which was successfully applied for seismic retrofitting of numerous pre-cast cylindrical water reservoirs in New Zealand, using of the high tensile cables around the reservoirs and post-tensioning them. In this paper, analytical modeling of wall and roof panels and post-tensioned cables are carried out with finite element method and the effect of height to diameter ratio, post-tensioning force value, liquid level in reservoir, installing position of tendons on seismic response of reservoirs are investigated.

Keywords: Seismic Retrofit, Pre-Cast, Concrete Reservoir, Post-Tensioning.

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8561 On the Construction of m-Sequences via Primitive Polynomials with a Fast Identification Method

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

The paper provides an in-depth tutorial of mathematical construction of maximal length sequences (m-sequences) via primitive polynomials and how to map the same when implemented in shift registers. It is equally important to check whether a polynomial is primitive or not so as to get proper m-sequences. A fast method to identify primitive polynomials over binary fields is proposed where the complexity is considerably less in comparison with the standard procedures for the same purpose.

Keywords: Finite field, irreducible polynomial, primitive polynomial, maximal length sequence, additive shift register, multiplicative shift register.

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8560 Improved Network Construction Methods Based on Virtual Rails for Mobile Sensor Network

Authors: Noritaka Shigei, Kazuto Matsumoto, Yoshiki Nakashima, Hiromi Miyajima

Abstract:

Although Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs), which consist of mobile sensor nodes (MSNs), can cover a wide range of observation region by using a small number of sensor nodes, they need to construct a network to collect the sensing data on the base station by moving the MSNs. As an effective method, the network construction method based on Virtual Rails (VRs), which is referred to as VR method, has been proposed. In this paper, we propose two types of effective techniques for the VR method. They can prolong the operation time of the network, which is limited by the battery capabilities of MSNs and the energy consumption of MSNs. The first technique, an effective arrangement of VRs, almost equalizes the number of MSNs belonging to each VR. The second technique, an adaptive movement method of MSNs, takes into account the residual energy of battery. In the simulation, we demonstrate that each technique can improve the network lifetime and the combination of both techniques is the most effective.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, mobile sensor node, relay of sensing data, virtual rail, residual energy.

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8559 Effect of Pre-Construction on Construction Schedule and Client Loyalty

Authors: Jong Hoon Kim, Hyun-Soo Lee, Moonseo Park, Min Jeong, Inbeom Lee

Abstract:

Pre-construction is essential in achieving the success of a construction project. Due to the early involvement of project participants in the construction phase, project managers are able to plan ahead and solve issues well in advance leading to the success of the project and the satisfaction of the client. This research utilizes quantitative data derived from construction management projects in order to identify the relationship between pre-construction, construction schedule, and client satisfaction. A total of 65 construction projects and 93 clients were investigated for this research in an attempt to identify (a) the relationship between pre-construction and schedule reduction, and (b) pre-construction and client loyalty. Based on the quantitative analysis, this research was able to establish a negative correlation based on 65 construction projects between pre-construction and project schedule existed. This finding represents that the more pre-construction is performed for a certain project, the overall construction schedule decreased. Then, to determine the relationship between pre-construction and client satisfaction, Net Promoter Score (NPS) of 93 clients from the 65 projects was utilized. Pre-construction and NPS was further analyzed and a positive correlation was found between the two. This infers that clients tend to be more satisfied with projects with higher ratio of pre-construction than those projects with less pre-construction.

Keywords: Client loyalty, NPS, pre-construction, schedule reduction.

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8558 Virtual Reality Models used on the Visualization of Construction Activities in Civil Engineering Education

Authors: Alcínia Z. Sampaio, Pedro G. Henriques

Abstract:

Three-dimensional geometric models have been used to present architectural and engineering works, showing their final configuration. When the clarification of a detail or the constitution of a construction step in needed, these models are not appropriate. They do not allow the observation of the construction progress of a building. Models that could present dynamically changes of the building geometry are a good support to the elaboration of projects. Techniques of geometric modeling and virtual reality were used to obtain models that could visually simulate the construction activity. The applications explain the construction work of a cavity wall and a bridge. These models allow the visualization of the physical progression of the work following a planned construction sequence, the observation of details of the form of every component of the works and support the study of the type and method of operation of the equipment applied in the construction. These models presented distinct advantage as educational aids in first-degree courses in Civil Engineering. The use of Virtual Reality techniques in the development of educational applications brings new perspectives to the teaching of subjects related to the field of civil construction.

Keywords: Education, Engineering, virtual reality, visualsimulation.

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8557 Sustainability in the Construction Industry in Malaysia: The Challenges and Breakthroughs

Authors: Yoong H. Chan, Brenda C. T. Lee, Jin C. Lee

Abstract:

As Malaysia aims to be a developed country by year 2020; the construction industry has since been identified as a major catalyst for the country to attain the status. It is one of the sectors that contribute to most environmental pollutions. It is, therefore, important for the industry to implement sustainable construction practices to reduce the negative impacts that it has on the environment. However, most Malaysian developers have placed much focus on market demand and economic factors; neglecting the need for attention on environmental issues. The practice of sustainable construction is deemed to be an obstacle to achieve short-term economic goals due to the higher cost incurred in the operations. Hence, choices need to be made and a balance needs to be struck in weighing the long-term environmental benefits against immediate economic factors. This paper discusses the challenges faced by Malaysian developers in adopting sustainable practices in the construction industry and the cause of these challenges. It also looks into the achievements and breakthroughs that developers in Malaysia have achieved so far. The paper aims explores the long-term benefits of sustainable practices that would potentially raise awareness on the feasibility and economic potential of sustainable construction.

Keywords: Construction industry, construction method, sustainability.

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