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Simulation of Effect of Current Stressing on Reliability of Solder Joints with Cu-Pillar Bumps

Authors: Y. Li, Q. S. Zhang, H. Z. Huang, B. Y. Wu


The mechanism behind the electromigration and thermomigration failure in flip-chip solder joints with Cu-pillar bumps was investigated in this paper through using finite element method. Hot spot and the current crowding occurrs in the upper corner of copper column instead of solders of the common solder ball. The simulation results show that the change in thermal gradient is noticeable, which might greatly affect the reliability of solder joints with Cu-pillar bumps under current stressing. When the average applied current density is increased from 1×104 A/cm2 to 3×104 A/cm2 in solders, the thermal gradient would increase from 74 K/cm to 901 K/cm at an ambient temperature of 25°C. The force from thermal gradient of 901 K/cm can nearly induce thermomigration by itself. With the increase in applied current, the thermal gradient is growing. It is proposed that thermomigration likely causes a serious reliability issue for Cu column based interconnects.

Keywords: Simulation, Cu-pillar bumps, Electromigration, Thermomigration.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

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