Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 290

Search results for: bearing

290 A Study on Characteristics and Geometric Parameters of the Flat Porous Aerostatic Bearing

Authors: T. Y. Huang, B. Z. Wang, S. C. Lin, S. Y. Hsu

Abstract:

A CFD software was employed to analyze the characteristics of the flat round porous aerostatic bearings. The effects of gap between the bearing and the guide way and the porosity of the porous material on the load capacity of the bearing were studied. The adequacy of the simulation model and the approach was verified. From the parametric study, it is found that the depth of the flow path does not influence the load capacity of the bearing; the load capacity of the bearing will decrease if the thickness of the porous material increases or the porous material protrudes above the bearing housing; the variation of the chamfer at the edge of the bearing does not affect the bearing load capacity. For a bearing with an air gap of 5μm and a porosity of 0.1, the average load capacity and the pressure distribution of the bearing are nearly unchanged no matter the bearing moves at a constant or a varying speed.

Keywords: Aerostatic bearing, Load capacity, Porosity, Porous material.

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289 Experimental Challenges and Solutions in Design and Operation of the Test Rig for Water Lubricated Journal Bearing

Authors: Ravindra Mallya, B. Satish Shenoy, B. Raghuvir Pai

Abstract:

The study deals with the challenges in developing a test rig to test the performance of water lubricated journal bearing. The test rig is designed to simulate the working conditions of the bearing in order to understand their performance before they are put in operation. The bearing that is studied is the commercially available water lubricated bearing which has a rubber liner bonded with a rigid metal shell. The lubricant enters the bearing axially through a pressurized inlet tank and exits to an outlet tank which is at sufficiently low pressure. The load on the bearing is applied through the dead weight system which acts both in upward and downward direction so that net load acts on the bearing. The issues in feeding the lubricant into the bearing from the inlet side and preventing the leakage of the lubricant is discussed. The application of the load on the test bearing while maintaining the bearing afloat is also discussed.

Keywords: Axial groove, hydrodynamic pressure, journal bearing, test rig, water lubrication.

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288 Effect of L/D Ratio on the Performance of a Four-Lobe Pressure Dam Bearing

Authors: G. Bhushan, S. S. Rattan, N. P. Mehta

Abstract:

A four-lobe pressure dam bearing which is produced by cutting two pressure dams on the upper two lobes and two relief-tracks on the lower two lobes of an ordinary four-lobe bearing is found to be more stable than a conventional four-lobe bearing. In this paper a four-lobe pressure dam bearing supporting rigid and flexible rotors is analytically investigated to determine its performance when L/D ratio is varied in the range 0.75 to 1.5. The static and dynamic characteristics are studied at various L/D ratios. The results show that the stability of a four-lobe pressure dam bearing increases with decrease in L/D ratios both for rigid as well as flexible rotors.

Keywords: Four-lobe pressure dam bearing, finite-elementmethod, L/D ratio.

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287 Effect of Speed and Torque on Statistical Parameters in Tapered Bearing Fault Detection

Authors: Sylvester A. Aye, Philippus S. Heyns

Abstract:

The effect of the rotational speed and axial torque on the diagnostics of tapered rolling element bearing defects was investigated. The accelerometer was mounted on the bearing housing and connected to Sound and Vibration Analyzer (SVAN 958) and was used to measure the accelerations from the bearing housing. The data obtained from the bearing was processed to detect damage of the bearing using statistical tools and the results were subsequently analyzed to see if bearing damage had been captured. From this study it can be seen that damage is more evident when the bearing is loaded. Also, at the incipient stage of damage the crest factor and kurtosis values are high but as time progresses the crest factors and kurtosis values decrease whereas the peak and RMS values are low at the incipient stage but increase with damage.

Keywords: crest factor, damage detection, kurtosis, RMS, tapered roller bearing.

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286 Numerical Study on the Static Characteristics of Novel Aerostatic Thrust Bearings Possessing Elastomer Capillary Restrictor and Bearing Surface

Authors: S. W. Lo, S.-H. Lu, Y. H. Guo, L.-C. Hsu

Abstract:

In this paper a novel design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed and is analyzed numerically. The capillary restrictor and bearing disk are made of elastomer like silicone and PU. The viscoelasticity of elastomer helps the capillary expand for more air flux and at the same time, allows conicity of the bearing surface to form when the air pressure is enhanced. Therefore the bearing has the better ability of passive compensation. In the present example, as compared with the typical model, the new designs can nearly double the load capability and offer four times static stiffness.

Keywords: Aerostatic, bearing, elastomer, static stiffness.

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285 The Effect of Rotational Speed and Shaft Eccentric on Looseness of Bearing

Authors: Chalermsak Leetrakool, Komson Jirapattarasilp

Abstract:

This research was to study effect of rotational speed and eccentric factors, which were affected on looseness of bearing. The experiment was conducted on three rotational speeds and five eccentric distances with 5 replications. The results showed that influenced factor affected to looseness of bearing was rotational speed and eccentric distance which showed statistical significant. Higher rotational speed would cause on high looseness. Moreover, more eccentric distance, more looseness of bearing. Using bearing at high rotational with high eccentric of shaft would be affected bearing fault more than lower rotational speed. The prediction equation of looseness was generated by regression analysis. The prediction has an effected to the looseness of bearing at 91.5%.

Keywords: Bearing, Looseness, Rotational speed, Eccentric

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284 Polymer Aerostatic Thrust Bearing under Circular Support for High Static Stiffness

Authors: S. W. Lo, C.-H. Yu

Abstract:

A new design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed for high static stiffness. The bearing body, which is mead of polymer covered with metallic membrane, is held by a circular ring. Such a support helps form a concave air gap to grasp the air pressure. The polymer body, which can be made rapidly by either injection or molding is able to provide extra damping under dynamic loading. The smooth membrane not only serves as the bearing surface but also protects the polymer body. The restrictor is a capillary inside a silicone tube. It can passively compensate the variation of load by expanding the capillary diameter for more air flux. In the present example, the stiffness soars from 15.85 N/μm of typical bearing to 349.85 N/μm at bearing elevation 9.5 μm; meanwhile the load capacity also enhances from 346.86 N to 704.18 N.

Keywords: Aerostatic, bearing, polymer, static stiffness.

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283 A Review on Bearing Capacity Factor Nγ of Shallow Foundations with Different Shapes

Authors: S. Taghvamanesh, R. Ziaie Moayed

Abstract:

There are several methods for calculating the bearing capacity factors of foundations and retaining walls. In this paper, the bearing capacity factor Nγ (shape factor) for different types of foundation have been investigated. The formula for bearing capacity on c–φ–γ soil can still be expressed by Terzaghi’s equation except that the bearing capacity factor Nγ depends on the surcharge ratio, and friction angle φ. It is apparent that the value of Nγ increases irregularly with the friction angle of the subsoil, which leads to an excessive increment in Nγ of foundations with larger width. Also, the bearing capacity factor Nγ will significantly decrease with an increase in foundation`s width. It also should be highlighted that the effect of shape and dimension will be less noticeable with a decrease in the relative density of the soil. Hence, the bearing capacity factor Nγ relatively depends on foundation`s width, surcharge and roughness ratio. This paper presents the results of various studies conducted on the bearing capacity factor Nγ of: different types of shallow foundation and foundations with irregular geometry (ring footing, triangular footing, shell foundations and etc.) Further studies on the effect of bearing capacity factor Nγ on mat foundations and the characteristics of this factor with or without consideration for the presence of friction between soil and foundation are recommended.

Keywords: Bearing capacity, Bearing capacity factor, irregular foundation, shallow foundation.

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282 Effect of Load Orientation on the Stability of a Three-Lobe Bearing Supporting Rigid and Flexible Rotors

Authors: G. Bhushan

Abstract:

Multilobe bearings are found to be more stable than circular bearings. A three lobe bearing also possesses good stability characteristics. Sometimes the line of action of the load does not pass through the axis of a bearing and is shifted on either side by a few degrees. Load orientation is one of the factors that affect the stability of a three lobe bearing. The effect of load orientation on the stability of a three-lobe has been discussed in this paper. The results show that stability of a three-lobe bearing supporting either rigid or flexible rotor is increased for the positive values of load orientation i.e. when the load line is shifted in the opposite direction of rotation.

Keywords: Thee-lobe bearing, load orientation, finite element method.

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281 Nonlinear Seismic Dynamic Response of Continuous Curved Highway Viaducts with Different Bearing Supports

Authors: Rinna Tanaka, Carlos Mendez Galindo, Toshiro Hayashikawa

Abstract:

The results show that the bridge equipped with seismic isolation bearing system shows a high amount of energy dissipation. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the overall performance of continuous curved highway viaducts with different bearing supports, with an emphasis on the effectiveness of seismic isolation based on lead rubber bearing and hedge reaction force bearing system consisted of friction sliding bearing and rubber bearing. The bridge seismic performance has been evaluated on six different cases with six bearing models. The effects of the different arrangement of bearing on the deck superstructure displacements, the seismic damage at the bottom of the piers, movement track at the pier-s top and the total and strain energies absorbed by the structure are evaluated. In conclusion, the results provide sufficient evidence of the effectiveness on the use of seismic isolation on steel curved highway bridges.

Keywords: Curved highway viaducts, non-linear dynamic response, seismic damage.

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280 Discrete Element Modeling on Bearing Capacity Problems

Authors: N. Li, Y. M. Cheng

Abstract:

In this paper, the classical bearing capacity problem is re-considered from discrete element analysis. In the discrete element approach, the bearing capacity problem is considered from the elastic stage to plastic stage to rupture stage (large displacement). The bearing capacity failure mechanism of a strip footing on soil is investigated, and the influence of micro-parameters on the bearing capacity of soil is also observed. It is found that the distinct element method (DEM) gives very good visualized results, and basically coincides well with that derived by the classical methods.

Keywords: Bearing capacity, distinct element method, failure mechanism, large displacement.

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279 Evaluating of Bearing Capacity of Two Adjacent Strip Foundations Located around a Soil Slip

Authors: M. Meftahi, M. Hoseinzadeh, S. A. Naeini

Abstract:

Selection of soil bearing capacity is an important issue that should be investigated under different conditions. The bearing capacity of foundation around of soil slope is based on the active and passive forces. On the other hand, due to extension of urban structures, it is inevitable to put the foundations together. Concerning the two cases mentioned above, investigating the behavior of adjacent foundations which are constructed besides soil slope is essential. It should be noted that, according to the conditions, the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations can be less or more than mat foundations. Also, soil reinforcement increases the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations, and the amount of its increase depends on the distance between foundations. In this research, based on numerical studies, a method is presented for evaluating ultimate bearing capacity of adjacent foundations at different intervals. In the present study, the effect of foundation width, the center to center distance of adjacent foundations and reinforced soil has been investigated on the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations beside soil slope. The results indicate that, due to interference of failure surfaces created under foundation, it depends on their intervals and the ultimate bearing capacity of foundation varies.

Keywords: Adjacent foundation, bearing capacity, reinforcements, settlement, numerical analysis.

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278 Variation of the Dynamic Characteristics of a Spindle with the Change of Bearing Preload

Authors: Shinji Oouchi, Hajime Nomura, Kung-Da Wu, Yong-Run Chen, Jui-Pin Hung

Abstract:

This paper presents the variation of the dynamic characteristics of a spindle with the change of bearing preload. The correlations between the variation of bearing preload and fundamental modal parameters were first examined by conducting vibration tests on physical spindle units. Experimental measurements show that the dynamic compliance and damping ratio associated with the dominating modes were affected to vary with variation of the bearing preload. When the bearing preload was slightly deviated from a standard value, the modal frequency and damping ability also vary to different extent, which further enable the spindle to perform with different compliance. For the spindle used in this study, a standard preload value set on bearings would enable the spindle to behave a higher stiffness as compared with others with a preload variation. This characteristic can be served as a reference to examine the variation of bearing preload of spindle in assemblage or operation.

Keywords: Dynamic compliance, Bearing preload, Modal damping.

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277 Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Vertically Loaded Strip Piled-Raft Embedded in Soft Clay

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hosseinzade

Abstract:

Settlement and bearing capacity of a piled raft are the two important issues for the foundations of structures built on coastal areas from the geotechnical engineering point of view. Strip piled raft as a load carrying system can reduce the possible extensive consolidation settlements and improve bearing capacity of structures in soft ground. The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of strip piled raft embedded in soft clay. The efficiency of bearing capacity of strip piled raft foundation has been evaluated numerically in two cases; in the first case, the cap is placed directly on the ground surface and in the second, the cap is placed above the ground. Regarding to the fact that the geotechnical parameters of the soft clay are considered at low level, low bearing capacity is expected. The length, diameter and axe-to-axe distance of piles were the parameters which varied in this study to find out how they affected the bearing capacity. Results indicate that increasing the length and the diameter of the piles increase the bearing capacity.

Keywords: Soft clay, Strip piled raft, Bearing capacity, Settlement.

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276 Evaluation of Stiffness and Damping Coefficients of Multiple Axial Groove Water Lubricated Bearing Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Neville Fernandes, Satish Shenoy B., Raghuvir Pai B., Rammohan S. Pai B, Shrikanth Rao.D

Abstract:

This research details a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach to model fluid flow in a journal bearing with 8 equispaced semi-circular axial grooves. Water is used as the lubricant and is fed from one end of the bearing to the other, under pressure. The geometry of the bearing is modeled using a commercially available modeling software GAMBIT and the flow analysis is performed using a dedicated CFD analysis software FLUENT. The pressure distribution in the bearing clearance is obtained from FLUENT for various whirl ratios and is used to calculate the hydrodynamic force components in the radial and tangential direction of the bearing. These values along with the various whirl speeds can be used to do a regression analysis to determine the stiffness and damping coefficients. The values obtained are then compared with the stiffness and damping coefficients of a 3 Axial groove water lubricated journal bearing and those obtained from a FORTRAN code for a similar bearing.

Keywords: CFD, multiple axial groove, Water lubricated, Stiffness and Damping Coefficients.

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275 Evaluation on Bearing Capacity of Ring Foundations on two-Layered Soil

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, V. Rashidian, E. Izadi

Abstract:

This paper utilizes a finite element analysis to study the bearing capacity of ring footings on a two-layered soil. The upper layer, that the footing is placed on it, is soft clay and the underneath layer is a cohesionless sand. For modeling soils, Mohr–Coulomb plastic yield criterion is employed. The effects of two factors, the clay layer thickness and the ratio of internal radius of the ring footing to external radius of the ring, have been analyzed. It is found that the bearing capacity decreases as the value of ri / ro increases. Although, as the clay layer thickness increases the bearing capacity was alleviated gradually.

Keywords: Bearing capacity, Ring footing, Two-layered soil

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274 Failure Modes and Bearing Capacity Estimation for Strip Foundations in C-ɸ Soils: A Numerical Study

Authors: Paul Akagwu, Aaron Aboshio

Abstract:

In this study, typical c-ɸ soils subjected to loadings were assessed with a view to understand the general stress distribution and settlement behaviour of the soils under drained conditions. Numerical estimations of the non-dimensional bearing capacity factors, Nq and Nγ for varied angles of friction in the soil mass were obtained using PLAXIS. Ultimate bearing capacity values over a Ф range of 0-30 degrees were also computed and compared with analytical results obtained from the traditional simplified uncoupled approach of Terzaghi and Meyerhof. Results from the numerical study agree well with theoretical findings.

Keywords: Bearing capacity factors, finite element method, safe bearing pressure, structure-soil interaction.

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273 Bearing Fault Feature Extraction by Recurrence Quantification Analysis

Authors: V. G. Rajesh, M. V. Rajesh

Abstract:

In rotating machinery one of the critical components that is prone to premature failure is the rolling bearing. Consequently, early warning of an imminent bearing failure is much critical to the safety and reliability of any high speed rotating machines. This study is concerned with the application of Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) in fault detection of rolling element bearings in rotating machinery. Based on the results from this study it is reported that the RQA variable, percent determinism, is sensitive to the type of fault investigated and therefore can provide useful information on bearing damage in rolling element bearings.

Keywords: Bearing fault detection, machine vibrations, nonlinear time series analysis, recurrence quantification analysis.

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272 Effect of Sand Wall Stabilized with Different Percentages of Lime on Bearing Capacity of Foundation

Authors: Ahmed S. Abdulrasool

Abstract:

Recently sand wall started to gain more attention as the sand is easy to compact by using vibroflotation technique. An advantage of sand wall is the availability of different additives that can be mixed with sand to increase the stiffness of the sand wall and hence to increase its performance. In this paper, the bearing capacity of circular foundation surrounded by sand wall stabilized with lime is evaluated through laboratory testing. The studied parameters include different sand-lime walls depth (H/D) ratio (wall depth to foundation diameter) ranged between (0.0-3.0). Effect of lime percentages on the bearing capacity of skirted foundation models is investigated too. From the results, significant change is occurred in the behavior of shallow foundations due to confinement of the soil. It has been found that (H/D) ratio of 2 gives substantial improvement in bearing capacity, and beyond (H/D) ratio of 2, there is no significant improvement in bearing capacity. The results show that the optimum lime content is 11%, and the maximum increase in bearing capacity reaches approximately 52% at (H/D) ratio of 2.

Keywords: Lime-sand wall, bearing capacity, circular foundation, clay soil.

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271 Research on the Micro Pattern forming of Spiral Grooves in a Dynamic Thrust Bearing

Authors: Sol-Kil Oh, Hye-Jin Lee, Jung-Han Song, Kyoung-Tae Kim, Nak-Kyu Lee, Jong-Ho Kim

Abstract:

This paper deals with a novel technique for the fabrication of Spiral grooves in a dynamic thrust bearing. The main scheme proposed in this paper is to fabricate the microgrooves using desktop forming system. This process has advantages compared to the conventional electro-chemical machining in the viewpoint of a higher productivity. For this reason, a new testing apparatus is designed and built for press forming microgrooves on a surface of the thrust bearing. The material used in this study is sintered Cu-Fe alloy. The effects of the forming load on the performance of micro press forming are experimentally investigated. From the experimental results, formed depths are closed to the target ones with increasing the forming load.

Keywords: Desktop forming system, Fluid dynamic bearing, Thrust bearing, Microgroove.

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270 Rheodynamic Lubrication of a Rectangular Squeeze Film Bearing with an Exponential Curvature Variation using Bingham Lubricants

Authors: K. P. Vishwanath, A. Kandasamy

Abstract:

The present work deals with analyses of the effects of bearing curvature and non-Newtonian characteristics on the load capacity of an exponential rectangular squeeze film bearing using Bingham fluids as lubricants. Bingham fluids are characterized by an yield value and hence the formation of a “rigid" core in the region between the plates is justified. The flow is confined to the region between the core and the plates. The shape of the core has been identified through numerical means. Further, numerical solutions for the pressure distribution and load carrying capacity of the bearing for various values of Bingham number and curvature parameter have been obtained. The effects of bearing curvature and non-Newtonian characteristics of the lubricant on the bearing performances have been discussed.

Keywords: rheodynamic lubrication, yield stress, non-Newtonianfluid, Bingham fluid, exponential squeeze film.

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269 Prediction Method of Extenics Theory for Assessment of Bearing Capacity of Lateritic Soil Foundation

Authors: Wei Bai, Ling-Wei Kong, Ai-Guo Guo

Abstract:

Base on extenics theory, the statistical physical and mechanical properties from laboratory experiments are used to evaluate the bearing capacity of lateritic soil foundation. The properties include water content, bulk density, liquid limit, cohesion, and so on. The matter-element and the dependent function are defined. Then the synthesis dependent degree and the final grade index are calculated. The results show that predicted outcomes can be matched with the in-situ test data, and a evaluate grade associate with bearing capacity can be deduced. The results provide guidance to assess and determine the bearing capacity grade of lateritic soil foundation.

Keywords: Lateritic soil, bearing capacity, extenics theory, plate loading test.

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268 Development of a Real Time Axial Force Measurement System and IoT-Based Monitoring for Smart Bearing

Authors: Hassam Ahmed, Yuanzhi Liu, Yassine Selami, Wei Tao, Hui Zhao

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to develop a real time axial force measurement system for a smart bearing through the use of strain-gauges, whereby the data acquisition is performed by an Arduino microcontroller due to its easy manipulation and low-cost. The measured signal is acquired and then discretized using a Wheatstone Bridge and an Analog-Digital Converter (ADC) respectively. For bearing monitoring, a real time monitoring system based on Internet of things (IoT) and Bluetooth were developed. Experimental tests were performed on a bearing within a force range up to 600 kN. The experimental results show that there is a proportional linear relationship between the applied force and the output voltage, and the error R squared is within 0.9878 based on the regression analysis.

Keywords: Bearing, force measurement, IoT, strain gauge.

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267 The Influence of the Geogrid Layers on the Bearing Capacity of Layered Soils

Authors: S. A. Naeini, H. R. Rahmani, M. Hossein Zade

Abstract:

Many classical bearing capacity theories assume that the natural soil's layers are homogenous for determining the bearing capacity of the soil. But, in many practical projects, we encounter multi-layer soils. Geosynthetic as reinforcement materials have been extensively used in the construction of various structures. In this paper, numerical analysis of the Plate Load Test (PLT) using of ABAQUS software in double-layered soils with different thicknesses of sandy and gravelly layers reinforced with geogrid was considered. The PLT is one of the common filed methods to calculate parameters such as soil bearing capacity, the evaluation of the compressibility and the determination of the Subgrade Reaction module. In fact, the influence of the geogrid layers on the bearing capacity of the layered soils is investigated. Finally, the most appropriate mode for the distance and number of reinforcement layers is determined. Results show that using three layers of geogrid with a distance of 0.3 times the width of the loading plate has the highest efficiency in bearing capacity of double-layer (sand and gravel) soils. Also, the significant increase in bearing capacity between unreinforced and reinforced soil with three layers of geogrid is caused by the condition that the upper layer (gravel) thickness is equal to the loading plate width.

Keywords: Bearing capacity, reinforcement, geogrid, plate load test, layered soils.

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266 On the Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Internal Pressure in Air Bearings

Authors: Abdurrahim Dal, Tuncay Karaçay

Abstract:

Dynamics of a rotor supported by air bearings is strongly depends on the pressure distribution between the rotor and the bearing. In this study, internal pressure in air bearings is numerical and experimental analyzed for different radial clearances. Firstly the pressure distribution between rotor and bearing is modeled using Reynold's equation and this model is solved numerically. The rotor-bearing system is also modeled in four degree of freedom and it is simulated for different radial clearances. Then, in order to validate numerical results, a test rig is designed and the rotor bearing system is run under the same operational conditions. Pressure signals of left and right bearings are recorded. Internal pressure variations are compared for numerical and experimental results for different radial clearances.

Keywords: Air bearing, internal pressure, Reynold’s equation, rotor.

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265 EHD Effect on the Dynamic Characteristics of a Journal Bearing Lubricated with Couple Stress Fluids

Authors: B. Chetti, W. A. Crosby

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical analysis for the dynamic performance of a finite journal bearing lubricated with couple stress fluid taking into account the effect of the deformation of the bearing liner. The modified Reynolds equation has been solved by using finite difference technique. The dynamic characteristics in terms of stiffness coefficients, damping coefficients, critical mass and whirl ratio are evaluated for different values of eccentricity ratio and elastic coefficient for a journal bearing lubricated with a couple stress fluids and a Newtonian fluid. The results show that the dynamic characteristics of journal bearings lubricated with couple stress fluids are improved compared to journal bearings lubricated with Newtonian fluids.

Keywords: Circular bearing, elastohydrodynamic, stability, couple stress.

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264 Effect of Lime on the California Bearing Ratio Behaviour of Fly Ash - mine Overburden Mixes

Authors: B. Behera, M. K. Mishra

Abstract:

Typically thermal power plants are located near to surface coal mines that produce huge amount of fly ash as a waste byproduct. Disposal of fly ash causes significant economic and environmental problems. Now-a-days, research is going on for bulk utilization of fly ash. In order to increase its percentage utilization, an investigation was carried out to evaluate its potential for haul road construction. This paper presents the laboratory California bearing ratio (CBR) tests and evaluates the effect of lime on CBR behavior of fly ash - mine overburden mixes. Tests were performed with different percentages of lime (2%, 3%, 6%, and 9%). The results show that the increase in bearing ratio of fly ash-overburden mixes was achieved by lime treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted on 28 days cured specimens. The SEM study showed that the bearing ratio development is related to the microstructural development.

Keywords: California bearing ratio, Fly ash, Mine overburden, Lime.

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263 Main Bearing Stiffness Investigation

Authors: B. Bellakhdhar, A. Dogui, J.L. Ligier

Abstract:

Simplified coupled engine block-crankshaft models based on beam theory provide an efficient substitute to engine simulation in the design process. These models require accurate definition of the main bearing stiffness. In this paper, an investigation of this stiffness is presented. The clearance effect is studied using a smooth bearing model. It is manifested for low shaft displacement. The hydrodynamic assessment model shows that the oil film has no stiffness for low loads and it is infinitely rigid for important loads. The deformation stiffness is determined using a suitable finite elements model based on real CADs. As a result, a main bearing behaviour law is proposed. This behaviour law takes into account the clearance, the hydrodynamic sustention and the deformation stiffness. It ensures properly the transition from the configuration low rigidity to the configuration high rigidity.

Keywords: Clearance, deformation stiffness, main bearing behaviour law, oil film stiffness

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262 Effect of Footing Shape on Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Closely Spaced Footings on Sandy Soil

Authors: A. Shafaghat, H. Khabbaz, S. Moravej, Ah. Shafaghat

Abstract:

The bearing capacity of closely spaced shallow footings alters with their spacing and the shape of footing. In this study, the bearing capacity and settlement of two adjacent footings constructed on a sand layer are investigated. The effect of different footing shapes including square, circular, ring and strip on sandy soil is captured in the calculations. The investigations are carried out numerically using PLAXIS-3D software and analytically employing conventional settlement equations. For this purpose, foundations are modelled in the program with practical dimensions and various spacing ratios ranging from 1 to 5. The spacing ratio is defined as the centre-to-centre distance to the width of foundations (S/B). Overall, 24 models are analyzed; and the results are compared and discussed in detail. It can be concluded that the presence of adjacent foundation leads to the reduction in bearing capacity for round shape footings while it can increase the bearing capacity of rectangular footings in some specific distances.

Keywords: Bearing capacity, finite element analysis, loose sand, settlement equations, shallow foundation.

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261 Analysis of Short Bearing in Turbulent Regime Considering Micropolar Lubrication

Authors: S. S. Gautam, S. Samanta

Abstract:

The aim of the paper work is to investigate and predict the static performance of journal bearing in turbulent flow condition considering micropolar lubrication. The Reynolds equation has been modified considering turbulent micropolar lubrication and is solved for steady state operations. The Constantinescu-s turbulence model is adopted using the coefficients. The analysis has been done for a parallel and inertia less flow. Load capacity and friction factor have been evaluated for various operating parameters.

Keywords: hydrodynamic bearing, micropolar lubrication, coupling number, characteristic length, perturbation analysis

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