Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1162

Search results for: alumina protective layer

1162 Formation of Protective Aluminum-Oxide Layer on the Surface of Fe-Cr-Al Sintered-Metal-Fibers via Multi-Stage Thermal Oxidation

Authors: Loai Ben Naji, Osama M. Ibrahim, Khaled J. Al-Fadhalah

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to investigate the formation and adhesion of a protective aluminum-oxide (Al2O3, alumina) layer on the surface of Iron-Chromium-Aluminum Alloy (Fe-Cr-Al) sintered-metal-fibers. The oxide-scale layer was developed via multi-stage thermal oxidation at 930 oC for 1 hour, followed by 1 hour at 960 oC, and finally at 990 oC for 2 hours. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images show that the multi-stage thermal oxidation resulted in the formation of predominantly Al2O3 platelets-like and whiskers. SEM images also reveal non-uniform oxide-scale growth on the surface of the fibers. Furthermore, peeling/spalling of the alumina protective layer occurred after minimum handling, which indicates weak adhesion forces between the protective layer and the base metal alloy.  Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the heat-treated Fe-Cr-Al sintered-metal-fibers confirmed the high aluminum content on the surface of the protective layer, and the low aluminum content on the exposed base metal alloy surface. In conclusion, the failure of the oxide-scale protective layer exposes the base metal alloy to further oxidation, and the fragile non-uniform oxide-scale is not suitable as a support for catalysts.

Keywords: High-temperature oxidation, alumina protective layer, iron-chromium-aluminum alloy, sintered-metal-fibers.

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1161 Investigating the Impact of the Laundry and Sterilization Process on the Performance of Reusable Surgical Gowns

Authors: N. Khomarloo, F. Mousazadegan, M. Latifi, N. Hemmatinejad

Abstract:

Recently, the utilization of reusable surgical gowns in order to decrease costs, environmental protection and enhance surgeon’s comfort is considered. One of the concerns in applying this kind of medical protective clothing is reduction of their resistance to bacterial penetration especially in wet state, after repeated laundering and sterilizing process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the laundering and sterilizing process on the reusable surgical gown’s resistance against bacterial wet penetration. To this end, penetration of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in wet state after 70 washing and sterilizing cycles was evaluated on the two single-layer and three-layer reusable gowns. The outcomes reveal that up to 20 laundering and sterilizing cycles, protective property of samples improves due to fabric shrinkage, after that because of the fabric’s construction opening, the bacterial penetration increase. However, the three-layer gown presents higher protective performance comparing to the single-layer one.

Keywords: Reusable surgical gown, laundry, sterilization, wet bacterial penetration.

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1160 Nano-Alumina Sulfuric Acid: An Efficient Catalyst for the Synthesis of α-Aminonitriles Derivatives

Authors: Abbas Teimouri, Alireza Najafi Chermahini, Leila Ghorbanian

Abstract:

An efficient and green protocol for the synthesis of α- aminonitriles derivatives by one-pot reaction of different aldehydes with amines and trimethylsilyl cyanides has been developed using natural alumina, alumina sulfuric acid (ASA), nano-γ-alumina, nanoalumina sulfuric acid (nano-ASA) under microwave irradiation and solvent-free conditions. The advantages of methods are short reaction times, high yields, milder conditions and easy work up. The catalysts can be recovered for the subsequent reactions and reused without any appreciable loss of efficiency.

Keywords: Nano-γ-alumina, nano-alumina sulfuric acid, green synthesis, microwave irradiation, α-aminonitriles derivatives.

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1159 A Study of the Alumina Distribution in the Lab-Scale Cell during Aluminum Electrolysis

Authors: Olga Tkacheva, Pavel Arkhipov, Alexey Rudenko, Yurii Zaikov

Abstract:

The aluminum electrolysis process in the conventional cryolite-alumina electrolyte with cryolite ratio of 2.7 was carried out at an initial temperature of 970 °C and the anode current density of 0.5 A/cm2 in a 15A lab-scale cell in order to study the formation of the side ledge during electrolysis and the alumina distribution between electrolyte and side ledge. The alumina contained 35.97% α-phase and 64.03% γ-phase with the particles size in the range of 10-120 μm. The cryolite ratio and the alumina concentration were determined in molten electrolyte during electrolysis and in frozen bath after electrolysis. The side ledge in the electrolysis cell was formed only by the 13th hour of electrolysis. With a slight temperature decrease a significant increase in the side ledge thickness was observed. The basic components of the side ledge obtained by the XRD phase analysis were Na3AlF6, Na5Al3F14, Al2O3, and NaF.5CaF2.AlF3. As in the industrial cell, the increased alumina concentration in the side ledge formed on the cell walls and at the ledge-electrolyte-aluminum three-phase boundary during aluminum electrolysis in the lab cell was found (FTP No 05.604.21.0239, IN RFMEFI60419X0239).

Keywords: Alumina, alumina distribution, aluminum electrolyzer, cryolite-alumina electrolyte, side ledge.

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1158 Hydrogen Generation by Accelerating Aluminum Corrosion in Water with Alumina

Authors: J. Skrovan, A. Alfantazi, T. Troczynski

Abstract:

For relatively small particles of aluminum (<60 μm), a measurable percentage of the aluminum (>5%) is observed to corrode before passivation occurs at moderate temperatures (>50oC) in de-ionized water within one hour. Physical contact with alumina powder results in a significant increase in both the rate of corrosion and the extent of corrosion before passivation. Whereas the resulting release of hydrogen gas could be of commercial interest for portable hydrogen supply systems, the fundamental aspects of Al corrosion acceleration in presence of dispersed alumina particles are equally important. This paper investigates the effects of various amounts of alumina on the corrosion rate of aluminum powders in water and the effect of multiple additions of aluminum into a single reactor.

Keywords: Alumina, Aluminum, Corrosion, Hydrogen

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1157 The Impact of Alumina Cement on Properties of Portland Cement Slurries and Mortars

Authors: Krzysztof Zieliński, Dariusz Kierzek

Abstract:

The addition of a small amount of alumina cement to Portland cement results in immediate setting, a rapid increase in the compressive strength and a clear increase of the adhesion to concrete substrate. This phenomenon is used, among others, for the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds. Alumina cement is several times more expensive than Portland cement and is a component having a significant impact on prices of products manufactured with its use. For the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds, low-alumina cement containing approximately 40% Al2O3 is normally used. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Portland cement with the addition of alumina cement on the basic physical and mechanical properties of cement slurries and mortars. CEM I 42.5R and three types of alumina cement containing 40%, 50% and 70% of Al2O3 were used for the tests. Mixes containing 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% of different varieties of alumina cement were prepared; for which, the time of initial and final setting, compressive and flexural strength and adhesion to concrete substrate were determined. The analysis of the obtained test results showed that a similar immediate setting effect and clearly better adhesion strength can be obtained using the addition of 6% of high-alumina cement than 12% of low-alumina cement. As the prices of these cements are similar, this can give significant financial savings in the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds.

Keywords: Alumina cement, immediate setting, compression strength, adhesion to substrate.

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1156 Preparation of Homogeneous Dense Composite of Zirconia and Alumina (ZTA)using Colloidal Filtration

Authors: H. Wakily, M. Mehrali, H. S. C. Metselaar

Abstract:

Homogeneous composites of alumina and zirconia with a small amount of MgO (<1 wt %) were prepared by colloidal filtration. The object of using ZrO2 (15wt %) was to provide zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA). Suspensions of alumina and Zirconia with various solid loadings and various concentrations of Dolapix CE64 as surfactant were studied. The stability of these suspensions was investigated using rheological measurements. The optimum amount of using Dolapix was 0.8wt% for ZTA containing MgO suspension which gave low apparent viscosity in basic area (100 mPa s at shear rate of 50 s-1). The satisfactory mixtures were made into sample pallets using colloidal filtration. The process was completed with pressureless sintering in suitable temperature. Phase, grain size and qualitative compositional analysis were done using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. ZTA containing 0.05 wt% MgO shows the lowest grain size for alumina around 0.5 μm. Densification studies show that near full densities (>99%) were obtained for ZTA ceramic containing 0.05 wt% MgO in 1500 °C.

Keywords: Colloidal filtration, Dolapix, MgO, Zirconiatoughened alumina.

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1155 Gas Permeation Behavior of Single and Mixed Gas Components Using an Asymmetric Ceramic Membrane

Authors: Ngozi Nwogu, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

A dip-coating process has been used to form an asymmetric silica membrane with improved membrane performance and reproducibility. First, we deposited repeatedly silica on top of a commercial alumina membrane support to improve its structural make up. The membrane is further processed under clean room conditions to avoid dust impurity and subsequent drying in an oven for high thermal, chemical and physical stability. The resulting asymmetric membrane exhibits a gradual change in the membrane layer thickness. Compared to the support, the dual-layer process improves the gas flow rates. For the scientific applications for natural gas purification, CO2, CH4 and H2 gas flow rates were. In addition, the membrane selectively separated hydrogen.

Keywords: Gas permeation, Silica membrane, separation factor, membrane layer thickness.

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1154 Various Modifications of Electrochemical Barrier Layer Thinning of Anodic Aluminum Oxide

Authors: W. J. Stępniowski, W. Florkiewicz, M. Norek, M. Michalska-Domańska, E. Kościuczyk, T. Czujko

Abstract:

In this paper, two options of anodic alumina barrier layer thinning have been demonstrated. The approaches varied with the duration of the voltage step. It was found that too long step of the barrier layer thinning process leads to chemical etching of the nanopores on their top. At the bottoms pores are not fully opened what is disadvantageous for further applications in nanofabrication. On the other hand, while the duration of the voltage step is controlled by the current density (value of the current density cannot exceed 75% of the value recorded during previous voltage step) the pores are fully opened. However, pores at the bottom obtained with this procedure have smaller diameter, nevertheless this procedure provides electric contact between the bare aluminum (substrate) and electrolyte, what is suitable for template assisted electrodeposition, one of the most cost-efficient synthesis method in nanotechnology.

Keywords: Anodic aluminum oxide, anodization, barrier layer thinning, nanopores.

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1153 Green Technologies and Sustainability in the Care and Maintenance of Protective Textiles

Authors: R. Nayak, T. Panwar, R. Padhye

Abstract:

Protective textiles get soiled, stained and even worn during their use, which may not be usable after a certain period due to the loss of protective performance. They need regular cleaning and maintenance, which helps to extend the durability of the clothing, retains their useful properties and ensures that fresh clothing is ready to wear when needed. Generally, the cleaning processes used for various protective clothing include dry-cleaning (using solvents) or wet cleaning (using water). These cleaning processes can alter the fabric surface properties, dimensions, and physical, mechanical and performance properties. The technology of laundering and dry-cleaning has undergone several changes. Sustainable methods and products are available for faster, safer and improved cleaning of protective textiles. We performed a comprehensive and systematic review of green technologies and eco-friendly products for sustainable cleaning of protective textiles. Special emphasis is given on the care and maintenance procedures of protective textiles for protection from fire, bullets, chemical and other types of protective clothing.

Keywords: Sustainable cleaning, protective textiles, eco-friendly cleaning, ozone laundering, ultrasonic cleaning.

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1152 Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow from a Vertical Cone in a Porous Medium Filled with a Nanofluid

Authors: Ezzah Liana Ahmad Fauzi, Syakila Ahmad, Ioan Pop

Abstract:

The steady mixed convection boundary layer flow from a vertical cone in a porous medium filled with a nanofluid is numerically investigated using different types of nanoparticles as Cu (copper), Al2O3 (alumina) and TiO2 (titania). The boundary value problem is solved by using the shooting technique by reducing it into an ordinary differential equation. Results of interest for the local Nusselt number with various values of the constant mixed convection parameter and nanoparticle volume fraction parameter are evaluated. It is found that dual solutions exist for a certain range of mixed convection parameter.

Keywords: boundary layer, mixed convection, nanofluid, porous medium, vertical cone.

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1151 Thermal Method for Testing Small Chemisorbents Samples on the Base of Potassium Superoxide

Authors: Pavel V. Balabanov, Daria A. Liubimova, Aleksandr P. Savenkov

Abstract:

The increase of technogenic and natural accidents, accompanied by air pollution, for example, by combustion products, leads to the necessity of respiratory protection. This work is devoted to the development of a calorimetric method and a device which allows investigating quickly the kinetics of carbon dioxide sorption by chemisorbents on the base of potassium superoxide in order to assess the protective properties of respiratory protective closed circuit apparatus. The features of the traditional approach for determining the sorption properties in a thin layer of chemisorbent are described, as well as methods and devices, which can be used for the sorption kinetics study. The authors developed an approach (as opposed to the traditional approach) based on the power measurement of internal heat sources in the chemisorbent layer. The emergence of the heat sources is a result of exothermic reaction of carbon dioxide sorption. This approach eliminates the necessity of chemical analysis of samples and can significantly reduce the time and material expenses during chemisorbents testing. Error of determining the volume fraction of adsorbed carbon dioxide by the developed method does not exceed 12%. Taking into account the efficiency of the method, we consider that it is a good alternative to traditional methods of chemical analysis under the assessment of the protection sorbents quality.

Keywords: Carbon dioxide chemisorption, exothermic reaction, internal heat sources, respiratory protective apparatus.

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1150 Thixomixing as Novel Method for Fabrication Aluminum Composite with Carbon and Alumina Fibers

Authors: Ebrahim Akbarzadeh, Josep A. Picas Barrachina, Maite Baile Puig

Abstract:

This study focuses on a novel method for dispersion and distribution of reinforcement under high intensive shear stress to produce metal composites. The polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based short carbon fiber (Csf) and Nextel 610 alumina fiber were dispersed under high intensive shearing at mushy zone in semi-solid of A356 by a novel method. The bundles and clusters were embedded by infiltration of slurry into the clusters, thus leading to a uniform microstructure. The fibers were embedded homogenously into the aluminum around 576-580°C with around 46% of solid fraction. Other experiments at 615°C and 568°C which are contained 0% and 90% solid respectively were not successful for dispersion and infiltration of aluminum into bundles of Csf. The alumina fiber has been cracked by high shearing load. The morphologies and crystalline phase were evaluated by SEM and XRD. The adopted thixo-process effectively improved the adherence and distribution of Csf into Al that can be developed to produce various composites by thixomixing.

Keywords: Aluminum, carbon fiber, alumina fiber, thixomixing, adhesion.

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1149 Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Dry Beneficiation of Iron Ore and Coal in a Fast Fluidized Bed

Authors: M. Das, R. K. Saha, B. C. Meikap

Abstract:

Iron ore and coal are the two major important raw materials being used in Iron making industries. Usually ore fines containing around 5% Alumina are rejected due to higher proportion of alumina. Therefore, a technology or process which may reduce the alumina content by 2% by beneficiation process will be highly attractive . In addition fine coals with ash content is used nearly 12% is directly injected in blast furnace. Fast fluidization is a technology by using dry beneficiation of coal and iron ore can be done. During the fluidization process the iron ore band coal is fluidized at high velocity in the riser of a fast fluidized bed, the heavier and coarse particles is generally settled at the bottom in a dense zone of the riser while the finer and lighter particle are entrained to the top dilute zone and then via a cyclone is fed back to the bottom of the riser column. Most of the alumina and low ash fine size coals being lighter are expected to move up to the riser and by a natural beneficiation of ores is expected to take place in the riser. Therefore in this study an attempt has been made for dry beneficiation of iron ore and coal in a fluidized bed and its hydrodynamic characterization.

Keywords: beneficiation, fluidization, gas-solid fluidization, riser .

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1148 Investigation of the Effect of Nano-Alumina Particles on Adsorption Property of Acrylic Fiber

Authors: Mehdi Ketabchi, Shallah Alijanlo

Abstract:

The flue gas from fossil fuels combustion contains harmful pollutants dangerous for human health and environment. One of the air pollution control methods to restrict the emission of these pollutants is based on using the nanoparticle in adsorption process. In the present research, gamma nano-alumina particle is added to polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer through simple loading method, and the adsorption capacity of the wet spun fiber is investigated. The results of exposure the fiber to the acid gases including SO2, CO, NO2, NO, and CO2 show the noticeable increase of gas adsorption capacity on fiber contains nanoparticle. The research has been conducted in Acrylic II Plant of Polyacryl Iran Corporation.

Keywords: Acrylic fiber, adsorbent, wet spun, polyacryl company, gamma nano-alumina.

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1147 Separation of CO2 Using MFI-Alumina Nanocomposite Hollow Fiber Ion-Exchanged with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher, I. Musbah

Abstract:

Cs-type nanocomposite zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on an alumina ceramic hollow fibre with a mean outer diameter of 1.7 mm; cesium cationic exchange test was carried out inside test module with mean wall thickness of 230 μm and an average crossing pore size smaller than 0.2 μm. Separation factor of n-butane/H2 obtained indicate that a relatively high quality closed to 20. Maxwell-Stefan modeling provides an equivalent thickness lower than 1 µm. To compare the difference an application to CO2/N2 separation has been achieved, reaching separation factors close to (4,18) before and after cation exchange on H-zeolite membrane formed within the pores of a ceramic alumina substrate.

Keywords: MFI membrane, nanocomposite, Ceramic hollow fibre, CO2, Ion-exchange.

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1146 Study on Hysteresis in Sustainable Two-Layer Circular Tube under a Lateral Compression Load

Authors: Ami Nomura, Ken Imanishi, Yukinori Taniguchi, Etsuko Ueda, Tadahiro Wada, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Recently, there have been a lot of earthquakes in Japan. It is necessary to promote seismic isolation devices for buildings. The devices have been hardly diffused in attached houses, because the devices are very expensive. We should develop a low-cost seismic isolation device for detached houses. We suggested a new seismic isolation device which uses a two-layer circular tube as a unit. If hysteresis is produced in the two-layer circular tube under lateral compression load, we think that the two-layer circular tube can have energy absorbing capacity. It is necessary to contact the outer layer and the inner layer to produce hysteresis. We have previously reported how the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer from a perspective of analysis used mechanics of materials. We have clarified that the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer under a lateral compression load. In this paper, we explored contact area between the outer layer and the inner layer under a lateral compression load by using FEA. We think that changing the inner layer’s thickness is effective in increase the contact area. In order to change the inner layer’s thickness, we changed the shape of the inner layer. As a result, the contact area changes depending on the inner layer’s thickness. Additionally, we experimented to check whether hysteresis occurs in fact. As a consequence, we can reveal hysteresis in the two-layer circular tube under the condition.

Keywords: Contact area, energy absorbing capacity, hysteresis, seismic isolation device.

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1145 Development of Single Layer of WO3 on Large Spatial Resolution by Atomic Layer Deposition Technique

Authors: S. Zhuiykov, Zh. Hai, H. Xu, C. Xue

Abstract:

Unique and distinctive properties could be obtained on such two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor as tungsten trioxide (WO3) when the reduction from multi-layer to one fundamental layer thickness takes place. This transition without damaging single-layer on a large spatial resolution remained elusive until the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was utilized. Here we report the ALD-enabled atomic-layer-precision development of a single layer WO3 with thickness of 0.77±0.07 nm on a large spatial resolution by using (tBuN)2W(NMe2)2 as tungsten precursor and H2O as oxygen precursor, without affecting the underlying SiO2/Si substrate. Versatility of ALD is in tuning recipe in order to achieve the complete WO3 with desired number of WO3 layers including monolayer. Governed by self-limiting surface reactions, the ALD-enabled approach is versatile, scalable and applicable for a broader range of 2D semiconductors and various device applications.

Keywords: Atomic layer deposition, tungsten oxide, WO3, two-dimensional semiconductors, single fundamental layer.

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1144 Development of a Nano-Alumina-Zirconia Composite Catalyst as an Active Thin Film in Biodiesel Production

Authors: N. Marzban, J. K. Heydarzadeh M. Pourmohammadbagher, M. H. Hatami, A. Samia

Abstract:

A nano-alumina-zirconia composite catalyst was synthesized by a simple aqueous sol-gel method using AlCl3.6H2O and ZrCl4 as precursors. Thermal decomposition of the precursor and subsequent formation of γ-Al2O3 and t-Zr were investigated by thermal analysis. XRD analysis showed that γ-Al2O3 and t-ZrO2 phases were formed at 700 °C. FT-IR analysis also indicated that the phase transition to γ-Al2O3 occurred in corroboration with X-ray studies. TEM analysis of the calcined powder revealed that spherical particles were in the range of 8-12 nm. The nano-alumina-zirconia composite particles were mesoporous and uniformly distributed in their crystalline phase. In order to measure the catalytic activity, esterification reaction was carried out. Biodiesel, as a renewable fuel, was formed in a continuous packed column reactor. Free fatty acid (FFA) was esterified with ethanol in a heterogeneous catalytic reactor. It was found that the synthesized γ-Al2O3/ZrO2 composite had the potential to be used as a heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production processes.

Keywords: Nano-alumina-zirconia, composite catalyst, thin film, biodiesel.

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1143 Properties of Al2O3 – hBN Composites

Authors: K. Broniszewski, J. Woźniak, K. Czechowski, P. Orłowski, A. Olszyna

Abstract:

Alumina matrix composites with addition of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), acting as solid lubricant, were produced. Main purpose of solid lubricants is to dispose the necessity of using cooling lubricants in machining process. Hot pressing was used as a consolidating process for Al2O3-x%wt.hBN (x=1/ 2,5/ 5 /7,5 /10) composites. Properties of sinters such as relative density, hardness, Young-s modulus and fracture toughness were examined. Obtained samples characterize by high relative density. Hardness and fracture toughness values allow the use of alumina – hBN composites for machining steels even in hardened condition. However it was observed that high weight content of hBN can negatively influence the mechanical properties of composites.

Keywords: Alumina. Composites, Hexagonal boron nitride, Machining

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1142 Workplace Monitoring During Interventional Cardiology Procedures

Authors: N. Todorovic, I. Bikit, J. Nikolov, S. Forkapic, D. Mrdja, S. Todorovic

Abstract:

Interventional cardiologists are at greater risk from radiation exposure as a result of the procedures they undertake than most other medical specialists. A study was performed to evaluate operator dose during interventional cardiology procedures and to establish methods of operator dose reduction with a radiation protective device. Different procedure technique and use of protective tools can explain big difference in the annual equivalent dose received by the professionals. Strategies to prevent and monitor radiation exposure, advanced protective shielding and effective radiation monitoring methods should be applied.

Keywords: absorbed dose rate measurements, annualequivalent dose, protective device.

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1141 Investigation on Some Ergonomics and Psychological Strains of Common Militarism Protective Clothing

Authors: A. Ashjaran, A. Rashidi, R. Ghazi-Saeidi

Abstract:

Protective clothing limits heat transfer and hampers task performance due to the increased weight. Militarism protective clothing enables humans to operate in adverse environments. In the selection and evaluation of militarism protective clothing attention should be given to heat strain, ergonomic and fit issues next to the actual protection it offers. Fifty Male healthy subjects participated in the study. The subjects were dressed in shorts, T-shirts, socks, sneakers and four deferent kinds of militarism protective clothing such as CS, CSB, CS with NBC protection and CS with NBC- protection added. Ergonomically and psychological strains of every four cloths were investigated on subjects by walking on a treadmill (7km/hour) with a 19.7 kg backpack. As a result of these tests were showed that, the highest heart rate was found wearing the NBC-protection added outfit, the highest temperatures were observed wearing NBCprotection added, followed by respectively CS with NBC protection, CSB and CS and the highest value for thermal comfort (implying worst thermal comfort) was observed wearing NBC-protection added.

Keywords: Militarist protective clothing, Ergonomic, Heat strain, Thermal comfort

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1140 Enhancing Landfill Gas Production by Methanogenic Sand Layer

Authors: N. Sapari, S. Mustapha, H. Jusoh

Abstract:

Landfill gas, particularly methane is one of the greenhouse gases which contributes to global warming. This paper presents the findings of a study on methane gas production from simulated landfill reactor under saturated conditions. A reactor was constructed to represent a landfill cell of 2.5 m thickness on sandy soil. The reactor was 0.2 m in diameter and 4 m in height. One meter of sand and pebble layer was packed at the bottom of the reactor followed by 2.5 m of solid waste layer and 0.4 m of sand layer as the cover soil. Degradation of waste in the solid waste layer was at acidification stage as indicated by the leachate quality with COD as high as 55,511 mg/L and pH as low as 5.1. However, methanogenic environment was established at the bottom sand layer after one year of operation indicated by pH of 7.2 and methane gas generation. Leachate degradation took place as the leachate moved through the sand layer at an infiltration of rate 0.7 cm/day. This resulted in landfill gas production of 77 mL/day/kg containing 55 to 65% methane. The application of sand layer contributed to the gas production from landfill by an in-situ degradation of leachate in the sand at the bottom of the landfill.

Keywords: Gas production, methane, methanogenic sand layer, municipal solid waste, saturated landfill

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1139 Metallic Coating for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Substrate

Authors: Amine Rezzoug, Said Abdi, Nadjet Bouhelal, Ismail Daoud

Abstract:

This paper investigates the application of metallic coatings on high fiber volume fraction carbon/epoxy polymer matrix composites. For the grip of the metallic layer, a method of modifying the surface of the composite by introducing a mixture of copper and steel powder (filler powders) which can reduce the impact of thermal spray particles. The powder was introduced to the surface at the time of the forming. Arc spray was used to project the zinc coating layer. The substrate was grit blasted to avoid poor adherence. The porosity, microstructure, and morphology of layers are characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and image analysis. The samples were studied also in terms of hardness and erosion resistance. This investigation did not reveal any visible evidence damage to the substrates. The hardness of zinc layer was about 25.94 MPa and the porosity was around (∼6.70%). The erosion test showed that the zinc coating improves the resistance to erosion. Based on the results obtained, we can conclude that thermal spraying allows the production of protective coating on PMC. Zinc coating has been identified as a compatible material with the substrate. The filler powders layer protects the substrate from the impact of hot particles and allows avoiding the rupture of brittle carbon fibers.

Keywords: Arc spray, coating, composite, erosion.

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1138 An Extension of Multi-Layer Perceptron Based on Layer-Topology

Authors: Jānis Zuters

Abstract:

There are a lot of extensions made to the classic model of multi-layer perceptron (MLP). A notable amount of them has been designed to hasten the learning process without considering the quality of generalization. The paper proposes a new MLP extension based on exploiting topology of the input layer of the network. Experimental results show the extended model to improve upon generalization capability in certain cases. The new model requires additional computational resources to compare to the classic model, nevertheless the loss in efficiency isn-t regarded to be significant.

Keywords: Learning algorithm, multi-layer perceptron, topology.

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1137 Formation of Protective Silicide-Aluminide Coating on Gamma-TiAl Advanced Material

Authors: S. Nouri

Abstract:

In this study, the Si-aluminide coating was prepared on gamma-TiAl [Ti-45Al-2Nb-2Mn-1B (at. %)] via liquid-phase slurry procedure. The high temperature oxidation resistance of this diffusion coating was evaluated at 1100 °C for 400 hours. The results of the isothermal oxidation showed that the formation of Si-aluminide coating can remarkably improve the high temperature oxidation of bare gamma-TiAl alloy. The identification of oxide scale microstructure showed that the formation of protective Al2O3+SiO2 mixed oxide scale along with a continuous, compact and uniform layer of Ti5Si3 beneath the surface oxide scale can act as an oxygen diffusion barrier during the high temperature oxidation. The other possible mechanisms related to the formation of Si-aluminide coating and oxide scales were also discussed.

Keywords: Gamma-TiAl alloy, Si-aluminide coating, slurry procedure, high temperature oxidation.

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1136 Fabrication of Powdery Composites Based Alumina and Its Consolidation by Hot Pressing Method in OXY-GON Furnace

Authors: T. Kuchukhidze, N. Jalagonia, T. Korkia, V. Gabunia, N. Jalabadze, R. Chedia

Abstract:

In this work, obtaining methods of ultrafine alumina powdery composites and high temperature pressing technology of matrix ceramic composites with different compositions have been discussed. Alumina was obtained by solution combustion synthesis and sol-gel methods. Metal carbides containing powdery composites were obtained by homogenization of finishing powders in nanomills, as well as by their single-step high temperature synthesis .Different types of matrix ceramics composites (α-Al2O3-ZrO2-Y2O3, α-Al2O3- Y2O3-MgO, α-Al2O3-SiC-Y2O3, α-Al2O3-WC-Co-Y2O3, α-Al2O3- B4C-Y2O3, α-Al2O3- B4C-TiB2 etc.) were obtained by using OXYGON furnace. Consolidation of powders were carried out at 1550- 1750°C (hold time - 1 h, pressure - 50 MPa). Corundum ceramics samples have been obtained and characterized by high hardness and fracture toughness, absence of open porosity, high corrosion resistance. Their density reaches 99.5-99.6% TD. During the work, the following devices have been used: High temperature vacuum furnace OXY-GON Industries Inc (USA), Electronic Scanning Microscopes Nikon Eclipse LV 150, Optical Microscope NMM- 800TRF, Planetary mill Pulverisette 7 premium line, Shimadzu Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester DUH-211S, Analysette 12 Dynasizer.

Keywords: α-Alumina, Consolidation, Matrix Ceramics, Powdery composites.

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1135 Thermal Resistance Analysis of Flexible Composites Based on Al2O3 Aerogels

Authors: Jianzheng Wei, Duo Zhen, Zhihan Yang, Huifeng Tan

Abstract:

The deployable descent technology is a lightweight entry method using an inflatable heat shield. The heatshield consists of a pressurized core which is covered by different layers of thermal insulation and flexible ablative materials in order to protect against the thermal loads. In this paper, both aluminum and silicon-aluminum aerogels were prepared by freeze-drying method. The latter material has bigger specific surface area and nano-scale pores. Mullite fibers are used as the reinforcing fibers to prepare the aerogel matrix to improve composite flexibility. The flexible composite materials were performed as an insulation layer to an underlying aramid fabric by a thermal shock test at a heat flux density of 120 kW/m2 and uniaxial tensile test. These results show that the aramid fabric with untreated mullite fibers as the thermal protective layer is completely carbonized at the heat of about 60 s. The aramid fabric as a thermal resistance layer of the composite material still has good mechanical properties at the same heat condition.

Keywords: Aerogel, aramid fabric, flexibility, thermal resistance.

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1134 Formation of Chemical Compound Layer at the Interface of Initial Substances A and B with Dominance of Diffusion of the A Atoms

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev, Samuel Akintunde

Abstract:

A theoretical approach to consider formation of chemical compound layer at the interface between initial substances A and B due to the interfacial interaction and diffusion is developed. It is considered situation when speed of interfacial interaction is large enough and diffusion of A-atoms through AB-layer is much more then diffusion of B-atoms. Atoms from A-layer diffuse toward B-atoms and form AB-atoms on the surface of B-layer. B-atoms are assumed to be immobile. The growth kinetics of the AB-layer is described by two differential equations with non-linear coupling, producing a good fit to the experimental data. It is shown that growth of the thickness of the AB-layer determines by dependence of chemical reaction rate on reactants concentration. In special case the thickness of the AB-layer can grow linearly or parabolically depending on that which of processes (interaction or the diffusion) controls the growth. The thickness of AB-layer as function of time is obtained. The moment of time (transition point) at which the linear growth are changed by parabolic is found.

Keywords: Phase formation, Binary systems, Interfacial Reaction, Diffusion, Compound layers, Growth kinetics.

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1133 Effect of Porous Multi-Layer Envelope System on Effective Wind Pressure of Building Ventilation

Authors: Ying-Chang Yu, Yuan-Lung Lo

Abstract:

Building ventilation performance is an important indicator of indoor comfort. However, in addition to the geometry of the building or the proportion of the opening, the ventilation performance is also very much related to the actual wind pressure of the building. There are more and more contemporary building designs built with multi-layer exterior envelope. Due to ventilation and view observatory requirement, the porous outer layer of the building is commonly adopted and has a significant wind damping effect, causing the phenomenon of actual wind pressure loss. However, the relationship between the wind damping effect and the actual wind pressure is not linear. This effect can make the indoor ventilation of the building rationalized to reasonable range under the condition of high wind pressure, and also maintain a good amount of ventilation performance under the condition of low wind pressure. In this study, wind tunnel experiments were carried out to simulate the different wind pressures flow through the porous outer layer, and observe the actual wind pressure strength engage with the window layer to find the decreasing relationship between the damping effect of the porous shell and the wind pressure. Experiment specimen scale was designed to be 1:50 for testing real-world building conditions; the study found that the porous enclosure has protective shielding without affecting low-pressure ventilation. Current study observed the porous skin may damp more wind energy to ease the wind pressure under high-speed wind. Differential wind speed may drop the pressure into similar pressure level by using porous skin. The actual mechanism and value of this phenomenon will need further study in the future.

Keywords: Renault number, porous media, wind damping, wind tunnel test, building ventilation.

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