Search results for: Alumina-boria mixed oxides
705 Structure-Activity Relationship of Gold Catalysts on Alumina Supported Cu-Ce Oxides for CO and Volatile Organic Compound Oxidation
Authors: Tatyana T. Tabakova, Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Yordanka G. Karakirova, Petya Cv. Petrova, Georgi V. Avdeev
The catalytic oxidation of CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is considered as one of the most efficient ways to reduce harmful emissions from various chemical industries. The effectiveness of gold-based catalysts for many reactions of environmental significance was proven during the past three decades. The aim of this work was to combine the favorable features of Au and Cu-Ce mixed oxides in the design of new catalytic materials of improved efficiency and economic viability for removal of air pollutants in waste gases from formaldehyde production. Supported oxides of copper and cerium with Cu: Ce molar ratio 2:1 and 1:5 were prepared by wet impregnation of g-alumina. Gold (2 wt.%) catalysts were synthesized by a deposition-precipitation method. Catalysts characterization was carried out by texture measurements, powder X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The catalytic activity in the oxidation of CO, CH3OH and (CH3)2O was measured using continuous flow equipment with fixed bed reactor. Both Cu-Ce/alumina samples demonstrated similar catalytic behavior. The addition of gold caused significant enhancement of CO and methanol oxidation activity (100 % degree of CO and CH3OH conversion at about 60 and 140 oC, respectively). The composition of Cu-Ce mixed oxides affected the performance of gold-based samples considerably. Gold catalyst on Cu-Ce/γ-Al2O3 1:5 exhibited higher activity for CO and CH3OH oxidation in comparison with Au on Cu-Ce/γ-Al2O3 2:1. The better performance of Au/Cu-Ce 1:5 was related to the availability of highly dispersed gold particles and copper oxide clusters in close contact with ceria.
Keywords: CO and VOCs oxidation, copper oxide, ceria, gold catalysts.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 888
704 Removal of Elemental Mercury from Dry Methane Gas with Manganese Oxides
Authors: Junya Takenami, Md. Azhar Uddin, Eiji Sasaoka, Yasushi Shioya, Tsuneyoshi Takase
Abstract:In this study, we sought to investigate the mercury removal efficiency of manganese oxides from natural gas. The fundamental studies on mercury removal with manganese oxides sorbents were carried out in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor at 30 °C with a mixture of methane (20%) and nitrogen gas laden with 4.8 ppb of elemental mercury. Manganese oxides with varying surface area and crystalline phase were prepared by conventional precipitation method in this study. The effects of surface area, crystallinity and other metal oxides on mercury removal efficiency were investigated. Effect of Ag impregnation on mercury removal efficiency was also investigated. Ag supported on metal oxide such titania and zirconia as reference materials were also used in this study for comparison. The characteristics of mercury removal reaction with manganese oxide was investigated using a temperature programmed desorption (TPD) technique. Manganese oxides showed very high Hg removal activity (about 73-93% Hg removal) for first time use. Surface area of the manganese oxide samples decreased after heat-treatment and resulted in complete loss of Hg removal ability for repeated use after Hg desorption in the case of amorphous MnO2, and 75% loss of the initial Hg removal activity for the crystalline MnO2. Mercury desorption efficiency of crystalline MnO2 was very low (37%) for first time use and high (98%) after second time use. Residual potassium content in MnO2 may have some effect on the thermal stability of the adsorbed Hg species. Desorption of Hg from manganese oxides occurs at much higher temperatures (with a peak at 400 °C) than Ag/TiO2 or Ag/ZrO2. Mercury may be captured on manganese oxides in the form of mercury manganese oxide.
Keywords: Mercury removal, Metal and metal oxide sorbents, Methane, Natural gas.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1972
703 Urban Air Pollution – Trend and Forecasting of Major Pollutants by Timeseries Analysis
Authors: A.L. Seetharam, B.L. Udaya Simha
Abstract:The Bangalore City is facing the acute problem of pollution in the atmosphere due to the heavy increase in the traffic and developmental activities in recent years. The present study is an attempt in the direction to assess trend of the ambient air quality status of three stations, viz., AMCO Batteries Factory, Mysore Road, GRAPHITE INDIA FACTORY, KHB Industrial Area, Whitefield and Ananda Rao Circle, Gandhinagar with respect to some of the major criteria pollutants such as Total Suspended particular matter (SPM), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and Oxides of sulphur (SO2). The sites are representative of various kinds of growths viz., commercial, residential and industrial, prevailing in Bangalore, which are contributing to air pollution. The concentration of Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) at all locations showed a falling trend due to use of refined petrol and diesel in the recent years. The concentration of Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) showed an increasing trend but was within the permissible limits. The concentration of the Suspended particular matter (SPM) showed the mixed trend. The correlation between model and observed values is found to vary from 0.4 to 0.7 for SO2, 0.45 to 0.65 for NOx and 0.4 to 0.6 for SPM. About 80% of data is observed to fall within the error band of ±50%. Forecast test for the best fit models showed the same trend as actual values in most of the cases. However, the deviation observed in few cases could be attributed to change in quality of petro products, increase in the volume of traffic, introduction of LPG as fuel in many types of automobiles, poor condition of roads, prevailing meteorological conditions, etc.
Keywords: Bangalore, urban air pollution, time series analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1883
702 Different Formula of Mixed Bacteria as a Bio-Treatment for Sewage Wastewater
Authors: E. Marei, A. Hammad, S. Ismail, A. El-Gindy
This study aims to investigate the ability of different formula of mixed bacteria as a biological treatments of wastewater after primary treatment as a bio-treatment and bio-removal and bio-adsorbent of different heavy metals in natural circumstances. The wastewater was collected from Sarpium forest site-Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. These treatments were mixture of free cells and mixture of immobilized cells of different bacteria. These different formulas of mixed bacteria were prepared under Lab. condition. The obtained data indicated that, as a result of wastewater bio-treatment, the removal rate was found to be 76.92 and 76.70% for biological oxygen demand, 79.78 and 71.07% for chemical oxygen demand, 32.45 and 36.84 % for ammonia nitrogen as well as 91.67 and 50.0% for phosphate after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. Moreover, the bio-removals of different heavy metals were found to reach 90.0 and 50. 0% for Cu ion, 98.0 and 98.5% for Fe ion, 97.0 and 99.3% for Mn ion, 90.0 and 90.0% Pb, 80.0% and 75.0% for Zn ion after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. The results indicated that 13.86 and 17.43% of removal efficiency and reduction of total dissolved solids were achieved after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively.
Keywords: Biological desalination, bio-sorption heavy metals, free cell bacteria, immobilized bacteria, wastewater bio-treatment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 701
701 Numerical Analysis of Laminar Mixed Convection within a Complex Geometry
Authors: Y. Lasbet, A. L. Boukhalkhal, K. Loubar
Abstract:The study of mixed convection is, usually, focused on the straight channels in which the onset of the mixed convection is well defined as function of the ratio between Grashof number and Reynolds number, Gr/Re. This is not the case for a complex channel wherein the mixed convection is not sufficiently examined in the literature. Our paper focuses on the study of the mixed convection in a complex geometry in which our main contribution reveals that the critical value of the ratio Gr/Re for the onset of the mixed convection increases highly in the type of geometry contrary to the straight channel. Furthermore, the accentuated secondary flow in this geometry prevents the thermal stratification in the flow and consequently the buoyancy driven becomes negligible. To perform these objectives, a numerical study in complex geometry for several values of the ratio Gr/Re with prescribed wall heat flux (H2), was realized by using the CFD code.
Keywords: Complex geometry, heat transfer, laminar flow, mixed convection, Nusselt number.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1273
700 Preconditioned Mixed-Type Splitting Iterative Method For Z-Matrices
Authors: Li Jiang, Baoguang Tian
Abstract:In this paper, we present the preconditioned mixed-type splitting iterative method for solving the linear systems, Ax = b, where A is a Z-matrix. And we give some comparison theorems to show that the convergence rate of the preconditioned mixed-type splitting iterative method is faster than that of the mixed-type splitting iterative method. Finally, we give a numerical example to illustrate our results.
Keywords: Z-matrix, mixed-type splitting iterative method, precondition, comparison theorem, linear system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1083
699 Design A Situated Learning Environment Using Mixed Reality Technology - A Case Study
Authors: Rasimah Che Mohd Yusoff, Halimah Badioze Zaman, Azlina Ahmad
Abstract:Mixed Reality (MR) is one of the newest technologies explored in education. It promises the potential to promote teaching and learning and making learners- experience more “engaging". However, there still lack of research on designing a virtual learning environment using MR technology. In this paper, we describe the Mixed Reality technology, the characteristics of situated learning as instructional design for virtual environment using mixed reality technology. We also explain a case study that implemented those design and also the system overview.
Keywords: authentic activity. authentic context, mixed reality, situated learningProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2210
698 HDS: Alumina- Boria Supported Catalysts
Authors: Peyman Moradi, Matin Parvari
Abstract:Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in a high pressure batch reactor was done at 320 °C on CoMoS/Al2O3-B2O3 (4, 10, and 16 wt. % of Boria) using nhexadecane as solvent, dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) in tetradecane as sulfur agent, and stirring at 1000 rpm. The effects of boria were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammonia, and Brunauer-Emmet- Teller (BET) experiments. The results showed that the catalyst prepared with low boria content (4 wt. %) had HDS activity (in pseudo first order kinetic constant basis) value ~1.45 times higher to that of CoMoS/Al2O3 catalyst.
Keywords: Alumina-boria mixed oxides, dibenzothiophene, hydrodesulfurization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1738
697 Reduction of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides from Traffic
Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Jiri Dvorak, Jaromir Mares, Hana Malachova
Abstract:The value of emission factor was calculated in the older type of Diesel engine operating on an engine testing bench and then compared with the parameters monitored under similar conditions when the EnviroxTM additive was applied. It has been found out that the additive based on CeO2 nanoparticles reduces emission of NOx. The dependencies of NOx emissions on reduced torque, engine power and revolutions have been observed as well.
Keywords: Additive, air, cerium dioxide, emission factor, emissions, nanoparticles, nitrogen oxidesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1578
696 Reduction Conditions of Briquetted Solid Wastes Generated by the Integrated Iron and Steel Plant
Authors: Gökhan Polat, Dicle Kocaoğlu Yılmazer, Muhlis Nezihi Sarıdede
Iron oxides are the main input to produce iron in integrated iron and steel plants. During production of iron from iron oxides, some wastes with high iron content occur. These main wastes can be classified as basic oxygen furnace (BOF) sludge, flue dust and rolling scale. Recycling of these wastes has a great importance for both environmental effects and reduction of production costs. In this study, recycling experiments were performed on basic oxygen furnace sludge, flue dust and rolling scale which contain 53.8%, 54.3% and 70.2% iron respectively. These wastes were mixed together with coke as reducer and these mixtures are pressed to obtain cylindrical briquettes. These briquettes were pressed under various compacting forces from 1 ton to 6 tons. Also, both stoichiometric and twice the stoichiometric cokes were added to investigate effect of coke amount on reduction properties of the waste mixtures. Then, these briquettes were reduced at 1000°C and 1100°C during 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min in a muffle furnace. According to the results of reduction experiments, the effect of compacting force, temperature and time on reduction ratio of the wastes were determined. It is found that 1 ton compacting force, 150 min reduction time and 1100°C are the optimum conditions to obtain reduction ratio higher than 75%.
Keywords: Iron oxide wastes, reduction, coke, recycling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1200
695 An Adaptive Least-squares Mixed Finite Element Method for Pseudo-parabolic Integro-differential Equations
Authors: Zilong Feng, Hong Li, Yang Liu, Siriguleng He
In this article, an adaptive least-squares mixed finite element method is studied for pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equations. The solutions of least-squares mixed weak formulation and mixed finite element are proved. A posteriori error estimator is constructed based on the least-squares functional and the posteriori errors are obtained.
Keywords: Pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equation, least squares mixed finite element method, adaptive method, a posteriori error estimates.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1209
694 Microbial Oil Production by Mixed Culture of Microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 and Yeast Torulaspora maleeae Y30
Authors: Ratanaporn Leesing, Rattanaporn Baojungharn, Thidarat Papone
Compared to oil production from microorganisms, little work has been performed for mixed culture of microalgae and yeast. In this article it is aimed to show high oil accumulation potential of mixed culture of microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 and oleaginous yeast Torulaspora maleeae Y30 using sugarcane molasses as substrate. The monoculture of T. maleeae Y30 grew faster than that of microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2. In monoculture of yeast, a biomass of 6.4g/L with specific growth rate (m) of 0.265 (1/d) and lipid yield of 0.466g/L were obtained, while 2.53g/L of biomass with m of 0.133 (1/d) and lipid yield of 0.132g/L were obtained for monoculture of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2. The biomass concentration in the mixed culture of T. maleeae Y30 with Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 increased faster and was higher compared with that in the monoculture and mixed culture of microalgae. In mixed culture of microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 and C. vulgaris TISTR8580, a biomass of 3.47g/L and lipid yield of 0.123 g/L were obtained. In mixed culture of T. maleeae Y30 with Chlorella sp. KKU-S2, a maximum biomass of 7.33 g/L and lipid yield of 0.808g/L were obtained. Maximum cell yield coefficient (YX/S, 0.229g/L), specific yield of lipid (YP/X, 0.11g lipid/g cells) and volumetric lipid production rate (QP, 0.115 g/L/d) were obtained in mixed culture of yeast and microalgae. Clearly, T. maleeae Y30 and Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 use sugarcane molasses as organic nutrients efficiently in mixed culture under mixotrophic growth. The biomass productivity and lipid yield are notably enhanced in comparison with monoculture.
Keywords: Microbial oil, Chlorella sp. KKU-S2, Chlorella vulgaris, Torulaspora maleeae Y30, mixed culture, biodiesel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2639
693 A New Approach for Classifying Large Number of Mixed Variables
Authors: Hashibah Hamid
Abstract:The issue of classifying objects into one of predefined groups when the measured variables are mixed with different types of variables has been part of interest among statisticians in many years. Some methods for dealing with such situation have been introduced that include parametric, semi-parametric and nonparametric approaches. This paper attempts to discuss on a problem in classifying a data when the number of measured mixed variables is larger than the size of the sample. A propose idea that integrates a dimensionality reduction technique via principal component analysis and a discriminant function based on the location model is discussed. The study aims in offering practitioners another potential tool in a classification problem that is possible to be considered when the observed variables are mixed and too large.
Keywords: classification, location model, mixed variables, principal component analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1384
692 pth Moment Exponential Synchronization of a Class of Chaotic Neural Networks with Mixed Delays
Authors: Zixin Liu, Shu Lü, Shouming Zhong, Mao Ye
This paper studies the pth moment exponential synchronization of a class of stochastic neural networks with mixed delays. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, by establishing a new integrodifferential inequality with mixed delays, several sufficient conditions have been derived to ensure the pth moment exponential stability for the error system. The criteria extend and improve some earlier results. One numerical example is presented to illustrate the validity of the main results.
Keywords: pth Moment Exponential synchronization, Stochastic, Neural networks, Mixed time delaysProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1474
691 Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow from a Vertical Cone in a Porous Medium Filled with a Nanofluid
Authors: Ezzah Liana Ahmad Fauzi, Syakila Ahmad, Ioan Pop
Abstract:The steady mixed convection boundary layer flow from a vertical cone in a porous medium filled with a nanofluid is numerically investigated using different types of nanoparticles as Cu (copper), Al2O3 (alumina) and TiO2 (titania). The boundary value problem is solved by using the shooting technique by reducing it into an ordinary differential equation. Results of interest for the local Nusselt number with various values of the constant mixed convection parameter and nanoparticle volume fraction parameter are evaluated. It is found that dual solutions exist for a certain range of mixed convection parameter.
Keywords: boundary layer, mixed convection, nanofluid, porous medium, vertical cone.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2162
690 Mixed-Mode Study of Rock Fracture Mechanics by using the Modified Arcan Specimen Test
Authors: R. Hasanpour, N. Choupani
Abstract:This paper studies mixed-mode fracture mechanics in rock based on experimental and numerical analyses. Experiments were performed on sharp-cracked specimens using the modified Arcan specimen test loading device. The modified Arcan specimen test was, in association with a special loading device, an appropriate apparatus for experimental mixed-mode fracture analysis. By varying the loading angle from 0° to 90°, pure mode-I, pure mode-II and a wide range of mixed-mode data were obtained experimentally. Using the finite element results, correction factors applied to the rectangular fracture specimen. By employing experimentally measured critical loads and the aid of the finite element method, mixed-mode fracture toughness for the limestone under consideration determined.
Keywords: Rock Fracture Mechanics, Mixed-mode Loading, Finite Element Analysis, Arcan Test specimen.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2426
689 Modeling Hybrid Systems with MLD Approach and Analysis of the Model Size and Complexity
Authors: H. Mahboubi, B. Moshiri, A. Khaki Seddigh
Abstract:Recently, a great amount of interest has been shown in the field of modeling and controlling hybrid systems. One of the efficient and common methods in this area utilizes the mixed logicaldynamical (MLD) systems in the modeling. In this method, the system constraints are transformed into mixed-integer inequalities by defining some logic statements. In this paper, a system containing three tanks is modeled as a nonlinear switched system by using the MLD framework. Comparing the model size of the three-tank system with that of a two-tank system, it is deduced that the number of binary variables, the size of the system and its complexity tremendously increases with the number of tanks, which makes the control of the system more difficult. Therefore, methods should be found which result in fewer mixed-integer inequalities.
Keywords: Hybrid systems, mixed-integer inequalities, mixed logical dynamical systems, multi-tank system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1619
688 Effect of Green Water and Mixed Zooplankton on Growth and Survival in Neon Tetra, Paracheirodon innesi (Myers, 1936) during Larval and Early Fry Rearing
Authors: S. V. Sanaye, H. S. Dhaker, R. M. Tibile, V. D. Mhatre
Larval rearing and seed production of most of tetra fishes (Family: Characidae) is critical due to their small size larvae and limited numbers of spawning attempts. During the present study the effect of different live foods on growth and survival of neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi larvae (length 3.1 ± 0.012mm, weight 0.048 ± 0.00015mg) and early fry (length = 6.44 ± 0.025mm, weight = 0.64 ± 0.003mg and 13 days old) was determined in two experiments. Experiment I was conducted for rearing the larvae by using mixed green water and Infusoria whereas, in Experiment II, early fry were fed with mixed zooplankton, decapsulated Artemia cyst and Artemia nauplii. The larvae fed on mixed green water showed significant (p<0.05) growth and survival when compared to those fed with infusoria. Similarly, the larvae fed with mixed zooplankton exhibited higher growth in terms of length gain (131.98%), weight gain (6658.78%), SGR (14.04%) and survival (95.23%) compared to the other treatments of decapsulated Artemia cyst and Artemia nauplii. The present study concluded that mixed green water and mixed zooplankton should be used as food for better growth and survival of the larvae and early fry of P. innesi, respectively.
Keywords: Growth, Mixed Green water, mixed zooplankton, Neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3281
687 Experimental Estimation of Mixed-Mode Fracture Properties of Steel Weld
Authors: S. R. Hosseini, N. Choupani, A. R. M. Gharabaghi
Abstract:The modified Arcan fixture was used in order to investigate the mixed mode fracture properties of high strength steel butt weld through experimental and numerical analysis. The fixture consisted of a central section with "butterfly-shaped" specimen that had central crack. The specimens were under pure mode I (opening), pure mode II (shearing) and all in plane mixed mode loading angles starting from 0 to 90 degrees. The geometric calibration factors were calculated with the aid of finite element analysis for various loading mode and different crack length (0.45≤ a/w ≤0.55) and the critical fracture loads obtained experimentally. The critical fracture toughness (KIC & KIIC) estimated with experimental and numerical analysis under mixed mode loading conditions.
Keywords: Arcan specimen, fracture toughness, mixed mode, steel weld.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2329
686 Thermodynamic Approach of Lanthanide-Iron Double Oxides Formation
Authors: Vera Varazashvili, Murman Tsarakhov, Tamar Mirianashvili, Teimuraz Pavlenishvili, Tengiz Machaladze, Mzia Khundadze
Abstract:Standard Gibbs energy of formation ΔGfor(298.15) of lanthanide-iron double oxides of garnet-type crystal structure R3Fe5O12 - RIG (R – are rare earth ions) from initial oxides are evaluated. The calculation is based on the data of standard entropies S298.15 and standard enthalpies ΔH298.15 of formation of compounds which are involved in the process of garnets synthesis. Gibbs energy of formation is presented as temperature function ΔGfor(T) for the range 300-1600K. The necessary starting thermodynamic data were obtained from calorimetric study of heat capacity – temperature functions and by using the semi-empirical method for calculation of ΔH298.15 of formation. Thermodynamic functions for standard temperature – enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs energy - are recommended as reference data for technological evaluations. Through the structural series of rare earth-iron garnets the correlation between thermodynamic properties and characteristics of lanthanide ions are elucidated.
Keywords: Calorimetry, entropy, enthalpy, heat capacity, gibbs energy of formation, rare earth iron garnets.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1734
685 On-Time Performance and Service Regularity of Stage Buses in Mixed Traffic
Authors: Suwardo, Madzlan B. Napiah, Ibrahim B. Kamaruddin
Stage bus operated in the mixed traffic might always meet many problems about low quality and reliability of services. The low quality and reliability of bus service can make the system not attractive and directly reduce the interest of using bus service. This paper presents the result of field investigation and analysis of on-time performance and service regularity of stage bus in mixed traffic. Data for analysis was collected from the field by on-board observation along the Ipoh-Lumut corridor in Perak, Malaysia. From analysis and discussion, it can be concluded that on-time performance and service regularity varies depend on station, typical day, time period, operation characteristics of bus and characteristics of traffic. The on-time performance and service regularity of stage bus in mixed traffic can be derived by using data collected by onboard survey. It is clear that on-time performance and service regularity of the existing stage bus system was low.
Keywords: mixed traffic, on-time performance, service regularity, stage busProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2232
684 Dual Solutions in Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow: A Stability Analysis
Authors: Anuar Ishak
The mixed convection stagnation point flow toward a vertical plate is investigated. The external flow impinges normal to the heated plate and the surface temperature is assumed to vary linearly with the distance from the stagnation point. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically using MATLAB routine boundary value problem solver bvp4c. Numerical results show that dual solutions are possible for a certain range of the mixed convection parameter. A stability analysis is performed to determine which solution is linearly stable and physically realizable.
Keywords: Dual solutions, heat transfer, mixed convection, stability analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2335
683 Recycling Organic Waste in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University as Compost
Authors: Anat Thapinta
Abstract:This research aimed to study on the potential of recycling organic waste in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University as compost. In doing so, the composition of solid waste generated in the campus was investigated while physical and chemical properties of organic waste were analyzed in order to evaluate the portion of waste suitable for recycling as compost. As a result of the study, it was found that (1) the amount of organic waste was averaged at 299.8 kg/day in which mixed food wastes had the highest amount of 191.9 kg/day followed by mixed leave & yard wastes and mixed fruit & vegetable wastes at the amount of 66.3 and 41.6 kg/day respectively; (2) physical and chemical properties of organic waste in terms of moisture content was between 69.54 to 78.15%, major elements for plant as N, P and K were 0.14 to 0.17%, 0.46 to 0.52% and 0.16 to 0.18% respectively, and carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) was about 15:1 to 17.5:1; (3) recycling organic waste as compost was designed by aerobic decomposition using mixed food wastes : mixed leave & yard wastes : mixed fruit & vegetable wastes at the portion of 3:2:1 by weight in accordance with the potential of their amounts and their physical and chemical properties.
Keywords: Compost, Organic waste, Physical and chemical properties, Recycling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1704
682 Microbial Oil Production by Monoculture and Mixed Cultures of Microalgae and Oleaginous Yeasts using Sugarcane Juice as Substrate
Authors: Thidarat Papone, Supaporn Kookkhunthod, Ratanaporn Leesing
Abstract:Monoculture and mixed cultures of microalgae and the oleaginous yeast for microbial oil productions were investigated using sugarcane juice as carbon substrate. The monoculture of yeast Torulaspora maleeae Y30, Torulaspora globosa YU5/2 grew faster than that of microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2. In monoculture of T. maleeae Y30, a biomass of 8.267g/L with lipid yield of 0.920g/L were obtained, while 8.333g/L of biomass with lipid yield of 1.141g/L were obtained for monoculture of T. globosa YU5/2. A biomass of 1.933g/L with lipid yield of 0.052g/L was found for monoculture of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2. The biomass concentration in the mixed culture of the oleaginous yeast with microalgae increased faster and was higher compared with that in the monocultures. A biomass of 8.733g/L with lipid yield of 1.564g/L was obtained for a mixed culture of T. maleeae Y30 with Chlorella sp. KKU-S2, while 8.010g/L of biomass with lipid yield of 2.424g/L was found for mixed culture of T. globosa YU5/2 with Chlorella sp. KKU-S2. Maximum cell yield coefficient (YX/S, g/L) was found of 0.323 in monoculture of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 but low level of both specific yield of lipid (YP/X, g lipid/g cells) of 0.027 and volumetric lipid production rate (QP, g/L/d) of 0.003 were observed. While, maximum YP/X (0.303), QP (0.105) and maximum process product yield (YP/S, 0.061) were obtained in mixed culture of T. globosa YU5/2 with Chlorella sp. KKU-S2. The results obtained from the study shows that mixed culture of yeast with microalgae is a desirable cultivation process for microbial oil production.
Keywords: Microbial oil, Chlorella sp. KKU-S2, Torulaspora maleeae Y30, Torulaspora globosa YU5/2, mixed culture, biodiesel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2736
681 Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater by Adsorption and Membrane Processes: a Comparative Study
Authors: Nermen N. Maximous, George F. Nakhla, W. K. Wan
Abstract:This research aimed at investigating the Cr (III), Cd (II) and Pb (II) removal efficiencies by using the newly synthesized metal oxides/ polyethersulfone (PES), Al2O3/PES and ZrO2/PES, membranes from synthetic wastewater and exploring fouling mechanisms. A Comparative study between the removal efficiencies of Cr (III), Cd (II) and Pb (II) from synthetic and natural wastewater by using adsorption onto agricultural by products and the newly synthesized Al2O3/PES and ZrO2/PES membranes was conducted to assess the advantages and limitations of using the metal oxides/PES membranes for heavy metals removal. The results showed that about 99 % and 88 % removal efficiencies were achieved by the tested membranes for Pb (II) and Cr (III), respectively.
Keywords: Adsorption, metals removal, ultrafiltrationmembranes, wastewaterProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5519
680 Alumina Supported Copper-Manganese Catalysts for Combustion of Exhaust Gases: Effect of Preparation Method
Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov
The development of active and stable catalysts without noble metals for low temperature oxidation of exhaust gases remains a significant challenge. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of the preparation method on the catalytic activity of the supported copper-manganese mixed oxides in terms of VOCs oxidation. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of γ- Al2O3 with copper and manganese nitrates and acetates and the possibilities for CO, CH3OH and dimethyl ether (DME) oxidation were evaluated using continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Effect of the support, Cu/Mn mole ratio, heat treatment of the precursor and active component loading were investigated. Highly active alumina supported Cu-Mn catalysts for CO and VOCs oxidation were synthesized. The effect of preparation conditions on the activity behavior of the catalysts was discussed. The synergetic interaction between copper and manganese species increases the activity for complete oxidation over mixed catalysts. Type of support, calcination temperature and active component loading along with catalyst composition are important factors, determining catalytic activity. Cu/Mn molar ratio of 1:5, heat treatment at 450oC and 20 % active component loading are the best compromise for production of active catalyst for simultaneous combustion of CO, CH3OH and DME.
Keywords: Copper-manganese catalysts, Preparation methods, Exhaust gases oxidation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2071
679 Thermosolutal MHD Mixed Marangoni Convective Boundary Layers in the Presence of Suction or Injection
Authors: Noraini Ahmad, Seripah Awang Kechil, Norma Mohd Basir
Abstract:The steady coupled dissipative layers, called Marangoni mixed convection boundary layers, in the presence of a magnetic field and solute concentration that are formed along the surface of two immiscible fluids with uniform suction or injection effects is examined. The similarity boundary layer equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg with shooting technique. The Marangoni, buoyancy and external pressure gradient effects that are generated in mixed convection boundary layer flow are assessed. The velocity, temperature and concentration boundary layers thickness decrease with the increase of the magnetic field strength and the injection to suction. For buoyancy-opposed flow, the Marangoni mixed convection parameter enhances the velocity boundary layer but decreases the temperature and concentration boundary layers. However, for the buoyancy-assisted flow, the Marangoni mixed convection parameter decelerates the velocity but increases the temperature and concentration boundary layers.
Keywords: Magnetic field, mixed Marangoni convection, similarity boundary layers, solute concentration.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1756
678 Mixed Frequency Excitation of an Electrostatically Actuated Resonator
Authors: Mixed Frequency Excitation of an Electrostatically Actuated Resonator
Abstract:We investigate experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of a capacitive resonator under mixed frequency excitation of two AC harmonic signals. The resonator is composed of a proof mass suspended by two cantilever beams. Experimental measurements are conducted using a laser Doppler Vibrometer to reveal the interesting dynamics of the system when subjected to twosource excitation. A nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom model is used for the theoretical investigation. The results reveal combination resonances of additive and subtractive type, which are shown to be promising to increase the bandwidth of the resonator near primary resonance frequency. Our results also demonstrate the ability to shift the combination resonances to much lower or much higher frequency ranges. We also demonstrate the dynamic pull-in instability under mixed frequency excitation.
Keywords: Nonlinear electrostatically actuated resonator.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1451
677 Influence of Raw Materials Ratio and Sintering Temperature on the Properties of the Refractory Mullite-Corundum Ceramics
Authors: L. Mahnicka
Abstract:The alumosilicate ceramics with mullite crystalline phase are used in various branches of science and technique. The mullite refractory ceramics with high porosity serve as a heat insulator and as a constructional materials , . The purpose of the work was to sinter high porosity ceramic and to increase the quantity of mullite phase in this mullite, mullite-corundum ceramics. Two types of compositions were prepared at during the experiment. The first type is compositions with commercial alumina and silica oxides. The second type is from mixing these oxides with 10, 20 and 30 wt.%. of kaolin. In all samples the Al2O3 and SiO2 were in 2.57:1 ratio, because that was conformed to mullite stechiometric compositions (3Al2O3.2SiO2). The types of alumina oxides were α-Al2O3 (d50=4µm) and γ-Al2O3 (d50=80µm). Ratios of α-: γ-Al2O3 were (1:1) or (1:3). The porous materials were prepared by slip casting of suspension of raw materials. The aluminium paste (0.18 wt.%) was used as a pore former. Water content in the suspensions was 26-47 wt.%. Pore formation occurred as a result of hydrogen formation in chemical reaction between aluminium paste and water . The samples were sintered at the temperature of 1650°C and 1750°C for one hour. The increasing amount of kaolin, α-: γ-Al2O3 at the ratio (1:3) and sintering at the highest temperature raised the quantity of mullite phase. The mullite phase began to dominate over the corundum phase.
Keywords: Alumina, Kaolin, Mullite-corundum, Porous refractory ceramicsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2704
676 Characterization and Geochemical Modeling of Cu and Zn Sorption Using Mixed Mineral Systems Injected with Iron Sulfide under Sulfidic-Anoxic Conditions I: Case Study of Cwmheidol Mine Waste Water, Wales, United Kingdom
Authors: D. E. Egirani, J. E. Andrews, A. R. Baker
This study investigates sorption of Cu and Zn contained in natural mine wastewater, using mixed mineral systems in sulfidic-anoxic condition. The mine wastewater was obtained from disused mine workings at Cwmheidol in Wales, United Kingdom. These contaminants flow into water courses. These water courses include River Rheidol. In this River fishing activities exist. In an attempt to reduce Cu-Zn levels of fish intake in the watercourses, single mineral systems and 1:1 mixed mineral systems of clay and goethite were tested with the mine waste water for copper and zinc removal at variable pH. Modelling of hydroxyl complexes was carried out using phreeqc method. Reactions using batch mode technique was conducted at room temperature. There was significant differences in the behaviour of copper and zinc removal using mixed mineral systems when compared to single mineral systems. All mixed mineral systems sorb more Cu than Zn when tested with mine wastewater.
Keywords: Cu- Zn, hydroxyl complexes, kinetics, mixed mineral systems, reactivityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 782