Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 264

Search results for: Osama M. Ibrahim

264 Fairness and Quality of Service Issues and Analysis of IEEE 802.11e Wireless LAN

Authors: Ammar Abbas, Ibrahim M. Hussain, Osama M. Hussain

Abstract:

The IEEE 802.11e which is an enhanced version of the 802.11 WLAN standards incorporates the Quality of Service (QoS) which makes it a better choice for multimedia and real time applications. In this paper we study various aspects concerned with 802.11e standard. Further, the analysis results for this standard are compared with the legacy 802.11 standard. Simulation results show that IEEE 802.11e out performs legacy IEEE 802.11 in terms of quality of service due to its flow differentiated channel allocation and better queue management architecture. We also propose a method to improve the unfair allocation of bandwidth for downlink and uplink channels by varying the medium access priority level.

Keywords: Wireless, IEEE 802.11e, EDCA, Throughput, QoS, MAC.

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263 A Tool for Checking Conformance of UML Specification

Authors: Rosziati Ibrahim, Noraini Ibrahim

Abstract:

Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standard language for modeling of a system. UML is used to visually specify the structure and behavior of a system. The system requirements are captured and then converted into UML specification. UML specification uses a set of rules and notations, and diagrams to specify the system requirements. In this paper, we present a tool for developing the UML specification. The tool will ease the use of the notations and diagrams for UML specification as well as increase the understanding and familiarity of the UML specification. The tool will also be able to check the conformance of the diagrams against each other for basic compliance of UML specification.

Keywords: Software Engineering, Unified Modeling Language (UML), UML Specification.

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262 Formation of Protective Aluminum-Oxide Layer on the Surface of Fe-Cr-Al Sintered-Metal-Fibers via Multi-Stage Thermal Oxidation

Authors: Loai Ben Naji, Osama M. Ibrahim, Khaled J. Al-Fadhalah

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to investigate the formation and adhesion of a protective aluminum-oxide (Al2O3, alumina) layer on the surface of Iron-Chromium-Aluminum Alloy (Fe-Cr-Al) sintered-metal-fibers. The oxide-scale layer was developed via multi-stage thermal oxidation at 930 oC for 1 hour, followed by 1 hour at 960 oC, and finally at 990 oC for 2 hours. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images show that the multi-stage thermal oxidation resulted in the formation of predominantly Al2O3 platelets-like and whiskers. SEM images also reveal non-uniform oxide-scale growth on the surface of the fibers. Furthermore, peeling/spalling of the alumina protective layer occurred after minimum handling, which indicates weak adhesion forces between the protective layer and the base metal alloy.  Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the heat-treated Fe-Cr-Al sintered-metal-fibers confirmed the high aluminum content on the surface of the protective layer, and the low aluminum content on the exposed base metal alloy surface. In conclusion, the failure of the oxide-scale protective layer exposes the base metal alloy to further oxidation, and the fragile non-uniform oxide-scale is not suitable as a support for catalysts.

Keywords: High-temperature oxidation, alumina protective layer, iron-chromium-aluminum alloy, sintered-metal-fibers.

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261 Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process for Determination of Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Criteria

Authors: Ibrahim Cil, Onur Kurtcu, H. Ibrahim Demir, Furkan Yener, Yusuf. S. Turkan, Muharrem Unver, Ramazan Evren

Abstract:

Fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method is decision-making way at the end of integrating the current AHP method with fuzzy structure. In this study, the processes of production planning, inventory management and purchasing department of a system were analysed and were requested to decide the performance criteria of each area. At this point, the current work processes were analysed by various decision-makers and comparing each criteria by giving points according to 1-9 scale were completed. The criteria were listed in order to their weights by using Fuzzy AHP approach and top three performance criteria of each department were determined. After that, the performance criteria of supply chain consisting of three departments were asked to determine. The processes of each department were compared by decision-makers at the point of building the supply chain performance system and getting the performance criteria. According to the results, the criteria of performance system of supply chain by using Fuzzy AHP were determined for which will be used in the supply chain performance system in the future.

Keywords: AHP, fuzzy, performance evaluation, supply chain.

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260 New Newton's Method with Third-order Convergence for Solving Nonlinear Equations

Authors: Osama Yusuf Ababneh

Abstract:

For the last years, the variants of the Newton-s method with cubic convergence have become popular iterative methods to find approximate solutions to the roots of non-linear equations. These methods both enjoy cubic convergence at simple roots and do not require the evaluation of second order derivatives. In this paper, we present a new Newton-s method based on contra harmonic mean with cubically convergent. Numerical examples show that the new method can compete with the classical Newton's method.

Keywords: Third-order convergence, non-linear equations, root finding, iterative method.

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259 Integrating Process Planning, WMS Dispatching, and WPPW Weighted Due Date Assignment Using a Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Halil Ibrahim Demir, Tarık Cakar, Ibrahim Cil, Muharrem Dugenci, Caner Erden

Abstract:

Conventionally, process planning, scheduling, and due-date assignment functions are performed separately and sequentially. The interdependence of these functions requires integration. Although integrated process planning and scheduling, and scheduling with due date assignment problems are popular research topics, only a few works address the integration of these three functions. This work focuses on the integration of process planning, WMS scheduling, and WPPW due date assignment. Another novelty of this work is the use of a weighted due date assignment. In the literature, due dates are generally assigned without considering the importance of customers. However, in this study, more important customers get closer due dates. Typically, only tardiness is punished, but the JIT philosophy punishes both earliness and tardiness. In this study, all weighted earliness, tardiness, and due date related costs are penalized. As no customer desires distant due dates, such distant due dates should be penalized. In this study, various levels of integration of these three functions are tested and genetic search and random search are compared both with each other and with ordinary solutions. Higher integration levels are superior, while search is always useful. Genetic searches outperformed random searches.

Keywords: Process planning, weighted scheduling, weighted due-date assignment, genetic algorithm, random search.

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258 Rock Slope Stabilization and Protection for Roads and Multi-Storey Structures in Jabal Omar, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla, Abdelazim Ibrahim

Abstract:

Jabal Omar is located in the western side of Makkah city in Saudi Arabia. The proposed Jabal Omar Development project includes several multi-storey buildings, roads, bridges and below ground structures founded at various depths. In this study, geological mapping and site inspection which covered pre-selected areas were carried out within the easily accessed parts. Geological features; including rock types, structures, degree of weathering, and geotechnical hazards were observed and analyzed with specified software and also were documented in form of photographs. The presence of joints and fractures in the area made the rock blocks small and weak. The site is full of jointing; it was observed that, the northern side consists of 3 to 4 jointing systems with 2 random fractures associated with dykes. The southern part is affected by 2 to 3 jointing systems with minor fault and shear zones. From the field measurements and observations, it was concluded that, the Jabal Omar intruded by andesitic and basaltic dykes of different thickness and orientation. These dykes made the outcrop weak, highly deformed and made the rock masses sensitive to weathering.

Keywords: Rock, slope, stabilization, protection, Makkah.

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257 Detection of Leaks in Water Mains Using Ground Penetrating Radar

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Tarek Zayed, Osama Moselhi

Abstract:

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is one of the most effective electromagnetic techniques for non-destructive non-invasive subsurface features investigation. Water leak from pipelines is the most common undesirable reason of potable water losses. Rapid detection of such losses is going to enhance the use of the Water Distribution Networks (WDN) and decrease threatens associated with water mains leaks. In this study, GPR approach was developed to detect leaks by implementing an appropriate imaging analyzing strategy based on image refinement, reflection polarity and reflection amplitude that would ease the process of interpreting the collected raw radargram image.

Keywords: Water Networks, Leakage, Water pipelines, Ground Penetrating Radar.

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256 Preliminary Study for Separation of Heavy Rare Earth Concentrates from Egyptian Crude Monazite

Authors: Sherien H. Ahmed, Osama S. Helaly, Mohamed S. Abd El-Ghany

Abstract:

Heavy rare earth (HRE) oxalate concentrates were prepared from the Egyptian crude monazite sand (graded about 47%). The concentrates were specified quantitatively for their constituents of individual rare earth elements using ion chromatograph (IC) and qualitatively by scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the other major constituents. The 1st concentrate was composed of 10.5% HREE where 7.25% of them represented yttrium. The 2nd concentrate contained about 41.7% LREE, 17.5% HREE and 13.6% Th. The LREE involved 18.3% Ce, 10.5% La and 8% Nd while the HREE were 8.7% Y, 3.5% Gd and 2.9% Dy. The 3rd concentrate was containing about 8.0% LREE (3.7% Ce, 2.0% La and 1.5% Nd), 10.2% HREE (6.4% yttrium and 2.0% Dy) and 2.1% uranium. The final concentrate comprised 0.84% uranium beside iron, chromium and traces of REE.

Keywords: Oxalic Acid Precipitation, Rare Earth Concentrates, Thorium, Uranium.

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255 Implementation of RC5 Block Cipher Algorithm for Image Cryptosystems

Authors: Hossam El-din H. Ahmed, Hamdy M. Kalash, Osama S. Farag Allah

Abstract:

This paper examines the implementation of RC5 block cipher for digital images along with its detailed security analysis. A complete specification for the method of application of the RC5 block cipher to digital images is given. The security analysis of RC5 block cipher for digital images against entropy attack, bruteforce, statistical, and differential attacks is explored from strict cryptographic viewpoint. Experiments and results verify and prove that RC5 block cipher is highly secure for real-time image encryption from cryptographic viewpoint. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security of RC5 block cipher algorithm.

Keywords: Image encryption, security analysis.

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254 Effects of Asphalt Modification with Nanomaterials on Fresh and Stored Bitumen

Authors: Ahmed W. Oda, Ahmed El-Desouky, Hassan Mahdy, Osama M. Moussa

Abstract:

Nanomaterials have many applications in the field of asphalt paving. Two locally produced nanomaterials were used in the asphalt binder modification. The nanomaterials used are Nanosilica (NS), and Nanoclay (NC). The virgin asphalt binder was characterized by the conventional tests. The bitumen was modified by 3%, 5% and 7% of NS and NC. The penetration index (PI), and the retaining penetration (RP) was calculated based on the results of the penetration and the softening point tests. The results show that the RP becomes 95.35% at 5% NS modified bitumen and reaches 97.56% when bitumen is modified with 3% NC. The results show significant improvement in the bitumen stiffness when modified by the two types of nanomaterials, either fresh or aged (stored).

Keywords: Bitumen, modified bitumen, aged, stored, nanomaterials.

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253 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Control Using a Novel Active Slat

Authors: Basman Elhadidi, Islam Elqatary, Osama Mohamady, Hesham Othman

Abstract:

An active slat is developed to increase the lift and delay the separation for a DU96-W180 airfoil. The active slat is a fixed slat that can be closed, fully opened or intermittently opened by a rotating vane depending on the need. Experimental results show that the active slat has reduced the mean pressure and increased the mean velocity on the suction side of the airfoil for all positive angles of attack, indicating an increase of lift. The experimental data and numerical simulations also show that the direction of actuator vane rotation can influence the mixing of the flow streams on the suction side and hence influence the aerodynamic performance.

Keywords: Active slat, flow control.

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252 ICT for Smart Appliances: Current Technology and Identification of Future ICT Trend

Authors: Abubakar Uba Ibrahim, Ibrahim Haruna Shanono

Abstract:

Smart metering and demand response are gaining ground in industrial and residential applications. Smart Appliances have been given concern towards achieving Smart home. The success of Smart grid development relies on the successful implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in power sector. Smart Appliances have been the technology under development and many new contributions to its realization have been reported in the last few years. The role of ICT here is to capture data in real time, thereby allowing bi-directional flow of information/data between producing and utilization point; that lead a way for the attainment of Smart appliances where home appliances can communicate between themselves and provide a self-control (switch on and off) using the signal (information) obtained from the grid. This paper depicts the background on ICT for smart appliances paying a particular attention to the current technology and identifying the future ICT trends for load monitoring through which smart appliances can be achieved to facilitate an efficient smart home system which promote demand response program. This paper grouped and reviewed the recent contributions, in order to establish the current state of the art and trends of the technology, so that the reader can be provided with a comprehensive and insightful review of where ICT for smart appliances stands and is heading to. The paper also presents a brief overview of communication types, and then narrowed the discussion to the load monitoring (Non-intrusive Appliances Load Monitoring ‘NALM’). Finally, some future trends and challenges in the further development of the ICT framework are discussed to motivate future contributions that address open problems and explore new possibilities.

Keywords: Communication technology between appliances, demand response, load monitoring, smart appliances and smart grid.

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251 Non-Destructive Visual-Statistical Approach to Detect Leaks in Water Mains

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Tarek Zayed, Osama Moselhi

Abstract:

In this paper, an effective non-destructive, noninvasive approach for leak detection was proposed. The process relies on analyzing thermal images collected by an IR viewer device that captures thermo-grams. In this study a statistical analysis of the collected thermal images of the ground surface along the expected leak location followed by a visual inspection of the thermo-grams was performed in order to locate the leak. In order to verify the applicability of the proposed approach the predicted leak location from the developed approach was compared with the real leak location. The results showed that the expected leak location was successfully identified with an accuracy of more than 95%.

Keywords: Thermography, Leakage, Water pipelines, Thermograms.

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250 Bi-Lateral Comparison between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the Calibration of an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer

Authors: Osama Terra, Mariesa Nel, Hatem Hussein

Abstract:

Calibration of Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) has a crucial role for the accurate determination of fault locations and the accurate calculation of loss budget of long-haul optical fibre links during installation and repair. A comparison has been made between the Egyptian National Institute for Standards (NIS-Egypt) and the National Metrology institute of South Africa (NMISA-South Africa) for the calibration of an OTDR. The distance and the attenuation scales of a transfer OTDR have been calibrated by both institutes using their standards according to the standard IEC 61746-1 (2009). The results of this comparison have been compiled in this report.

Keywords: OTDR calibration, recirculating loop, concatenated method, standard fibre.

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249 A Nonlinear ODE System for the Unsteady Hydrodynamic Force – A New Approach

Authors: Osama A. Marzouk

Abstract:

We propose a reduced-ordermodel for the instantaneous hydrodynamic force on a cylinder. The model consists of a system of two ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which can be integrated in time to yield very accurate histories of the resultant force and its direction. In contrast to several existing models, the proposed model considers the actual (total) hydrodynamic force rather than its perpendicular or parallel projection (the lift and drag), and captures the complete force rather than the oscillatory part only. We study and provide descriptions of the relationship between the model parameters, evaluated utilizing results from numerical simulations, and the Reynolds number so that the model can be used at any arbitrary value within the considered range of 100 to 500 to provide accurate representation of the force without the need to perform timeconsuming simulations and solving the partial differential equations (PDEs) governing the flow field.

Keywords: reduced-order model, wake oscillator, nonlinear, ODEsystem

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248 Computer Aided Language Learning System for Arabic for Second Language Learners

Authors: Osama Abufanas

Abstract:

This paper aims to build an Arabic learning language tool using Flash CS4 professional software with action script 3.0 programming language, based on the Computer Aided Language Learning (CALL) material. An extra intention is to provide a primary tool and focus on learning Arabic as a second language to adults. It contains letters, words and sentences at the first stage. This includes interactive practices, which evaluates learners’ comprehension of the Arabic language. The system was examined and it was found that the language structure was correct and learners were satisfied regarding the system tools. The learners found the system tools efficient and simple to use. The paper's main conclusion illustrates that CALL can be applied without any hesitation to second language learners

Keywords: Arabic Language, Computer Aided Language Learning (CALL), Learner, Material.

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247 Bi-Lateral Comparison between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the Calibration of an Optical Spectrum Analyzer

Authors: Osama Terra, Hatem Hussein, Adriaan Van Brakel

Abstract:

Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology requires tight specification and therefore measurement of wavelength accuracy and stability of the telecommunication lasers. Thus, calibration of the used Optical Spectrum Analyzers (OSAs) that are used to measure wavelength is of a great importance. Proficiency testing must be performed on such measuring activity to insure the accuracy of the measurement results. In this paper, a new comparison scheme is introduced to test the performance of such calibrations. This comparison scheme is implemented between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the calibration of the wavelength scale of an OSA. Both institutes employ reference gas cell to calibrate OSA according to the standard IEC/ BS EN 62129 (2006). The result of this comparison is compiled in this paper.

Keywords: OSA calibration, HCN gas cell, DWDM technology, wavelength measurement.

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246 A Programming Solution for Moving Mobile Transaction

Authors: Osman Mohammed Hegazy, Ali Hamed El Bastawissy, Romani Farid Ibrahim

Abstract:

In this paper, our concern is the management of mobile transactions in the shared area among many servers, when the mobile user moves from one cell to another in online partiallyreplicated distributed mobile database environment. We defined the concept of transaction and classified the different types of transactions. Based on this analysis, we propose an algorithm that handles the disconnection due to moving among sites.

Keywords: Concurrency, mobile database, transaction processing, two phase locking.

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245 The Best Methods of Motivating and Encouraging the Students to Study: A Case Study

Authors: Mahmoud I. Syam, Osama K. El-Hafy

Abstract:

With lack of student motivation, there will be a little or no real learning in the class and this directly effects student achievement and test scores. Some students are naturally motivated to learn, but many students are not motivated, they do care little about learning and need their instructors to motivate them. Thus, motivating students is part of the instructor’s job. It’s a tough task to motivate students and make them have more attention and enthusiasm. As a part of this research, a questionnaire has been distributed among a sample of 155 students out of 1502 students from Foundation Program at Qatar University. The questionnaire helped us to determine some methods to motivate the students and encourage them to study such as variety of teaching activities, encouraging students to participate during the lectures, creating intense competition between the students, using instructional technology, not using grades as a threat and respecting the students and treating them in a good manner. Accordingly, some hypotheses are tested and some recommendations are presented.

Keywords: Learning, motivating, student, teacher, testing hypotheses.

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244 A Theoretical Study of the SI Engine Performance Operating with Different Fuels

Authors: Osama H. Ghazal

Abstract:

The intension in this work is to investigate the effect of different fuels type on engine performance for different engine speed. Brake Power, Brake Torque, and specific fuel consumption were calculated and presented to show the effect of varying fuel type on them for all cases considered. A special program used to carry out the calculations. A simulation model for one-cylinder spark ignition engine has been built and calculated.

The analysis of the results shows that for methanol the power increases about 30% at 1000 rpm and 16% at 6000 rpm comparing with methane. For the same compared fuels the increment in fuel consumption is about 100% at 1000 rpm and 115% at 6000 rpm. The increment in brake thermal efficiency for gasoline is around 11% comparing with methane at 1000 rpm and 7% for methanol comparing with methane at 4000 rpm.

Keywords: Natural gas fuel, spark ignition engines, performance, engine simulation.

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243 Rule Insertion Technique for Dynamic Cell Structure Neural Network

Authors: Osama Elsarrar, Marjorie Darrah, Richard Devin

Abstract:

This paper discusses the idea of capturing an expert’s knowledge in the form of human understandable rules and then inserting these rules into a dynamic cell structure (DCS) neural network. The DCS is a form of self-organizing map that can be used for many purposes, including classification and prediction. This particular neural network is considered to be a topology preserving network that starts with no pre-structure, but assumes a structure once trained. The DCS has been used in mission and safety-critical applications, including adaptive flight control and health-monitoring in aerial vehicles. The approach is to insert expert knowledge into the DCS before training. Rules are translated into a pre-structure and then training data are presented. This idea has been demonstrated using the well-known Iris data set and it has been shown that inserting the pre-structure results in better accuracy with the same training.

Keywords: Neural network, rule extraction, rule insertion, self-organizing map.

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242 Isolation and Molecular Identification of Two Fungal Strains Capable of Degrading Hydrocarbon Contaminants on Saudi Arabian Environment

Authors: Amr A. El Hanafy, Yasir Anwar, Saleh A. Mohamed, Saleh Mohamed Saleh Al-Garni, Jamal S. M. Sabir, Osama A. H. Abu Zinadah, Mohamed Morsi Ahmed

Abstract:

In the vicinity of red sea about 15 fungi species were isolated from oil contaminated sites. On the basis of aptitude to degrade the crude oil and DCPIP assay, two fungal isolates were selected amongst 15 oil degrading strains. Analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2 and amplicon pyrosequencing studies of fungal diversity revealed that these strains belong to Penicillium and Aspergillus species. Two strains that proved to be the most efficient in degrading crude oil was Aspergillus niger (54%) and Penicillium commune (48%) Subsequent to two weeks of cultivation in BHS medium the degradation rate were recorded by using spectrophotometer and GC-MS. Hence, it is cleared that these fungal strains has capability of degradation and can be utilize for cleaning the Saudi Arabian environment.

Keywords: Fungal strains, hydrocarbon contaminants, molecular identification, biodegradation, GC-MS.

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241 Hit-or-Miss Transform as a Tool for Similar Shape Detection

Authors: Osama Mohamed Elrajubi, Idris El-Feghi, Mohamed Abu Baker Saghayer

Abstract:

This paper describes an identification of specific shapes within binary images using the morphological Hit-or-Miss Transform (HMT). Hit-or-Miss transform is a general binary morphological operation that can be used in searching of particular patterns of foreground and background pixels in an image. It is actually a basic operation of binary morphology since almost all other binary morphological operators are derived from it. The input of this method is a binary image and a structuring element (a template which will be searched in a binary image) while the output is another binary image. In this paper a modification of Hit-or-Miss transform has been proposed. The accuracy of algorithm is adjusted according to the similarity of the template and the sought template. The implementation of this method has been done by C language. The algorithm has been tested on several images and the results have shown that this new method can be used for similar shape detection.

Keywords: Hit-or/and-Miss Operator/Transform, HMT, binary morphological operation, shape detection, binary images processing.

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240 Modeling the Effect of Inlet Manifold Pipes Bending Angle on SI Engine Performance

Authors: Osama H. Ghazal, Isam H. Qasem , M.Riyad H. Abdelkader

Abstract:

the intension in this work is to investigate the effect of different bending manifold pipes on engine performance for different engine speed. Power, Torque, and BSFC were calculated and presented to show the effect of varying bending pipes angles on them for all cases considered. A special program used to carry out the calculations. A simulation model for 4-cylinders spark ignition engine with turbocharger has been built and calculated. The analysis of the results shows that for 120o angle the torque increases about 40% at 3000 rpm and 25% at 4000 rpm without changing in fuel consumption. For 90o angle the increment in torque is about 10 %. For the same bending angle the increment in brake power is around 40% at 3000 rpm and 25% at 4000 rpm. The increment in fuel consumption is about 12% for 60o and 30% for 90o between (6000- 7000) rpm.

Keywords: bending pipes, inlet manifold, spark ignition engines, performance

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239 A New Hardware Implementation of Manchester Line Decoder

Authors: Ibrahim A. Khorwat, Nabil Naas

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a simple circuit for Manchester decoding and without using any complicated or programmable devices. This circuit can decode 90kbps of transmitted encoded data; however, greater than this transmission rate can be decoded if high speed devices were used. We also present a new method for extracting the embedded clock from Manchester data in order to use it for serial-to-parallel conversion. All of our experimental measurements have been done using simulation.

Keywords: High threshold level, level segregation, lowthreshold level, smoothing circuit synchronization..

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238 Fabrication of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Using Rapid Prototyping Techniques

Authors: Osama A. Abdelaal, Saied M. Darwish

Abstract:

Rapid prototyping (RP) techniques are a group of advanced manufacturing processes that can produce custom made objects directly from computer data such as Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. Using RP fabrication techniques, constructs with controllable and complex internal architecture with appropriate mechanical properties can be achieved. One of the attractive and promising utilization of RP techniques is related to tissue engineering (TE) scaffold fabrication. Tissue engineering scaffold is a 3D construction that acts as a template for tissue regeneration. Although several conventional techniques such as solvent casting and gas forming are utilized in scaffold fabrication; these processes show poor interconnectivity and uncontrollable porosity of the produced scaffolds. So, RP techniques become the best alternative fabrication methods of TE scaffolds. This paper reviews the current state of the art in the area of tissue engineering scaffolds fabrication using advanced RP processes, as well as the current limitations and future trends in scaffold fabrication RP techniques.

Keywords: Biomanufacturing, Rapid prototyping, Solid FreeForm Fabrication, Scaffold Fabrication, Tissue Engineering

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237 Investigation of the Effect of Grid Size on External Store Separation Trajectory Using CFD

Authors: Alaa A. Osman, Amgad M. Bayoumy, Ismail El baialy, Osama E. Abdellatif, Essam E. Khallil

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical simulation of a finned store separating from a wing-pylon configuration has been studied and validated. A dynamic unstructured tetrahedral mesh approach is accomplished by using three grid sizes to numerically solving the discretized three dimensional, inviscid and compressible Euler equations. The method used for computations of separation of an external store assuming quasi-steady flow condition. Computations of quasi-steady flow have been directly coupled to a six degree-offreedom (6DOF) rigid-body motion code to generate store trajectories. The pressure coefficients at four different angular cuts and time histories of various trajectory parameters and wing pressure distribution during the store separation are compared for every grid size with published experimental data.

Keywords: CFD Modelling, Quasi-steady Flow, Moving-body Trajectories, Transonic Store Separation, Moving-body Trajectories.

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236 The Effect of Stress Biaxiality on Crack Shape Development

Authors: Osama A. Terfas

Abstract:

The development of shape and size of a crack in a pressure vessel under uniaxial and biaxial loadings is important in fitness-for-service evaluations such as leak-before-break. In this work finite element modelling was used to evaluate the mean stress and the J-integral around a front of a surface-breaking crack. A procedure on the basis of ductile tearing resistance curves of high and low constrained fracture mechanics geometries was developed to estimate the amount of ductile crack extension for surface-breaking cracks and to show the evolution of the initial crack shape. The results showed non-uniform constraint levels and crack driving forces around the crack front at large deformation levels. It was also shown that initially semi-elliptical surface cracks under biaxial load developed higher constraint levels around the crack front than in uniaxial tension. However similar crack shapes were observed with more extensions associated with cracks under biaxial loading.

Keywords: biaxial load, crack shape, fracture toughness, surface crack, uniaxial load.

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235 Effect of Inlet Valve Variable Timing in the Spark Ignition Engine on Achieving Greener Transport

Authors: Osama H. Ghazal, Yousef S. Najjar, Kutaeba J. AL-Khishali

Abstract:

The current emission legislations and the large concern about the environment produced very numerous constraints on both governments and car manufacturers. Also the cost of energy increase means a reduction in fuel consumption must be met, without largely affecting the current engine production and performance. It is the intension to contribute towards the development and pursuing, among others on variable valve timing (VVT), for improving the engine performance. The investigation of the effect of (IVO) and (IVC) to optimize engine torque and volumetric efficiency for different engine speeds was considered. Power, BMEP and BSFC were calculated and presented to show the effect of varying inlet valve timing on them for all cases. A special program used to carry out the calculations. The analysis of the results shows that the reduction of 10% of (IVO) angle gave an improvement of around 1.3% in torque, BSFC, and volumetric efficiency, while a 10% decrease in (IVC) caused a 0.1% reduction in power, torque, and volumetric efficiency.

 

Keywords: Green transportation, inlet valve variable timing, performance, spark ignition engines.

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